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Julie Grandbois, Sandhya Khurana, Kelly Graff, Phong Nguyen, Leah Meltz, T C Tai
Epinephrine is synthesized by the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), primarily in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and secondarily in brainstem adrenergic neurons of the medulla oblongata. Epinephrine is an important neurotransmitter/neurohormone involved in cardiovascular regulation; however, overproduction is detrimental with negative outcomes such as cellular damage, cardiovascular dysfunction, and hypertension. Genetic mapping studies have linked elevated expression of PNMT to hypertension...
October 18, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Ji Zhou, Huaxin Duan, Yu Xie, Yichong Ning, Xing Zhang, Na Hui, Chunqing Wang, Jian Zhang, Jianlin Zhou
Transcription factor AP-2 alpha (AP-2α or TFAP2A) is a newly identified prognostic marker of chemotherapy; its expression is positively correlated with chemosensitivity and survival of cancer patients. Using computational programs, we predicted that the coding region of AP-2α gene contains a potential miRNA response element (MRE) of miR-193a-5p, and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site (c.497A>G, rs111681798) resides within the predicted MRE. The results of luciferase assays and Western blot analysis demonstrated that miR-193a-5p negatively regulated the expression of AP-2α proteins, but have no influence on the mutant AP-2α (c...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Xenia Snetkov, Ina Weisswange, Julia Pfanzelter, Ashley C Humphries, Michael Way
During its egress, vaccinia virus transiently recruits AP-2 and clathrin after fusion with the plasma membrane. This recruitment polarizes the viral protein A36 beneath the virus, enhancing actin polymerization and the spread of infection. We now demonstrate that three NPF motifs in the C-terminus of A36 recruit AP-2 and clathrin by interacting directly with the Epsin15 homology domains of Eps15 and intersectin-1. A36 is the first identified viral NPF motif containing protein shown to interact with endocytic machinery...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Elana J Fertig, Hiroyuki Ozawa, Manjusha Thakar, Jason D Howard, Luciane T Kagohara, Gabriel Krigsfeld, Ruchira S Ranaweera, Robert M Hughes, Jimena Perez, Siân Jones, Alexander V Favorov, Jacob Carey, Genevieve Stein-O'Brien, Daria A Gaykalova, Michael F Ochs, Christine H Chung
Patients with oncogene driven tumors are treated with targeted therapeutics including EGFR inhibitors. Genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) demonstrates molecular alterations to EGFR, MAPK, and PI3K pathways in previously untreated tumors. Therefore, this study uses bioinformatics algorithms to delineate interactions resulting from EGFR inhibitor use in cancer cells with these genetic alterations. We modify the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line model to simulate cancer cells with constitutive activation of EGFR, HRAS, and PI3K in a controlled genetic background...
September 16, 2016: Oncotarget
Anees Ahmad Banday
The regulation of Na/K-ATPase in various tissues is under the control of a number of hormones and peptides that exert both short- and long-term control over its activity. Present study was performed to investigate the effect of chronic insulin treatment on Na/K-ATPase in renal proximal tubular cells. Incubation of opossum kidney (OK) cells, transfected with rat Na/K-ATPase α1- subunit, with 1 nmol/L insulin for 48hr decreased Na/K-ATPase activity. Insulin decreased α1 protein content and increased α1 serine phosphorylation and α1-adaptor protein (AP) 2 interaction...
September 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Kenta Imai, Feike Hao, Naonobu Fujita, Yasuhiro Tsuji, Yukako Oe, Yasuhiro Araki, Maho Hamasaki, Takeshi Noda, Tamotsu Yoshimori
Autophagy is an intracellular degradation pathway conserved in eukaryotes. Among core autophagy-related (Atg) proteins, mammalian Atg9A is the sole multi-spanning transmembrane protein, and both of its N- and C-terminal domains are exposed to the cytoplasm. It is known that Atg9A travels through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the endosomal system under nutrient-rich conditions, and transiently localizes to the autophagosome upon autophagy induction. However, the significance of Atg9A trafficking for autophagosome formation remains elusive...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Lihe Dai, Xiaohong Chu, Fuzeng Lu, Ruhai Xu
As an important triglyceride hydrolase in mammalian cells, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 2 (PNPLA2) predominantly performs the first step in triglyceride hydrolysis. The objective of this study was to detect and evaluate the effects of mutations in the 5' upstream region of porcine PNPLA2 gene with fat deposition and carcass traits. Four single nuclear polymorphisms were identified, including g.161969 T>C, g.161962 A>G, g.161953 C>G and g.161904 G>T, and subsequently genotyped in five pure breeds...
