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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724756/lysosomal-targeting-of-sidt2-via-multiple-yxx%C3%AE-motifs-is-required-for-sidt2-function-in-the-process-of-rnautophagy
#1
Viorica Raluca Contu, Katsunori Hase, Hiroko Kozuka-Hata, Masaaki Oyama, Yuuki Fujiwara, Chihana Kabuta, Masayuki Takahashi, Fumihiko Hakuno, Shin-Ichiro Takahashi, Keiji Wada, Tomohiro Kabuta
RNA degradation is an essential process for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Previously, we have discovered a novel RNA degradation system, RNautophagy, during which direct import of RNA into lysosomes in an ATP-dependent manner followed by degradation takes place. The putative nucleic acids transporter, SID-1 transmembrane family member 2 (SIDT2), predominantly localizes to lysosomes and mediates the translocation of RNA into lysosomes during RNautophagy. However, little is known about the mechanisms of sorting SIDT2 to lysosomes...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687362/the-unexpected-function-of-a-highly-conserved-yxx%C3%AE-motif-in-hcv-core-protein
#2
Eirini Karamichali, Elisavet Serti, Aikaterini Gianneli, Aikaterini Papaefthymiou, Athanassios Kakkanas, Pelagia Foka, Alexandros Seremetakis, Konstantina Katsarou, Ioannis P Trougakos, Urania Georgopoulou
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an RNA positive strand virus, member of the Flaviviridae family. The HCV viral particle is composed of a capsid containing the genome, surrounded by an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived lipid bilayer where E1 and E2 are assembled as heterodimers. However, different forms of viral particles have been identified in the serum of HCV-infected patients, including non-enveloped particles. Previous reports have demonstrated that HCV non-enveloped capsid-like particles (HCVne) can be generated by HCV core protein sequence...
July 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619886/tubular-clathrin-ap-2-lattices-pinch-collagen-fibers-to-support-3d-cell-migration
#3
Nadia Elkhatib, Enzo Bresteau, Francesco Baschieri, Alba López Rioja, Guillaume van Niel, Stéphane Vassilopoulos, Guillaume Montagnac
Migrating cells often use focal adhesions in order to move. Focal adhesions are less prominent in cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) as compared with 2D environments. We looked for alternative adhesion structures supporting cell migration. We analyzed the dynamics of clathrin-coated pits in cells migrating in a 3D environment of collagen fibers. Both topological cues and local engagement of integrins triggered the accumulation of clathrin-coated structures on fibers. Clathrin/adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) lattices pinched collagen fibers by adopting a tube-like morphology and regulated adhesion to fibers in an endocytosis-independent manner...
June 16, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610956/upregulation-of-microrna-137-expression-by-slug-promotes-tumor-invasion-and-metastasis-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-through-suppression-of-tfap2c
#4
Tzu-Hua Chang, Meng-Feng Tsai, Chien-Hung Gow, Shang-Gin Wu, Yi-Nan Liu, Yih-Leong Chang, Sung-Liang Yu, Hsing-Chen Tsai, Shih-Wen Lin, Yen-Wei Chen, Po-Yen Kuo, Pan-Chyr Yang, Jin-Yuan Shih
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulator, Slug, plays multifaceted roles in controlling lung cancer progression, but its downstream targets and mechanisms in promoting lung cancer progression have not been well defined. In particular, the miRNAs downstream of Slug in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain undetermined. Here, we report that miR-137 is downstream of the EMT regulator, Slug, in lung cancer cells. Slug binds directly to the E-box of the miR-137 promoter and up-regulates its expression in lung cancer cells...
