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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161649/magic-angle-spinning-nmr-below-6%C3%A2-k-with-a-computational-fluid-dynamics-analysis-of-fluid-flow-and-temperature-gradients
#1
Erika L Sesti, Nicholas Alaniva, Peter W Rand, Eric J Choi, Brice J Albert, Edward P Saliba, Faith J Scott, Alexander B Barnes
We report magic angle spinning (MAS) up to 8.5 kHz with a sample temperature below 6 K using liquid helium as a variable temperature fluid. Cross polarization (13)C NMR spectra exhibit exquisite sensitivity with a single transient. Remarkably, (1)H saturation recovery experiments show a (1)H T1 of 21 s with MAS below 6 K in the presence of trityl radicals in a glassy matrix. Leveraging the thermal spin polarization available at 4.2 K versus 298 K should result in 71 times higher signal intensity...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161623/functions-of-myosin-motors-tailored-for-parasitism
#2
REVIEW
Christina Mueller, Arnault Graindorge, Dominique Soldati-Favre
Myosin motors are one of the largest protein families in eukaryotes that exhibit divergent cellular functions. Their roles in protozoans, a diverse group of anciently diverged, single celled organisms with many prominent members known to be parasitic and to cause diseases in human and livestock, are largely unknown. In the recent years many different approaches, among them whole genome sequencing, phylogenetic analyses and functional studies have increased our understanding on the distribution, protein architecture and function of unconventional myosin motors in protozoan parasites...
November 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161596/an-in-toto-approach-to-dissecting-cellular-interactions-in-complex-tissues
#3
Pavak Kirit Shah, Anthony Santella, Adrian Jacobo, Kimberly Siletti, A J Hudspeth, Zhirong Bao
Single-cell measurements have broadened our understanding of heterogeneity in biology, yet have been limited to mostly observational studies of normal or globally perturbed systems. Typically, perturbations are utilized in an open-ended approach wherein an endpoint is assayed during or after the biological event of interest. Here we describe ShootingStar, a platform for perturbation analysis in vivo, which combines live imaging, real-time image analysis, and automated optical perturbations. ShootingStar builds a quantitative record of the state of the sample being analyzed, which is used to automate the identification of target cells for perturbation, as well as to validate the impacts of the perturbation...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161594/clathrin-assembly-defines-the-onset-and-geometry-of-cortical-patterning
#4
Yang Yang, Ding Xiong, Anne Pipathsouk, Orion D Weiner, Min Wu
Assembly of the endocytic machinery is a constitutively active process that is important for the organization of the plasma membrane, signal transduction, and membrane trafficking. Existing research has focused on the stochastic nature of endocytosis. Here, we report the emergence of the collective dynamics of endocytic proteins as periodic traveling waves on the cell surface. Coordinated clathrin assembly provides the earliest spatial cue for cortical waves and sets the direction of propagation. Surprisingly, the onset of clathrin waves, but not individual endocytic events, requires feedback from downstream factors, including FBP17, Cdc42, and N-WASP...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161587/versatile-scaffold-extrajunctional-roles-for-%C3%AE-catenin
#5
Srikanth Budnar, Alpha S Yap
α-catenin is a scaffolding molecule that can bind F-actin and other cytoskeletal proteins. It is best known for its contribution to cell-cell adhesion. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Vassilev et al. (2017) identify an extrajunctional pool of α-catenin that regulates RhoA signaling and controls directional migration of single cells.