November 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
Ligia Cristina Kalb, Yohana Camila A Frederico, Cordula Boehm, Claudia Maria do Nascimento Moreira, Maurilio José Soares, Mark C Field
Trypanosomatids are parasitic protozoa with a significant burden on human health. African and American trypanosomes are causative agents of Nagana and Chagas disease respectively, and speciated about 300 million years ago. These parasites have highly distinct life cycles, pathologies, transmission strategies and surface proteomes, being dominated by the variant surface glycoprotein (African) or mucins (American) respectively. In African trypanosomes clathrin-mediated trafficking is responsible for endocytosis and post-Golgi transport, with several mechanistic aspects distinct from higher organisms...
2016: Scientific Reports
Thomas H Smith, Luisa J Coronel, Julia G Li, Michael R Dores, Marvin T Nieman, JoAnn Trejo
Protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin and is proteolytically activated, similar to the prototypical PAR1. Due to the irreversible activation of PAR1, receptor trafficking is intimately linked to signal regulation. However, unlike PAR1, the mechanisms that control PAR4 trafficking are not known. Here, we sought to define the mechanisms that control PAR4 trafficking and signaling. In HeLa cells depleted of clathrin by siRNA, activated PAR4 failed to internalize...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Justine E Alford, Michela Marongiu, Gemma L Watkins, Emma C Anderson
Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 are closely related lentiviruses with similar replication cycles, HIV-2 infection is associated with slower progression to AIDS, a higher proportion of long term non-progressors, and lower rates of transmission than HIV-1, likely as a consequence of a lower viral load during HIV-2 infection. A mechanistic explanation for the differential viral load remains unclear but knowledge of differences in particle production between HIV-1 and HIV-2 may help to shed light on this issue...
2016: PloS One
Thomas C B Wong, Martha Rebbert, Chengdong Wang, Xiongfong Chen, Alison Heffer, Valeria E Zarelli, Igor B Dawid, Hui Zhao
Neural crest (NC) development is controlled precisely by a regulatory network with multiple signaling pathways and the involvement of many genes. The integration and coordination of these factors are still incompletely understood. Overexpression of Wnt3a and the BMP antagonist Chordin in animal cap cells from Xenopus blastulae induces a large number of NC specific genes. We previously suggested that Potassium Channel Tetramerization Domain containing 15 (Kctd15) regulates NC formation by affecting Wnt signaling and the activity of transcription factor AP-2...
2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Lei Wang, Adam Johnson, Michael Hanna, Anjon Audhya
Clathrin coat assembly on membranes requires cytosolic adaptors and accessory proteins, which bridge triskeleons with the lipid bilayer and stabilize lattice architecture throughout the process of vesicle formation. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the prototypical AP-2 adaptor complex, which is activated by the accessory factor Fcho1 at the plasma membrane, is dispensable during embryogenesis, enabling us to define alternative mechanisms that facilitate clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Here we uncover a synthetic genetic interaction between C...
September 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Shilhav Meisel Sharon, Yair Pozniak, Tamar Geiger, Haim Werner
Prostate cancer is a major health issue in the Western world. The most common gene rearrangement in prostate cancer is the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, which results in aberrant expression of the transcription factor ERG. The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) plays a key role in cell growth and tumorigenesis, and is overexpressed in most malignancies, including prostate cancer. In this study we show that TMPRSS2-ERG mediates its tumorigenic effects through regulation of IGF1R gene expression. Silencing of T-ERG in VCaP cells resulted in downregulation of both IGF1R and Sp1, a critical IGF1R regulator...
June 6, 2016: Oncotarget
Wim Dejonghe, Sabine Kuenen, Evelien Mylle, Mina Vasileva, Olivier Keech, Corrado Viotti, Jef Swerts, Matyáš Fendrych, Fausto Andres Ortiz-Morea, Kiril Mishev, Simon Delang, Stefan Scholl, Xavier Zarza, Mareike Heilmann, Jiorgos Kourelis, Jaroslaw Kasprowicz, Le Son Long Nguyen, Andrzej Drozdzecki, Isabelle Van Houtte, Anna-Mária Szatmári, Mateusz Majda, Gary Baisa, Sebastian York Bednarek, Stéphanie Robert, Dominique Audenaert, Christa Testerink, Teun Munnik, Daniël Van Damme, Ingo Heilmann, Karin Schumacher, Johan Winne, Jiří Friml, Patrik Verstreken, Eugenia Russinova
ATP production requires the establishment of an electrochemical proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial uncouplers dissipate this proton gradient and disrupt numerous cellular processes, including vesicular trafficking, mainly through energy depletion. Here we show that Endosidin9 (ES9), a novel mitochondrial uncoupler, is a potent inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in different systems and that ES9 induces inhibition of CME not because of its effect on cellular ATP, but rather due to its protonophore activity that leads to cytoplasm acidification...
