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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406967/differential-transcriptome-analysis-supports-rhodnius-montenegrensis-and-rhodnius-robustus-hemiptera-reduviidae-triatominae-as-distinct-species
#1
Danila Blanco de Carvalho, Carlos Congrains, Samira Chahad-Ehlers, Heloisa Pinotti, Reinaldo Alves de Brito, João Aristeu da Rosa
Chagas disease is one of the main parasitic diseases found in Latin America and it is estimated that between six and seven million people are infected worldwide. Its etiologic agent, the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is transmitted by triatomines, some of which from the genus Rhodnius. Twenty species are currently recognized in this genus, including some closely related species with low levels of morphological differentiation, such as Rhodnius montenegrensis and Rhodnius robustus. In order to investigate genetic differences between these two species, we generated large-scale RNA-sequencing data (consisting of four RNA-seq libraries) from the heads and salivary glands of males of R...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387218/retrograde-transport-of-trkb-containing-autophagosomes-via-the-adaptor-ap-2-mediates-neuronal-complexity-and-prevents-neurodegeneration
#2
Natalia L Kononenko, Gala A Claßen, Marijn Kuijpers, Dmytro Puchkov, Tanja Maritzen, Aleksandra Tempes, Anna R Malik, Agnieszka Skalecka, Sujoy Bera, Jacek Jaworski, Volker Haucke
Autophagosomes primarily mediate turnover of cytoplasmic proteins or organelles to provide nutrients and eliminate damaged proteins. In neurons, autophagosomes form in distal axons and are trafficked retrogradely to fuse with lysosomes in the soma. Although defective neuronal autophagy is associated with neurodegeneration, the function of neuronal autophagosomes remains incompletely understood. We show that in neurons, autophagosomes promote neuronal complexity and prevent neurodegeneration in vivo via retrograde transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-activated TrkB receptors...
April 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361042/sodium-octanoate-modulates-the-innate-immune-response-of-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells-through-the-tlr2-p38-jnk-erk1-2-pathway-implications-during-staphylococcus-aureus-internalization
#3
Nayeli Alva-Murillo, Alejandra Ochoa-Zarzosa, Joel E López-Meza
Bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) contribute to mammary gland defense against invading pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus (intracellular facultative), which is recognized by TLR2. In a previous report, we showed that sodium octanoate [NaO, a medium chain fatty acid (C8)] induces (0.25 mM) or inhibits (1 mM) S. aureus internalization into bMECs and differentially regulates the innate immune response (IIR). However, the molecular mechanisms have not been described, which was the aim of this study...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297291/evaluation-of-dose-area-product-of-common-radiographic-examinations-towards-establishing-a-preliminary-diagnostic-reference-levels-pdrls-in-southwestern-nigeria
#4
Nnamdi N Jibiri, Christopher J Olowookere
In Nigeria, a large number of radiographic examinations are conducted yearly for various diagnostic purposes. However, most examinations carried out do not have records of doses received by the patients, and the employed exposure parameters used are not documented; therefore, adequate radiation dose management is hindered. The aim of the present study was to estimate the dose-area product (DAP) of patients examined in Nigeria, and to propose regional reference dose levels for nine common examinations (chest PA, abdomen AP, pelvis AP, lumbar AP, skull AP, leg AP, knee AP, hand AP, and thigh AP) undertaken in Nigeria...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266544/misrouting-of-v-atpase-subunit-v0a1-dysregulates-lysosomal-acidification-in-a-neurodegenerative-lysosomal-storage-disease-model
#5
Maria B Bagh, Shiyong Peng, Goutam Chandra, Zhongjian Zhang, Satya P Singh, Nagarajan Pattabiraman, Aiyi Liu, Anil B Mukherjee
Defective lysosomal acidification contributes to virtually all lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) and to common neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Despite its fundamental importance, the mechanism(s) underlying this defect remains unclear. The v-ATPase, a multisubunit protein complex composed of cytosolic V1-sector and lysosomal membrane-anchored V0-sector, regulates lysosomal acidification. Mutations in the CLN1 gene, encoding PPT1, cause a devastating neurodegenerative LSD, INCL...
