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Cortical representation of pain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122370/effectiveness-of-the-graded-motor-imagery-to-improve-hand-function-in-patients-with-distal-radius-fracture-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Burcu Dilek, Cigdem Ayhan, Gozde Yagci, Yavuz Yakut
STUDY DESIGN: Single-blinded randomized controlled trial. INTRODUCTION: Pain management is essential in the early stages of the rehabilitation of distal radius fractures (DRFx). Pain intensity at the acute stage is considered important for determining the individual recovery process, given that higher pain intensity and persistent pain duration negatively affect the function and cortical activity of pain response. Graded motor imagery (GMI) and its components are recent pain management strategies, established on a neuroscience basis...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112509/association-between-sensorimotor-impairments-and-functional-brain-changes-in-patients-with-low-back-pain-a-critical-review
#2
Nina Goossens, Sofie Rummens, Lotte Janssens, Karen Caeyenberghs, Simon Brumagne
Low back pain (LBP) coincides with sensorimotor impairments, e.g., reduced lumbosacral tactile and proprioceptive acuity and postural control deficits. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that sensorimotor impairments in LBP may be associated with brain changes. However, no consensus exists regarding the relationship between functional brain changes and sensorimotor behavior in LBP. Therefore, this review critically discusses the available fMRI studies on brain activation related to non-nociceptive somatosensory stimulation and motor performance in individuals with LBP...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971481/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-studies-in-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-type-i-a-review
#3
REVIEW
R Nardone, F Brigo, Y Höller, L Sebastianelli, V Versace, L Saltuari, P Lochner, E Trinka
The sensory and motor cortical representation corresponding to the affected limb is altered in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) represents a useful non-invasive approach for studying cortical physiology. If delivered repetitively, TMS can also modulate cortical excitability and induce long-lasting neuroplastic changes. In this review, we performed a systematic search of all studies using TMS to explore cortical excitability/plasticity and repetitive TMS (rTMS) for the treatment of CRPS...
October 3, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859860/visual-reminders-of-death-enhance-nociceptive-related-cortical-responses-and-event-related-alpha-desynchronisation
#4
Elia Valentini, Valentina Nicolardi, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
Previous research suggests that prompting individuals to think on their own mortality affects their perception of painful somatic stimuli and related brain activity. Grounded on the assumption that reminders of mortality may recruit threat-defence mechanisms similar to the ones activated by painful nociceptive stimuli, we hypothesize that the effects exerted by linguistic reminders of death on pain perception and brain activity would be elicited by passive observation of death-related pictures vs. more generic threat-related pictures...
August 30, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762056/functional-brain-effects-of-hand-disuse-in-patients-with-trapeziometacarpal-joint-osteoarthritis-executed-and-imagined-movements
#5
Martina Gandola, Maurilio Bruno, Laura Zapparoli, Gianluca Saetta, Elena Rolandi, Antonio De Santis, Giuseppe Banfi, Alberto Zerbi, Valerio Sansone, Eraldo Paulesu
The human trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint has a crucial evolutionary importance as it permits rotation and opposition of the thumb to the other fingers. In chronic TMC joint osteoarthritis (i.e., rhizarthrosis), this motor ability, essential for pinching, grasping, and manipulating objects, may become difficult or impossible due to intolerable pain. Here, we assess whether patients with rhizarthrosis show signs of abnormal brain representation of hand movements. To this end, we studied 35 patients with rhizarthrosis, affecting predominantly one of the two hands, and 35 healthy subjects who underwent both behavioural and fMRI measures of brain activity during overtly executed or imagined thumb-to-finger-opposition movements...