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161425/linnorm-improved-statistical-analysis-for-single-cell-rna-seq-expression-data
#6
Shun H Yip, Panwen Wang, Jean-Pierre A Kocher, Pak Chung Sham, Junwen Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161333/precise-mass-determination-of-single-cell-with-cantilever-based-microbiosensor-system
#7
Bogdan Łabędź, Aleksandra Wańczyk, Zenon Rajfur
Having determined the mass of a single cell of brewer yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by means of a microcantilever-based biosensor Cantisens CSR-801 (Concentris, Basel, Switzerland), it was found that its dry mass is 47,65 ± 1,05 pg. Found to be crucial in this mass determination was the cell position along the length of the cantilever. Moreover, calculations including cells positions on the cantilever provide a threefold better degree of accuracy than those which assume uniform mass distribution. We have also examined the influence of storage time on the single cell mass...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161327/thallium-stimulates-ethanol-production-in-immortalized-hippocampal-neurons
#8
Laura Colombaioni, Massimo Onor, Edoardo Benedetti, Emilia Bramanti
Lactate and ethanol (EtOH) were determined in cell culture medium (CCM) of immortalized hippocampal neurons (HN9.10e cell line) before and after incubation with Thallium (Tl). This cell line is a reliable, in vitro model of one of the most vulnerable regions of central nervous system. Cells were incubated for 48 h with three different single Tl doses: 1, 10, 100 μg/L (corresponding to 4.9, 49 and 490 nM, respectively). After 48 h, neurons were "reperfused" with fresh CCM every 24/48 h until 7 days after the treatment and the removed CCM was collected and analysed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161240/rapid-nodal-staging-of-head-and-neck-cancer-surgical-specimens-with-flow-cytometric-analysis
#9
Valtteri Häyry, Åsa Kågedal, Eric Hjalmarsson, Pedro Farrajota Neves da Silva, Cecilia Drakskog, Gregori Margolin, Susanna Kumlien Georén, Eva Munck-Wikland, Ola Winqvist, Lars Olaf Cardell
BACKGROUND: Detection of metastatic spread of head and neck cancer to cervical lymph nodes is essential for optimal design of therapy. Undetected metastases lead to mortality, which can be prevented by better detection methods. METHODS: We analysed 41 lymph nodes from 19 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Each lymph node was divided in two, one half processed for histopathology and the other half dissociated into single-cell suspension, stained for the carcinoma cell markers cytokeratin 5/8 (CK5/8), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and epithelial mucin (MUC-1), and analysed with flow cytometry...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161231/epigenetic-regulation-mechanisms-of-microrna-expression
#10
Sara Morales, Mariano Monzo, Alfons Navarro
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs of 18-25 nucleotides that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They are involved in many physiological and pathological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, development and carcinogenesis. Because of the central role of miRNAs in the regulation of gene expression, their expression needs to be tightly controlled. Here, we summarize the different mechanisms of epigenetic regulation of miRNAs, with a particular focus on DNA methylation and histone modification...
November 21, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161037/biodegradation-of-carbon-nanotube-polymer-nanocomposites-using-a-monoculture
#11
David G Goodwin, Iruhany Boyer, Thomas Devahif, Cong Gao, Benjamin Frank, Xier Lu, Leo Kuwama, Tucker B Gordon, JingJing Wang, James F Ranville, Edward J Bouwer, D Howard Fairbrother
The biodegradation rates of carbon nanotube (CNT)/ polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) containing poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) were investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a microorganism commonly found in the environment. CNT/PCL nanocomposite mass loss profiles revealed that the rate of PCL matrix biodegradation decreased systematically as the CNT loading increased from 0.1 to 10% w/w. Addition of even a low CNT loading (< 1% w/w) caused the CNT/PCL biodegradation rate constant to decrease by more than 50%...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161019/local-enhancement-of-lipid-membrane-permeability-induced-by-irradiated-gold-nanoparticles
#12
Andrea Torchi, Federica Simonelli, Riccardo Ferrando, Giulia Rossi
Photothermal therapies are based on the optical excitation of plasmonic nanoparticles in the biological environment. The effects of the irradiation on the biological medium depend critically on the heat transfer process at the nanoparticle interface, on the temperature reached by the tissues as well as on the spatial extent of temperature gradients. Unfortunately, both the temperature and its biological effects are difficult to be probed experimentally at the molecular scale. Here, we approach this problem using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations...
November 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161017/detecting-interactions-between-nanomaterials-and-cell-membranes-by-synthetic-nanopores
#13
Binquan Luan, Shuo Zhou, Deqiang Wang, Ruhong Zhou
Engineered nanomaterials have been increasingly utilized in industry for various consumer products, environment treatments, energy storages and biomedical applications. Meanwhile, it has been established that certain nanomaterials can be toxic to biological cells from extensive experimental and theoretical studies. Despite that the exact molecular mechanisms of these nanomaterials' toxicity are still not well understood, it is ubiquitous that their interactions with cell membranes, through either endocytosis or penetration (and thus potential lysis), act as the first step towards the inflammation or even the death of a cell...
November 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161009/a-sensitive-microbead-based-organic-media-assisted-method-for-proteomics-sample-preparation-from-dilute-and-denaturing-solutions
#14
Masato Taoka, Michihiko Fujii, Masahiro Tsuchiya, Takamasa Uekita, Tohru Ichimura
We developed a robust and sensitive sample preparation method for proteomics termed microbead-based and organic-media-assisted proteolysis strategy (BOPs). BOPs combine two advantages of current techniques, (1) unbiased binding of reversed-phase polymeric microbeads to any type of protein and (2) enhanced trypsin digestion efficiency in CH3CN-aqueous solvent systems, into a single-tube workflow. Compared with conventional techniques, this method effectively concentrates proteins and improves proteolytic digestion, and can be used with submicromolar protein samples in dilute and/or denaturing solutions such as 70 % formic acid, 8 M urea, or 7 M guanidine hydrochloride without any sample pretreatment...