June 10, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577469/the-interaction-between-hiv-1-nef-and-adaptor-protein-2-reduces-nef-mediated-cd4-t-cell-apoptosis
#5
Rajesh Abraham Jacob, Aaron L Johnson, Emily N Pawlak, Brennan S Dirk, Logan R Van Nynatten, S M Mansour Haeryfar, Jimmy D Dikeakos
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is characterized by a decline in CD4(+) T cells. Here, we elucidated the mechanism underlying apoptosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) infection by examining host apoptotic pathways hijacked by the HIV-1 Nef protein in the CD4(+) T-cell line Sup-T1. Using a panel of Nef mutants unable to bind specific host proteins we uncovered that Nef generates pro- and anti-apoptotic signals. Apoptosis increased upon mutating the motifs involved in the interaction of Nef:AP-1 (NefM20A or NefEEEE62-65AAAA) or Nef:AP-2 (NefLL164/165AA), implying these interactions limit Nef-mediated apoptosis...
September 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504462/endocytic-activity-of-hiv-1-vpu-phosphoserine-dependent-interactions-with-clathrin-adaptors
#6
Charlotte A Stoneham, Rajendra Singh, Xiaofei Jia, Yong Xiong, John Guatelli
HIV-1 Vpu modulates cellular transmembrane proteins to optimize viral replication and provide immune-evasion, triggering ubiquitin-mediated degradation of some targets but also modulating endosomal trafficking to deplete them from the plasma membrane. Interactions between Vpu and the heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP-1 and AP-2 have been described, yet the molecular basis and functional roles of such interactions are incompletely defined. To investigate the trafficking signals encoded by Vpu, we fused the cytoplasmic domain (CD) of Vpu to the extracellular and transmembrane domains of the CD8 α-chain...
May 14, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503898/evaluation-of-initial-setup-errors-of-two-immobilization-devices-for-lung-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-sbrt
#7
Yoshihiro Ueda, Teruki Teshima, Higinia Cárdenes, Indra J Das
The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and efficacy of two commonly used commercial immobilization systems for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in lung cancer. This retrospective study assessed the efficacy and setup accuracy of two immobilization systems: the Elekta Body Frame (EBF) and the Civco Body Pro-Lok (CBP) in 80 patients evenly divided for each system. A cone beam CT (CBCT) was used before each treatment fraction for setup correction in both devices. Analyzed shifts were applied for setup correction and CBCT was repeated...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484480/single-event-resolution-of-plant-plasma-membrane-protein-endocytosis-by-tirf-microscopy
#8
Alexander Johnson, Grégory Vert
Endocytosis is a key process in the internalization of extracellular materials and plasma membrane proteins, such as receptors and transporters, thereby controlling many aspects of cell signaling and cellular homeostasis. Endocytosis in plants has an essential role not only for basic cellular functions but also for growth and development, nutrient delivery, toxin avoidance, and pathogen defense. The precise mechanisms of endocytosis in plants remain quite elusive. The lack of direct visualization and examination of single events of endocytosis has greatly hampered our ability to precisely monitor the cell surface lifetime and the recruitment profile of proteins driving endocytosis or endocytosed cargos in plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458599/abbreviated-mri-protocols-for-detecting-breast-cancer-in-women-with-dense-breasts
#9
Shuang-Qing Chen, Min Huang, Yu-Ying Shen, Chen-Lu Liu, Chuan-Xiao Xu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of two abbreviated protocols (AP) of MRI in breast cancer screening of dense breast tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study in 356 participants with dense breast tissue and negative mammography results. The study was approved by the Nanjing Medical University Ethics Committee. Patients were imaged with a full diagnostic protocol (FDP) of MRI. Two APs (AP-1 consisting of the first post-contrast subtracted [FAST] and maximum-intensity projection [MIP] images, and AP-2 consisting of AP-1 combined with diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI]) and FDP images were analyzed separately, and the sensitivities and specificities of breast cancer detection were calculated...
May 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455947/extended-day-length-in-late-winter-early-spring-with-a-return-to-natural-day-length-of-shorter-duration-increased-plasma-testosterone-and-sexual-performance-in-rams-with-or-without-melatonin-implants
#10
J A Abecia, P Chemineau, M Keller, J A Delgadillo
Sixteen rams were used to quantify the effects of long days, imposed during late winter/early spring, with or without exogenous melatonin, on plasma testosterone concentrations and ram serving capacity. Rams were assigned to two groups: photoperiod-treated rams (Artificial Photoperiod, AP; n = 8), exposed to 2 months of long days (16 hr of light/day) between 22 December and 22 February, and control rams (Natural Photoperiod, NP; n = 8). At the end of the long-day period, AP rams were returned to the natural photoperiod, and each ram in the two groups either did (+M) or did not (-M) receive three subcutaneous melatonin implants...