March 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224728/%C3%AE-2-dependent-endocytosis-of-n-cadherin-is-regulated-by-%C3%AE-catenin-to-facilitate-neurite-outgrowth
#6
Yi-Ting Chen, Chin-Yin Tai
Circuit formation in the brain requires neurite outgrowth throughout development to establish synaptic contacts with target cells. Active endocytosis of several adhesion molecules facilitates the dynamic exchange of these molecules at the surface and promotes neurite outgrowth in developing neurons. The endocytosis of N-cadherin, a calcium-dependent adhesion molecule, has been implicated in the regulation of neurite outgrowth, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we identified that a fraction of N-cadherin internalizes through clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME)...
February 22, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220754/the-ap-2-complex-has-a-specialized-clathrin-independent-role-in-apical-endocytosis-and-polar-growth-in-fungi
#7
Olga Martzoukou, Sotiris Amillis, Amalia Zervakou, Savvas Christoforidis, George Diallinas
Filamentous fungi provide excellent systems for investigating the role of the AP-2 complex in polar growth. Using Aspergillus nidulans, we show that AP-2 has a clathrin-independent essential role in polarity maintenance and growth. This is in line with a sequence analysis showing that the AP-2 β subunit (β2) of higher fungi lacks a clathrin-binding domain, and experiments showing that AP-2 does not co-localize with clathrin. We provide genetic and cellular evidence that AP-2 interacts with endocytic markers SlaB(End4) and SagA(End3) and the lipid flippases DnfA and DnfB in the sub-apical collar region of hyphae...
February 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208708/the-interplay-between-inflammation-coagulation-and-endothelial-injury-in-the-early-phase-of-acute-pancreatitis-clinical-implications
#8
REVIEW
Paulina Dumnicka, Dawid Maduzia, Piotr Ceranowicz, Rafał Olszanecki, Ryszard Drożdż, Beata Kuśnierz-Cabala
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease with varied severity, ranging from mild local inflammation to severe systemic involvement resulting in substantial mortality. Early pathologic events in AP, both local and systemic, are associated with vascular derangements, including endothelial activation and injury, dysregulation of vasomotor tone, increased vascular permeability, increased leukocyte migration to tissues, and activation of coagulation. The purpose of the review was to summarize current evidence regarding the interplay between inflammation, coagulation and endothelial dysfunction in the early phase of AP...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193206/inducing-goat-pluripotent-stem-cells-with-four-transcription-factor-mrnas-that-activate-endogenous-promoters
#9
Hao Chen, Qisheng Zuo, Yingjie Wang, Jiuzhou Song, Huilin Yang, Yani Zhang, Bichun Li
BACKGROUND: Traditional approaches for generating goat pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) suffer from complexity and low preparation efficiency. Therefore, we tried to derive goat iPSCs with a new method by transfecting exogenous Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc mRNAs into goat embryonic fibroblasts (GEFs), and explore the mechanisms regarding the transcription regulation of the reprogramming factors in goat iPSCs induction. RESULTS: mRNAs of the four reprogramming factors were transfected into GEFs, and were localized in nucleus with approximately 90% transfection efficiency...