November 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160910/epithelial-disruptions-but-not-immune-cell-invasion-induced-secretory-dysfunction-following-innate-immune-activation-in-a-novel-model-of-acute-salivary-gland-injury
#15
Abeer Shaalan, Guy Carpenter, Gordon Proctor
BACKGROUND: Salivary gland (SG) injurious agents are all translated into loss of salivation (xerostomia). An association has been established between activation of innate immunity and salivary gland injury and dysfunction. However, it remains unclear how the secretory epithelia respond by halting saliva production. METHODS: C57BL/6 submandibular glands (SMGs) were acutely challenged using a single dose of the innate immune stimulant: polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C))...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160892/growth-of-a-sea-urchin-like-rutile-tio2-hierarchical-microsphere-film-on-ti-foil-for-a-quasi-solid-state-dye-sensitized-solar-cell
#16
Jin Hyok Ri, Shufang Wu, Jingpeng Jin, Tianyou Peng
A sea urchin-like rutile TiO2 microsphere (RMS) film was fabricated on Ti foil via a hydrothermal process. The resulting rutile TiO2 hierarchical microspheres with a diameter of 5-6 μm are composed of nanorods with a diameter of ∼200 nm and a length of 1-2 μm. The sea urchin-like hierarchical structure leads to the Ti foil-based RMS film possessing much better light-scattering capability in the visible region than the bare Ti foil. By using it as an underlayer of a nanosized anatase TiO2 film (bTPP3) derived from a commercially available paste (TPP3), the corresponding bilayer Ti foil-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) only gives a conversion efficiency of 4...
November 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160793/a-gal-m%C3%A2%C2%B5s-device-to-evaluate-cell-migratory-response-to-combined-galvano-chemotactic-fields
#17
Shawn Mishra, Maribel Vazquez
Electric fields have been studied extensively in biomedical engineering (BME) for numerous regenerative therapies. Recent studies have begun to examine the biological effects of electric fields in combination with other environmental cues, such as tissue-engineered extracellular matrices (ECM), chemical gradient profiles, and time-dependent temperature gradients. In the nervous system, cell migration driven by electrical fields, or galvanotaxis, has been most recently studied in transcranial direct stimulation (TCDS), spinal cord repair and tumor treating fields (TTF)...
November 21, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160746/nucleic-acid-therapies-for-cystic-fibrosis
#18
Shruti Sasaki, Shuling Guo
Nucleic acid therapeutics are an established class of drugs that enable specific targeting of a gene of interest. This diverse family of drugs includes antisense oligonucleotides, siRNAs, and mRNA replacement therapies, which can elicit both gene repression and activation, primarily at the RNA level. Recent advances in medicinal chemistry have increased drug potency and enhanced delivery and distribution to a broad array of tissue and cell types. A key advantage of nucleic acid therapeutics is in their application to monogenic diseases...
November 21, 2017: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160734/immunoparesis-and-polyclonal-immunoglobulin-recovery-after-auto-sct-for-patients-with-multiple-myeloma-treated-at-a-single-institution
#19
Victor H Jimenez-Zepeda, Peter Duggan, Paola Neri, Ahsan Chaudhry, Jason Tay, Nizar Bahlis
Immunoparesis and polyclonal immunoglobulin recovery have been recently described as common indicators of immune dysfunction in patients with multiple myeloma. In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of immunoparesis and polyclonal immunoglobulin recovery at day-100 post autologous stem cell transplant (auto-SCT) on clinical outcomes. A total of 302 patients were included for the analysis of immunoparesis, and 197 were evaluable for polyclonal immunoglobulin recovery evaluation. Immunoparesis was observed in 93...
November 21, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160722/do-infection-patterns-of-human-papillomavirus-affect-the-cytologic-detection-of-high-grade-cervical-lesions-on-papanicolaou-tests
#20
Siavash Azadmanesh Samimi, Roxanne R Mody, Steven Goodman, Eric Luna, Donna Armylagos, Mary R Schwartz, Dina R Mody, Yimin Ge
CONTEXT: - Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the major cause of cervical cancer. The effect of HPV infection patterns on cytologic detection of cervical lesions is unknown. OBJECTIVE: - To determine the effect of HPV infection patterns on the sensitivity of cytologic detection of high-grade cervical lesions. DESIGN: - Papanicolaou tests from 257 women with biopsy-confirmed, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were analyzed with respect to HPV infection patterns...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
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