2016: Nature Communications
Derek C Prosser, Beverly Wendland
The earliest stages of clathrin-coated structure (CCS) assembly involve the recruitment and stabilization of clathrin-binding adaptor proteins and the clathrin coat. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Ma et al. (2016) now identify transient protein interactions that form the basis of AP-2 adaptor complex stabilization, key to initiating CCS formation.
June 6, 2016: Developmental Cell
Luis L P DaSilva, Mark J Wall, Luciana P de Almeida, Sandrine C Wauters, Yunan C Januário, Jürgen Müller, Sonia A L Corrêa
The activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein controls synaptic strength by facilitating AMPA receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis. Here we demonstrate that Arc targets AMPAR to be internalized through a direct interaction with the clathrin-adaptor protein 2 (AP-2). We show that Arc overexpression in dissociated hippocampal neurons obtained from C57BL/6 mouse reduces the density of AMPAR GluA1 subunits at the cell surface and reduces the amplitude and rectification of AMPAR-mediated miniature-EPSCs (mEPSCs)...
May 2016: ENeuro
Li Ma, Perunthottathu K Umasankar, Antoni G Wrobel, Anastasia Lymar, Airlie J McCoy, Sachin S Holkar, Anupma Jha, Tirthadipa Pradhan-Sundd, Simon C Watkins, David J Owen, Linton M Traub
Clathrin-coated vesicles form by rapid assembly of discrete coat constituents into a cargo-sorting lattice. How the sequential phases of coat construction are choreographed is unclear, but transient protein-protein interactions mediated by short interaction motifs are pivotal. We show that arrayed Asp-Pro-Phe (DPF) motifs within the early-arriving endocytic pioneers Eps15/R are differentially decoded by other endocytic pioneers Fcho1/2 and AP-2. The structure of an Eps15/R⋅Fcho1 μ-homology domain complex reveals a spacing-dependent DPF triad, bound in a mechanistically distinct way from the mode of single DPF binding to AP-2...
June 6, 2016: Developmental Cell
Chao-Jie Wang, Guang Wang, Xiao-Yu Wang, Meng Liu, Manli Chuai, Kenneth Ka Ho Lee, Xiao-Song He, Da-Xiang Lu, Xuesong Yang
Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide that is widely used in the control pests found on crops and fleas on pets. However, it is still unclear whether imidacloprid exposure could affect early embryo development-despite some studies having been conducted on the gametes. In this study, we demonstrated that imidacloprid exposure could lead to abnormal craniofacial osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo. Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are the progenitor cells of the chick cranial skull. We found that the imidacloprid exposure retards the development of gastrulating chick embryos...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Poomrat Rattanarat, Akkapol Suea-Ngam, Nipapan Ruecha, Weena Siangproh, Charles S Henry, Monpichar Srisa-Art, Orawon Chailapakul
We report herein the first development of graphene-polyaniline modified carbon paste electrode (G-PANI/CPE) coupled with droplet-based microfluidic sensor for high-throughput detection of 4-aminophenol (4-AP) in pharmaceutical paracetamol (PA) formulations. A simple T-junction microfluidic platform using an oil flow rate of 1.8 μL/min and an aqueous flow rate of 0.8 μL/min was used to produce aqueous testing microdroplets continuously. The microchannel was designed to extend the aqueous droplet to cover all 3 electrodes, allowing for electrochemical measurements in a single droplet...
June 21, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Yemima Budirahardja, Pei Yi Tan, Thang Doan, Peter Weisdepp, Ronen Zaidel-Bar
The evolutionarily conserved family of AP-2 transcription factors (TF) regulates proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Mutations in human AP-2 TF have been linked with bronchio-occular-facial syndrome and Char Syndrome, congenital birth defects characterized by craniofacial deformities and patent ductus arteriosus, respectively. How mutations in AP-2 TF cause the disease phenotypes is not well understood. Here, we characterize the aptf-2(qm27) allele in Caenorhabditis elegans, which carries a point mutation in the conserved DNA binding region of AP-2 TF...
May 2016: PLoS Genetics
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