February 13, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189027/the-flame-retardant-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-enhances-the-expression-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-the-placental-cell-model-jeg-3
#10
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Chi Chiu Wang, Lai K Leung
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are chemicals used as flame retardants in household products. After disposing of these items, PBDEs leach from the products by surface water. BDE-47 is a PBDE congener commonly isolated from contaminated food and is the most studied isomer. The placenta is the major source of hormones during pregnancy, and an elevated level of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is associated with premature delivery. In the present study, we examined changes in the placental CRH expression under BDE-47 exposure in the JEG-3 cell model system...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139716/adaptor-protein-2-ap-2-complex-is-essential-for-functional-axogenesis-in-hippocampal-neurons
#11
Jae Won Kyung, In Ha Cho, Sukmook Lee, Woo Keun Song, Timothy A Ryan, Michael B Hoppa, Sung Hyun Kim
The complexity and diversity of a neural network requires regulated elongation and branching of axons, as well as the formation of synapses between neurons. In the present study we explore the role of AP-2, a key endocytic adaptor protein complex, in the development of rat hippocampal neurons. We found that the loss of AP-2 during the early stage of development resulted in impaired axon extension and failed maturation of the axon initial segment (AIS). Normally the AIS performs two tasks in concert, stabilizing neural polarity and generating action potentials...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054072/anilinopyridinate-supported-ru2-x-x-5-or-6-paddlewheel-complexes-with-labile-axial-ligands
#12
Amanda R Corcos, John F Berry
Five new metal-metal bonded Ru2 compounds are presented and discussed: Ru2(ap)4ONO2 (2), [Ru2(ap)4NCMe][BF4] (3), Ru2(ap)4FBF3 (4), Ru2(ap)4OTf (5), and [Ru2(ap)4OTf][Ag(OTf)2] (6) (ap = 2-anilinopyridinate). All compounds have a (4,0) arrangement of the ap ligands about the Ru-Ru bond and contain one sterically blocked axial site and one site containing a labile ligand. These compounds display some of the shortest Ru-Ru distances known for this class of compounds. We demonstrate a reversible interconversion between compounds 3 and 4 as the MeCN and BF4(-) ligands are readily displaced...
January 5, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031466/cell-based-fluorescence-complementation-reveals-a-role-for-hiv-1-nef-protein-dimerization-in-ap-2-adaptor-recruitment-and-cd4-co-receptor-down-regulation
#13
Sherry T Shu, Lori A Emert-Sedlak, Thomas E Smithgall
The HIV-1 Nef accessory factor enhances viral infectivity, immune evasion, and AIDS progression. Nef triggers rapid down-regulation of CD4 via the endocytic adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex, a process linked to enhanced viral infectivity and immune escape. Here, we describe a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay to visualize the interaction of Nef with AP-2 and CD4 in living cells. Interacting protein pairs were fused to complementary non-fluorescent fragments of YFP and co-expressed in 293T cells...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003446/transcriptional-regulation-of-a-horizontally-transferred-gene-from-bacterium-to-chordate
#14
Yasunori Sasakura, Yosuke Ogura, Nicholas Treen, Rui Yokomori, Sung-Joon Park, Kenta Nakai, Hidetoshi Saiga, Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto, Shigeki Fujiwara, Keita Yoshida
The horizontal transfer of genes between distantly related organisms is undoubtedly a major factor in the evolution of novel traits. Because genes are functionless without expression, horizontally transferred genes must acquire appropriate transcriptional regulations in their recipient organisms, although the evolutionary mechanism is not known well. The defining characteristic of tunicates is the presence of a cellulose containing tunic covering the adult and larval body surface. Cellulose synthase was acquired by horizontal gene transfer from Actinobacteria...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984181/ap-2%C3%AE-and-ap-2%C3%AE-regulate-dorsal-interneuron-specification-in-the-spinal-cord
#15
Xiaofeng Xu, Zijing Liu, Hao Huang, Kang Zheng, Xuemei Hu, Zunyi Zhang, Mengsheng Qiu
To date, five AP-2 genes that encode AP-2α, β, γ, δ and ε have been identified in vertebrates and they have been reported to be key regulators of embryonic development. However, the role of AP-2 family members in the development of central nervous system (CNS) has not been characterized. In the present study, we systematically examined the spatiotemporal expression pattern of AP-2 genes in the developing spinal cord of mouse and chick embryos and found that AP-2α and AP-2β are specifically expressed in post-mitotic dorsal interneurons...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974503/traffic-through-the-trans-golgi-network-and-the-endosomal-system-requires-collaboration-between-exomer-and-clathrin-adaptors-in-fission-yeast
#16
Marta Hoya, Francisco Yanguas, Sandra Moro, Cristina Prescianotto-Baschong, Cristina Doncel, Nagore de León, M-Ángeles Curto, Anne Spang, M-Henar Valdivieso
Despite its biological and medical relevance, traffic from the Golgi to the plasma membrane (PM) is one of the least understood steps of secretion. Exomer is a protein complex that mediates the trafficking of certain cargoes from the trans-Golgi network/early endosomes to the PM in budding yeast. Here, we show that in Schizosaccharomyces pombe the Cfr1 and Bch1 proteins constitute the simplest form of an exomer. Cfr1 co-immunoprecipitates with Assembly Polypeptide adaptor 1 (AP-1), AP-2, and Golgi-localized, gamma-adaptin ear domain homology, ARF-binding (GGA) subunits, and cfr1(+) interacts genetically with AP-1 and GGA genes...
