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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347131/preclinical-in-vivo-cancer-straightway-to-patients
#1
Marion de Jong, Stephen Mather, Theodosia Maina
Detection of useful cellular targets has strongly stimulated personalized tumor-targeted imaging and therapy approaches, also involving synthesis and evaluation of nuclear imaging probes with potential for clinical applications. Reviews of preclinical and translational studies concerning such probes, including radiolabeled antibodies, nanobodies, affibodies, peptides, small molecule inhibitors, and nanoparticles, are presented in this issue. As most tracers described in these articles have been developed for the field of cancer imaging and radionuclide therapy, the current article on preclinical studies will focus on cancer research as well...
June 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346912/optimizing-the-dose-of-erythropoietin-required-to-prevent-acute-ventilation-induced-cerebral-white-matter-injury-in-preterm-lambs
#2
Kyra Y Y Chan, Domenic A LaRosa, Mary Tolcos, Anqi Li, Valerie A Zahra, Graeme R Polglase, Samantha K Barton
Erythropoietin (EPO) is being trialed in preterm neonates for neuroprotection. We have recently demonstrated that a single high bolus dose (5,000 IU/kg) of recombinant human EPO amplified preterm lung and brain ventilation-induced injury. We aimed to determine the optimal dose of EPO to reduce ventilation-induced cerebral white matter inflammation and injury in preterm lambs. Lambs (0.85 gestation) were ventilated with an injurious strategy for 15 min followed by conventional ventilation for 105 min. Lambs were randomized to no treatment (VENT; n = 8) or received a bolus dose of EPO (EPREX®): 300 IU/kg (EPO 300; n = 5), 1,000 IU/kg (EPO 1,000; n = 5), or 3,000 IU/kg (EPO 3,000; n = 5)...
March 28, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346890/high-throughput-system-wide-engineering-and-screening-for-microbial-biotechnology
#3
REVIEW
Yannick Vervoort, Alicia Gutiérrez Linares, Miguel Roncoroni, Chengxun Liu, Jan Steensels, Kevin J Verstrepen
Genetic engineering and screening of large number of cells or populations is a crucial bottleneck in today's systems biology and applied (micro)biology. Instead of using standard methods in bottles, flasks or 96-well plates, scientists are increasingly relying on high-throughput strategies that miniaturize their experiments to the nanoliter and picoliter scale and the single-cell level. In this review, we summarize different high-throughput system-wide genome engineering and screening strategies for microbes...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346796/harnessing-external-cues-development-and-evaluation-of-an-in-vitro-culture-system-for-osteochondral-tissue-engineering
#4
Deborah L Dorcemus, Eve O George, Caroline N Dealy, Syam P Nukavarapu
Over the last decade, engineered structures have been developed for osteochondral (OC) tissue regeneration. While the optimal structure design is yet to be determined, these scaffolds require in vitro evaluation before clinical use. However, the means by which complex scaffolds, such as OC scaffolds, can be tested are limited. Taking advantage of a mesenchymal stem cell's (MSC's) ability to respond to its surrounding we harness external cues, such as the cell's mechanical environment and delivered factors, to create an in vitro culture system for OC tissue engineering with a single cell source on a gradient yet integrated scaffold system...
March 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346703/tunable-glut-hexose-binding-and-transport-via-modulation-of-hexose-c-3-hydrogen-bonding-capabilities
#5
Venkata Pavan Kondapi, Olivier Mohamad Soueidan, Christopher I Cheeseman, F G West
The importance of the hydrogen bonding interactions in the GLUT-hexose binding process has been demonstrated by studying the binding of structurally modified D-fructose analogues to GLUTs, and in one case its transport into cells. The presence of a hydrogen bond donor at the C-3 position of 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol derivatives is essential for effective binding to GLUT5 and transport into tumor cells. Surprisingly, installation of a group that can function only as a hydrogen bond acceptor at C-3 resulted in selective recognition by GLUT1 rather than GLUT5...