April 29, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447921/the-effectiveness-of-acute-normolvolemic-hemodilution-and-autologous-prime-on-intraoperative-blood-management-during-cardiac-surgery
#11
Alfred H Stammers, Linda B Mongero, Eric Tesdahl, Andrew Stasko, Samuel Weinstein
OBJECTIVE: Intraoperative blood management during cardiac surgery is a multifaceted process incorporating various interventions directed at optimizing oxygen delivery and enhancing hemostasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) and autologous priming (AP) on preserving the hematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHOD: Case records from a national registry of adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery between January and October 2016 were reviewed...
April 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406967/differential-transcriptome-analysis-supports-rhodnius-montenegrensis-and-rhodnius-robustus-hemiptera-reduviidae-triatominae-as-distinct-species
#12
Danila Blanco de Carvalho, Carlos Congrains, Samira Chahad-Ehlers, Heloisa Pinotti, Reinaldo Alves de Brito, João Aristeu da Rosa
Chagas disease is one of the main parasitic diseases found in Latin America and it is estimated that between six and seven million people are infected worldwide. Its etiologic agent, the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is transmitted by triatomines, some of which from the genus Rhodnius. Twenty species are currently recognized in this genus, including some closely related species with low levels of morphological differentiation, such as Rhodnius montenegrensis and Rhodnius robustus. In order to investigate genetic differences between these two species, we generated large-scale RNA-sequencing data (consisting of four RNA-seq libraries) from the heads and salivary glands of males of R...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387218/retrograde-transport-of-trkb-containing-autophagosomes-via-the-adaptor-ap-2-mediates-neuronal-complexity-and-prevents-neurodegeneration
#13
Natalia L Kononenko, Gala A Claßen, Marijn Kuijpers, Dmytro Puchkov, Tanja Maritzen, Aleksandra Tempes, Anna R Malik, Agnieszka Skalecka, Sujoy Bera, Jacek Jaworski, Volker Haucke
Autophagosomes primarily mediate turnover of cytoplasmic proteins or organelles to provide nutrients and eliminate damaged proteins. In neurons, autophagosomes form in distal axons and are trafficked retrogradely to fuse with lysosomes in the soma. Although defective neuronal autophagy is associated with neurodegeneration, the function of neuronal autophagosomes remains incompletely understood. We show that in neurons, autophagosomes promote neuronal complexity and prevent neurodegeneration in vivo via retrograde transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-activated TrkB receptors...
April 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361042/sodium-octanoate-modulates-the-innate-immune-response-of-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells-through-the-tlr2-p38-jnk-erk1-2-pathway-implications-during-staphylococcus-aureus-internalization
#14
Nayeli Alva-Murillo, Alejandra Ochoa-Zarzosa, Joel E López-Meza
Bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) contribute to mammary gland defense against invading pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus (intracellular facultative), which is recognized by TLR2. In a previous report, we showed that sodium octanoate [NaO, a medium chain fatty acid (C8)] induces (0.25 mM) or inhibits (1 mM) S. aureus internalization into bMECs and differentially regulates the innate immune response (IIR). However, the molecular mechanisms have not been described, which was the aim of this study...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297291/evaluation-of-dose-area-product-of-common-radiographic-examinations-towards-establishing-a-preliminary-diagnostic-reference-levels-pdrls-in-southwestern-nigeria
#15
Nnamdi N Jibiri, Christopher J Olowookere
In Nigeria, a large number of radiographic examinations are conducted yearly for various diagnostic purposes. However, most examinations carried out do not have records of doses received by the patients, and the employed exposure parameters used are not documented; therefore, adequate radiation dose management is hindered. The aim of the present study was to estimate the dose-area product (DAP) of patients examined in Nigeria, and to propose regional reference dose levels for nine common examinations (chest PA, abdomen AP, pelvis AP, lumbar AP, skull AP, leg AP, knee AP, hand AP, and thigh AP) undertaken in Nigeria...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266544/misrouting-of-v-atpase-subunit-v0a1-dysregulates-lysosomal-acidification-in-a-neurodegenerative-lysosomal-storage-disease-model
#16
Maria B Bagh, Shiyong Peng, Goutam Chandra, Zhongjian Zhang, Satya P Singh, Nagarajan Pattabiraman, Aiyi Liu, Anil B Mukherjee
Defective lysosomal acidification contributes to virtually all lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) and to common neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Despite its fundamental importance, the mechanism(s) underlying this defect remains unclear. The v-ATPase, a multisubunit protein complex composed of cytosolic V1-sector and lysosomal membrane-anchored V0-sector, regulates lysosomal acidification. Mutations in the CLN1 gene, encoding PPT1, cause a devastating neurodegenerative LSD, INCL...