February 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936691/synthesis-of-c-4-substituted-steviol-derivatives-and-their-inhibitory-effects-against-hepatitis-b-virus
#17
Shwu-Jiuan Lin, Ta-Chi Su, Chin-Nan Chu, Yi-Chih Chang, Li-Ming Yang, Yu-Cheng Kuo, Tsurng-Juhn Huang
ent-13-Hydroxykaur-16-ene-19-N-butylureide (6) was one of 33 synthesized C-4-substituted steviol derivatives that were evaluated for their effects on hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion. The IC50 (16.9 μM) and SI (57.7) values for inhibiting HBV DNA replication of compound 6 were greater than those of the reference compound, lamivudine (3-TC; IC50: 107.5 μM; SI: 22.0). Thus, the anti-HBV mechanism of 6 was investigated, and it specifically inhibited viral gene expression and reduced viral DNA levels, as well as potently attenuated all of the viral promoter activity of HBV-expressing Huh7 cells...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929511/evaluation-of-dose-area-product-of-common-radiographic-examinations-towards-establishing-a-preliminary-diagnostic-reference-levels-pdrls-in-southwestern-nigeria
#18
Nnamdi N Jibiri, Christopher J Olowookere
In Nigeria, a large number of radiographic examinations are conducted yearly for various diagnostic purposes. However, most examinations carried out do not have records of doses received by the patients, and the employed exposure parameters used are not documented; therefore, adequate radiation dose management is hin-dered. The aim of the present study was to estimate the dose-area product (DAP) of patients examined in Nigeria, and to propose regional reference dose levels for nine common examinations (chest PA, abdomen AP, pelvis AP, lumbar AP, skull AP, leg AP, knee AP, hand AP, and thigh AP) undertaken in Nigeria...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909244/cd4-down-regulation-by-hiv-1-nef-reveals-distinct-roles-for-%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-2-subunits-of-ap-1-complex-in-protein-trafficking
#19
Lucas A Tavares, Eulália M L da Silva, Mara E da Silva-Januário, Yunan C Januário, Julianne V de Cavalho, Érika S Czernisz, Gonzalo A Mardones, Luis L P daSilva
The HIV accessory protein Nef is a major determinant of viral pathogenesis that facilitates viral particle release, prevents viral antigen presentation and increases infectivity of new virus particles. These functions of Nef involve its ability to remove specific host proteins from the surface of infected cells, including the CD4 receptor. Nef binds to the adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) and CD4 in clathrin-coated pits, forcing CD4 internalization and subsequent target to lysosomes. Herein, we report that this lysosomal targeting requires a variant of the AP-1 comprising the isoform 2 of γ-adaptin...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829368/tfap-2-is-required-for-night-sleep-in-drosophila
#20
Mariya M Kucherenko, Vinodh Ilangovan, Bettina Herzig, Halyna R Shcherbata, Henrik Bringmann
BACKGROUND: The AP-2 transcription factor APTF-1 is crucially required for developmentally controlled sleep behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans larvae. Its human ortholog, TFAP-2beta, causes Char disease and has also been linked to sleep disorders. These data suggest that AP-2 transcription factors may be highly conserved regulators of various types of sleep behavior. Here, we tested the idea that AP-2 controls adult sleep in Drosophila. RESULTS: Drosophila has one AP-2 ortholog called TfAP-2, which is essential for viability...
November 9, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
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