March 27, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346451/sc3-consensus-clustering-of-single-cell-rna-seq-data
#6
Vladimir Yu Kiselev, Kristina Kirschner, Michael T Schaub, Tallulah Andrews, Andrew Yiu, Tamir Chandra, Kedar N Natarajan, Wolf Reik, Mauricio Barahona, Anthony R Green, Martin Hemberg
Single-cell RNA-seq enables the quantitative characterization of cell types based on global transcriptome profiles. We present single-cell consensus clustering (SC3), a user-friendly tool for unsupervised clustering, which achieves high accuracy and robustness by combining multiple clustering solutions through a consensus approach (http://bioconductor.org/packages/SC3). We demonstrate that SC3 is capable of identifying subclones from the transcriptomes of neoplastic cells collected from patients.
March 27, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346431/real-time-impedance-monitoring-of-oxygen-reduction-during-surface-modification-of-thin%C3%A2-film%C3%A2-cathodes
#7
Ghislain M Rupp, Alexander K Opitz, Andreas Nenning, Andreas Limbeck, Jürgen Fleig
Improvement of solid oxide fuel cells strongly relies on the development of cathode materials with high catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. Excellent activity was found for perovskite-type oxides such as La1-xSrxCoO3-δ (LSC), but performance degradation, probably caused by surface composition changes, hinders exploitation of the full potential of LSC. This study reveals that the potentially very high activity of the LSC surface can be traced back to few very active sites. Already tiny amounts of SrO, for example, 4% of a monolayer, deposited on an LSC surface, lead to severe deactivation...
March 27, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346415/haplo-cord-transplantation-compared-to-haploidentical-transplantation-with-post-transplant-cyclophosphamide-in-patients-with-aml
#8
M Kwon, G Bautista, P Balsalobre, I Sánchez-Ortega, P Montesinos, A Bermúdez, A de Laiglesia, P Herrera, C Martin, K Humala, A Zabalza, M Torres, L Bento, L L Corral, I Heras, D Serrano, I Buño, J Anguita, C Regidor, R Duarte, R Cabrera, J Gayoso, J L Diez-Martin
For patients with AML, the best alternative donor remains to be defined. We analyze outcomes of patients who underwent myeloablative umbilical cord blood or haploidentical hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in Spain. Fifty-one patients underwent single umbilical cord blood transplantation supported by a third party donor (Haplo-Cord) between 1999 and 2012, and 36 patients received an haploidentical HSCT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY-haplo) between 2012 and 2014 in GETH centers. The Haplo-Cord cohort included a higher proportion of patients with high disease risk index and use of TBI in the conditioning regimen, and hematopoietic cell transplantation-age Comorbidity Age Index was higher in PTCY-haplo patients...
March 27, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346410/quality-of-tcr-signaling-determined-by-differential-affinities-of-enhancers-for-the-composite-batf-irf4-transcription-factor-complex
#9
Arifumi Iwata, Vivek Durai, Roxane Tussiwand, Carlos G Briseño, Xiaodi Wu, Gary E Grajales-Reyes, Takeshi Egawa, Theresa L Murphy, Kenneth M Murphy
Variable strengths of signaling via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) can produce divergent outcomes, but the mechanism of this remains obscure. The abundance of the transcription factor IRF4 increases with TCR signal strength, but how this would induce distinct types of responses is unclear. We compared the expression of genes in the TH2 subset of helper T cells to enhancer occupancy by the BATF-IRF4 transcription factor complex at varying strengths of TCR stimulation. Genes dependent on BATF-IRF4 clustered into groups with distinct TCR sensitivities...