July 31, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761369/capsaicin-8-patch-treatment-for-amputation-stump-and-phantom-limb-pain-a-clinical-and-functional-mri-study
#6
Rosario Privitera, Rolfe Birch, Marco Sinisi, Iordan R Mihaylov, Robert Leech, Praveen Anand
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to measure the efficacy of a single 60 min application of capsaicin 8% patch in reducing chronic amputation stump and phantom limb pain, associated hypersensitivity with quantitative sensory testing, and changes in brain cortical maps using functional MRI (fMRI) scans. METHODS: A capsaicin 8% patch (Qutenza) treatment study was conducted on 14 patients with single limb amputation, who reported pain intensity on the Numerical Pain Rating Scale ≥4/10 for chronic stump or phantom limb pain...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719508/is-the-organisation-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-low-back-pain-related-to-pain-movement-and-or-sensation
#7
Edith Elgueta-Cancino, Siobhan Schabrun, Paul Hodges
Primary motor cortex (M1) organisation differs between individuals with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP), in parallel with motor and sensory impairments. This study investigated whether movement behaviour and tactile/pain sensation are related to M1 organisation in CLBP. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to map the M1 representation of the erector spinae and multifidus muscles in 20 participants with and without CLBP. Cortical organisation was quantified by: map volume; center of gravity (CoG); number of peaks; and primary and secondary peak location...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665973/negative-expectations-interfere-with-the-analgesic-effect-of-safety-cues-on-pain-perception-by-priming-the-cortical-representation-of-pain-in-the-midcingulate-cortex
#8
Abeer F Almarzouki, Christopher A Brown, Richard J Brown, Matthew H K Leung, Anthony K P Jones
It is well known that the efficacy of treatment effects, including those of placebos, is heavily dependent on positive expectations regarding treatment outcomes. For example, positive expectations about pain treatments are essential for pain reduction. Such positive expectations not only depend on the properties of the treatment itself, but also on the context in which the treatment is presented. However, it is not clear how the preceding threat of pain will bias positive expectancy effects. One hypothesis is that threatening contexts trigger fearful and catastrophic thinking, reducing the pain-relieving effects of positive expectancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644200/electrical-stimulations-of-the-human-insula-their-contribution-to-the-ictal-semiology-of-insular-seizures
#9
Laure Mazzola, François Mauguière, Jean Isnard
INTRODUCTION: Stereotactic stimulations of the insular cortex through intracranial electrodes aim at characterizing the semiology of insular seizures. These stimulations, carried out in the context of Stereo-Electro-Encephalography (SEEG) during presurgical monitoring of epilepsy, reproduce the ictal symptoms observed during the development of insular seizures. METHODS: The authors reviewed the results of insular stimulations performed in 222 patients admitted between 1997 and 2015 for presurgical SEEG exploration of atypical temporal or perisylvian epilepsy...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524819/chronic-pain-induces-generalized-enhancement-of-aversion
#10
Qiaosheng Zhang, Toby Manders, Ai Phuong Tong, Runtao Yang, Arpan Garg, Erik Martinez, Haocheng Zhou, Jahrane Dale, Abhinav Goyal, Louise Urien, Guang Yang, Zhe Chen, Jing Wang
A hallmark feature of chronic pain is its ability to impact other sensory and affective experiences. It is notably associated with hypersensitivity at the site of tissue injury. It is less clear, however, if chronic pain can also induce a generalized site-nonspecific enhancement in the aversive response to nociceptive inputs. Here, we showed that chronic pain in one limb in rats increased the aversive response to acute pain stimuli in the opposite limb, as assessed by conditioned place aversion. Interestingly, neural activities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) correlated with noxious intensities, and optogenetic modulation of ACC neurons showed bidirectional control of the aversive response to acute pain...
May 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522185/orofacial-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-pathophysiologic-mechanisms-and-functional-mri
#11
Yeon-Hee Lee, Kyung Mi Lee, Hyug-Gi Kim, Soo-Kyung Kang, Q-Schick Auh, Jyung-Pyo Hong, Yang-Hyun Chun
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is one of the most challenging chronic pain conditions and is characterized by burning pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia, autonomic changes, trophic changes, edema, and functional loss involving mainly the extremities. Until recently, very few reports have been published concerning CRPS involving the orofacial area. We report on a 50-year-old female patient who presented with unbearable pain in all of her teeth and hypersensitivity of the facial skin. She also reported intractable pain in both extremities accompanied by temperature changes and orofacial pain that increased when the other pains were aggravated...
August 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466257/cortical-representation-of-pain-and-touch-evidence-from-combined-functional-neuroimaging-and-electrophysiology-in-non-human-primates
#12
REVIEW
Li Min Chen
Human functional MRI studies in acute and various chronic pain conditions have revolutionized how we view pain, and have led to a new theory that complex multi-dimensional pain experience (sensory-discriminative, affective/motivational, and cognitive) is represented by concurrent activity in widely-distributed brain regions (termed a network or pain matrix). Despite these breakthrough discoveries, the specific functions proposed for these regions remain elusive, because detailed electrophysiological characterizations of these regions in the primate brain are lacking...