March 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224728/%C3%AE-2-dependent-endocytosis-of-n-cadherin-is-regulated-by-%C3%AE-catenin-to-facilitate-neurite-outgrowth
#17
Yi-Ting Chen, Chin-Yin Tai
Circuit formation in the brain requires neurite outgrowth throughout development to establish synaptic contacts with target cells. Active endocytosis of several adhesion molecules facilitates the dynamic exchange of these molecules at the surface and promotes neurite outgrowth in developing neurons. The endocytosis of N-cadherin, a calcium-dependent adhesion molecule, has been implicated in the regulation of neurite outgrowth, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we identified that a fraction of N-cadherin internalizes through clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME)...
February 22, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220754/the-ap-2-complex-has-a-specialized-clathrin-independent-role-in-apical-endocytosis-and-polar-growth-in-fungi
#18
Olga Martzoukou, Sotiris Amillis, Amalia Zervakou, Savvas Christoforidis, George Diallinas
Filamentous fungi provide excellent systems for investigating the role of the AP-2 complex in polar growth. Using Aspergillus nidulans, we show that AP-2 has a clathrin-independent essential role in polarity maintenance and growth. This is in line with a sequence analysis showing that the AP-2 β subunit (β2) of higher fungi lacks a clathrin-binding domain, and experiments showing that AP-2 does not co-localize with clathrin. We provide genetic and cellular evidence that AP-2 interacts with endocytic markers SlaB(End4) and SagA(End3) and the lipid flippases DnfA and DnfB in the sub-apical collar region of hyphae...
February 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208708/the-interplay-between-inflammation-coagulation-and-endothelial-injury-in-the-early-phase-of-acute-pancreatitis-clinical-implications
#19
REVIEW
Paulina Dumnicka, Dawid Maduzia, Piotr Ceranowicz, Rafał Olszanecki, Ryszard Drożdż, Beata Kuśnierz-Cabala
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease with varied severity, ranging from mild local inflammation to severe systemic involvement resulting in substantial mortality. Early pathologic events in AP, both local and systemic, are associated with vascular derangements, including endothelial activation and injury, dysregulation of vasomotor tone, increased vascular permeability, increased leukocyte migration to tissues, and activation of coagulation. The purpose of the review was to summarize current evidence regarding the interplay between inflammation, coagulation and endothelial dysfunction in the early phase of AP...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193206/inducing-goat-pluripotent-stem-cells-with-four-transcription-factor-mrnas-that-activate-endogenous-promoters
#20
Hao Chen, Qisheng Zuo, Yingjie Wang, Jiuzhou Song, Huilin Yang, Yani Zhang, Bichun Li
BACKGROUND: Traditional approaches for generating goat pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) suffer from complexity and low preparation efficiency. Therefore, we tried to derive goat iPSCs with a new method by transfecting exogenous Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc mRNAs into goat embryonic fibroblasts (GEFs), and explore the mechanisms regarding the transcription regulation of the reprogramming factors in goat iPSCs induction. RESULTS: mRNAs of the four reprogramming factors were transfected into GEFs, and were localized in nucleus with approximately 90% transfection efficiency...
February 13, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
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