March 27, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346402/large-scale-design-of-robust-genetic-circuits-with-multiple-inputs-and-outputs-for-mammalian-cells
#10
Benjamin H Weinberg, N T Hang Pham, Leidy D Caraballo, Thomas Lozanoski, Adrien Engel, Swapnil Bhatia, Wilson W Wong
Engineered genetic circuits for mammalian cells often require extensive fine-tuning to perform as intended. We present a robust, general, scalable system, called 'Boolean logic and arithmetic through DNA excision' (BLADE), to engineer genetic circuits with multiple inputs and outputs in mammalian cells with minimal optimization. The reliability of BLADE arises from its reliance on recombinases under the control of a single promoter, which integrates circuit signals on a single transcriptional layer. We used BLADE to build 113 circuits in human embryonic kidney and Jurkat T cells and devised a quantitative, vector-proximity metric to evaluate their performance...
March 27, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346359/new-acorane-type-sesquiterpene-from-acorus-calamus-l
#11
Juan Li, Jianping Zhao, Wei Wang, Lin Li, Lan Zhang, Xiao-Fang Zhao, Qing-Ru Liu, Fang Liu, Min Yang, Ikhlas A Khan, Shun-Xiang Li
A new sesquiterpene, named neo-acorane A (1), and two known ones, acoric acid (2) and calamusin D (3), were isolated from a 95% ethanol extract of the rhizome parts of Acorus calamus L. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, and the absolute configurations were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 are nonisoprenoid sesquiterpenoids, likely biosynthesized from an acorane-type sesquiterpene by oxidative fission of the six- or five-membered ring. Moreover, compounds 1 (10 μM), 2 (5 μM and 10 μM) and 3 (10 μM) showed cell proliferation activity on the SK-N-BE (2) cell line...
March 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346251/histological-mohs-maps-improve-the-accuracy-of-dermatology-residents-interpretations-of-mohs-slides-a-pilot-study
#12
Jeffrey B Tiger, Zai Ganesh, John Mouzakis, Satori Iwamoto
BACKGROUND: Effective Mohs surgery depends on accurate histopathological identification and mapping of tumor burden to ensure complete removal of tumor. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether using a photograph of the histopathological slide as the Mohs map improves mapping accuracy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Single-blinded pilot study. Five dermatology residents at one academic institution mapped 11 cases of basal cell carcinoma using both traditional hand-drawn maps and color photographic maps...
March 23, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346234/outstanding-animal-studies-in-allergy-i-from-asthma-to-food-allergy-and-anaphylaxis
#13
Erika Jensen-Jarolim, Isabella Pali-Schöll, Franziska Roth-Walter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Animal models published within the past 18 months on asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, all conditions of rising public health concern, were reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: While domestic animals spontaneously develop asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, in animal models, divergent sensitization and challenge routes, dosages, intervals and antigens are used to induce asthmatic, food allergic or anaphylactic phenotypes. This must be considered in the interpretation of results...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346138/dilation-of-fusion-pores-by-crowding-of-snare-proteins
#14
Zhenyong Wu, Oscar D Bello, Sathish Thiyagarajan, Sarah Marie Auclair, Wensi Vennekate, Shyam S Krishnakumar, Ben O'Shaughnessy, Erdem Karatekin
Hormones and neurotransmitters are released through fluctuating exocytotic fusion pores that can flicker open and shut multiple times. Cargo release and vesicle recycling depend on the fate of the pore, which may reseal or dilate irreversibly. Pore nucleation requires zippering between vesicle-associated v- and target membrane t-SNAREs, but the mechanisms governing the subsequent pore dilation are not understood. Here, we probed dilation of single fusion pores using v-SNARE-reconstituted ~23 nm diameter discoidal nanolipoprotein particles (vNLPs) as fusion partners with cells ectopically expressing cognate, 'flipped' t-SNAREs...
March 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346101/semiautomatic-high-content-analysis-of-complex-images-from-cocultures-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-macrophages
#15
Matthias Roeper, Ruediger C Braun-Dullaeus, Sönke Weinert
Automatization in microscopy, cell culture, and the ease of digital imagery allow obtainment of more information from single samples and upscaling of image-based analysis to high-content approaches. Simple segmentation algorithms of biological imagery are nowadays widely spread in biomedical research, but processing of complex sample structures, for example, variable sample compositions, cell shapes, and sizes, and rare events remains a difficult task. As there is no perfect method for image segmentation and fully automatic image analysis of complex content, we aimed to succeed by identification of unique and reliable features within the sample...