May 2, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463574/temporal-and-spatial-characteristics-of-post-silent-period-electromyographic-bursting-in-low-back-muscles-comparison-between-persons-with-and-without-low-back-pain
#13
Emma Burns, Lucy S Chipchase, Siobhan M Schabrun
Purpose/aim: Recently, a novel measure of cortical disinhibition was identified using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This measure, described as post-silent period electromyographic (EMG) bursting, may inform on the corticomotor control of movement in health and disease; however, it has not been investigated for muscles outside the hand or in musculoskeletal conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of "EMG bursting" in individuals with and without low back pain (LBP)...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443062/somatosensory-misrepresentation-associated-with-chronic-pain-spatiotemporal-correlates-of-sensory-perception-in-a-patient-following-a-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-spread
#14
Lars Büntjen, Jens-Max Hopf, Christian Merkel, Jürgen Voges, Stefan Knape, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld
Chronic pain is suggested to be linked to reorganization processes in the sensorimotor cortex. In the current study, the somatosensory representation of the extremities was investigated in a patient with a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) that initially occurred in the right hand and arm and spread later into the left hand and right leg. After the spread, magnetoencephalographic recordings in conjunction with somatosensory stimulation revealed that the clinical symptoms were associated with major changes in the primary somatosensory representation...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427472/optimising-conservative-management-of-chronic-low-back-pain-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Katherine J Simson, Clint T Miller, Jon Ford, Andrew Hahne, Luana Main, Timo Rantalainen, Wei-Peng Teo, Megan Teychenne, David Connell, Guy Trudel, Guoyan Zheng, Gary Thickbroom, Daniel L Belavy
BACKGROUND: Lower back pain is a global health issue affecting approximately 80% of people at some stage in their life. The current literature suggests that any exercise is beneficial for reducing back pain. However, as pain is a subjective evaluation and physical deficits are evident in low back pain, using it as the sole outcome measure to evaluate superiority of an exercise protocol for low back pain treatment is insufficient. The overarching goal of the current clinical trial is to implement two common, conservative intervention approaches and examine their impact on deficits in chronic low back pain...
April 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390217/painful-engrams-oscillatory-correlates-of-working-memory-for-phasic-nociceptive-laser-stimuli
#16
Elia Valentini, Valentina Nicolardi, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
Research suggests that working memory (WM) is impaired in chronic pain. Yet, information on how potentially noxious stimuli are maintained in memory is limited in patients as well as in healthy people. We recorded electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy volunteers during a modified delayed match-to-sample task where maintenance in memory of relevant attributes of nociceptive laser stimuli was essential for subsequent cued-discrimination. Participants performed in high and low load conditions (i.e. three vs...
April 5, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340134/primary-motor-cortex-organization-is-altered-in-persistent-patellofemoral-pain
#17
Maxine Te, Abrahão F Baptista, Lucy S Chipchase, Siobhan M Schabrun
Objective: Reorganization of the primary motor cortex (M1) may be a feature of persistent patellofemoral pain (PFP), but no studies have investigated M1 organization in this condition. Here we aimed to examine the organization of the M1 representation of the quadriceps muscles in people with PFP and healthy controls. Design: Using a cross-sectional design, the M1 representation of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis was mapped using transcranial magnetic stimulation in 11 individuals with PFP and 11 controls...
November 1, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284238/applying-current-concepts-in-pain-related-brain-science-to-dance-rehabilitation
#18
REVIEW
Sarah B Wallwork, Valeria Bellan, G Lorimer Moseley
Dance involves exemplary sensory-motor control, which is subserved by sophisticated neural processing at the spinal cord and brain level. Such neural processing is altered in the presence of nociception and pain, and the adaptations within the central nervous system that are known to occur with persistent nociception or pain have clear implications for movement and, indeed, risk of further injury. Recent rapid advances in our understanding of the brain's representation of the body and the role of cortical representations, or "neurotags," in bodily protection and regulation have given rise to new strategies that are gaining traction in sports medicine...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Dance Medicine & Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237612/effects-of-chondroitin-sulfate-on-brain-response-to-painful-stimulation-in-knee-osteoarthritis-patients-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#19
Jordi Monfort, Jesús Pujol, Oren Contreras-Rodríguez, Jone Llorente-Onaindia, Marina López-Solà, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Josep Vergés, Marta Herrero, Laura Sánchez, Hector Ortiz, Francisco Montañés, Joan Deus, Pere Benito
INTRODUCTION: Knee osteoarthritis is causing pain and functional disability. One of the inherent problems with efficacy assessment of pain medication was the lack of objective pain measurements, but functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has emerged as a useful means to objectify brain response to painful stimulation. We have investigated the effect of chondroitin sulfate (CS) on brain response to knee painful stimulation in patients with knee osteoarthritis using fMRI. METHODS: Twenty-two patients received CS (800mg/day) and 27 patients placebo, and were assessed at baseline and after 4 months of treatment...
June 21, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452295/temporal-summation-of-the-nociceptive-withdrawal-reflex-involves-deactivation-of-posterior-cingulate-cortex
#20
A Perrotta, P Chiacchiaretta, M G Anastasio, L Pavone, G Grillea, M Bartolo, E Siravo, C Colonnese, R De Icco, M Serrao, G Sandrini, F Pierelli, A Ferretti
BACKGROUND: Temporal summation of pain sensation is pivotal both in physiological and pathological nociception. In humans, it develops in parallel with temporal summation of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) of the lower limb, an objective representation of the temporal processing of nociceptive signals into the spinal cord. METHODS: To study the contribution of cortical and subcortical structures in temporal summation of pain reflex responses, we compared the fMRI signal changes related to the temporal summation threshold (TST) of the NWR with that related to the single NWR response...
July 25, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
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