February 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346090/identifying-inhibitors-of-the-hsp90-aha1-protein-complex-a-potential-target-to-drug-cystic-fibrosis-by-alpha-technology
#16
Verena Ihrig, Wolfgang M J Obermann
Deletion of a single phenylalanine residue at position 508 of the protein CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), a chloride channel in lung epithelium, is the most common cause for cystic fibrosis. As a consequence, folding of the CFTRΔF508 protein and delivery to the cell surface are compromised, resulting in degradation of the polypeptide. Accordingly, decreased surface presence of CFTRΔF508 causes impaired chloride ion conductivity and is associated with mucus accumulation, a hallmark of cystic fibrosis...
January 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346045/a-modular-and-adaptive-mass-spectrometry-based-platform-for-support-of-bioprocess-development-toward-optimal-host-cell-protein-clearance
#17
Donald E Walker, Feng Yang, Joseph Carver, Koman Joe, David A Michels, X Christopher Yu
A modular and adaptive mass spectrometry (MS)-based platform was developed to provide fast, robust and sensitive host cell protein (HCP) analytics to support process development. This platform relies on one-dimensional ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (1D UHPLC) combined with several different MS data acquisition strategies to meet the needs of purification process development. The workflow was designed to allow HCP composition and quantitation for up to 20 samples per day, a throughput considered essential for real time bioprocess development support...
March 27, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345884/canted-antiferromagnetism-on-rectangular-layers-of-fe-2-in-polymorphic-cafeseo
#18
Kwing To Lai, Alexander Christoph Komarek, Maria Teresa Fernández-Díaz, Pi-Shan Chang, Sungjoon Huh, Helge Rosner, Chang-Yang Kuo, Zhiwei Hu, Tun-Wen Pi, Peter Adler, Vadim Ksenofontov, Liu Hao Tjeng, Martin Valldor
From stoichiometric amounts of CaO, Fe, and Se, pure powders and single crystals of quaternary [Formula: see text] can be obtained by solid-state reaction and self-flux growth, respectively. The as-synthesized compound exhibits a polymorphic crystal structure, where the two modifications have different stacking sequences of [Formula: see text] layers. The two polymorphs have similar unit cells but different crystal symmetries (Cmc21 and Pnma), of which the former is non-centrosymmetric. Fe is divalent (d(6)) and high-spin, as proven by X-ray spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and powder neutron diffraction data...
March 27, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345878/multispectral-optical-tweezers-for-biochemical-fingerprinting-of-cd9-positive-exosome-subpopulations
#19
Randy P Carney, Sidhartha Hazari, Macalistair Colquhoun, Di Tran, Billanna Hwang, Michael S Mulligan, James D Bryers, Eugenia Girda, Gary S Leiserowitz, Zachary James Smith, Kit S Lam
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, are circulating nanoscale particles heavily implicated in cell signaling, and can be isolated in vast numbers from human biofluids. Study of their molecular profiling and materials properties is currently underway for purposes of describing a variety of biological functions and diseases. However, the large, and as yet unquantified, variety of EV subpopulations differing in composition, size, and likely function, necessitates characterization schemes capable of measuring single vesicles...
March 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345876/engineering-cellular-microenvironments-with-photo-and-enzymatically-responsive-hydrogels-toward-biomimetic-3d-cell-culture-models
#20
Roger Y Tam, Laura J Smith, Molly S Shoichet
Conventional cell culture techniques using 2D polystyrene or glass have provided great insight into key biochemical mechanisms responsible for cellular events such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell-cell interactions. However, the physical and chemical properties of 2D culture in vitro are dramatically different than those found in the native cellular microenvironment in vivo. Cells grown on 2D substrates differ significantly from those grown in vivo, and this explains, in part, why many promising drug candidates discovered through in vitro drug screening assays fail when they are translated to in vivo animal or human models...
March 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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