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microRna single cell

Hexin Chen, Mithil Soni, Yogin Patel, Eleni Markoutsa, Chunfa Jie, Shou Liu, Peisheng Xu
It is postulated that the complexity and heterogeneity in cancer may hinder most efforts that target a single pathway. Thus, discovery of novel therapeutic agents targeting multiple pathways, such as microRNAs (miRs), holds promise for future cancer therapy. One such miR, miR-489, is downregulated in majority of breast cancer cells and several drug-resistant breast cancer cell lines, but its role and underlying mechanism for tumor suppression and drug resistance needs further investigation. The current study identifies autophagy as a novel pathway targeted by miR-489 and reports Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) and lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 beta (LAPTM4B) to be direct targets of miR-489...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Kira Groen, Vicki E Maltby, Rodney A Lea, Katherine A Sanders, J Lynn Fink, Rodney J Scott, Lotti Tajouri, Jeannette Lechner-Scott
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of knowledge concerning erythrocytes in the aetiology of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) despite their potential to contribute to disease through impaired antioxidant capacity and altered haemorheological features. Several studies have identified an abundance of erythrocyte miRNAs and variable profiles associated with disease states, such as sickle cell disease and malaria. The aim of this study was to compare the erythrocyte miRNA profile of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients to healthy sex- and age-matched controls...
May 21, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
Juan Hu, Ming-Hao Liu, Chun-Yang Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate important physiological processes, and their dysregulation is associated with various human diseases. Simultaneous sensitive detection of multiple miRNAs may facilitate early clinical diagnosis. In this research, we demonstrate for the first time the integration of hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA) with quantum dot (QD)-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for the simultaneous detection of multiple microRNAs with a single-color QD as the donor and two fluorescent dyes as the acceptors...
May 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Chiara Rolando, Verdon Taylor
Adult brain structures and complexity emerge from a single layer of neuroepithelial cells that early during the development give rise to neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs persist in restricted regions of the postnatal brain where they support neurogenesis throughout life thus allowing brain plasticity and adaptation. NSC regulation involves a precise coordination of intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms that finely modulate the neurogenic process. Here we will discuss new mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation that act in the embryonic and adult brain to regulate NSC maintenance and differentiation...
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
Nicoletta Bianchi, Simone Beninati, Carlo M Bergamini
The type 2 isoenzyme is the most widely expressed transglutaminase in mammals displaying several intra- and extracellular activities depending on its location (protein modification, modulation of gene expression, membrane signalling and stabilization of cellular interactions with the extracellular matrix) in relation to cell death, survival and differentiation. In contrast with the appreciable knowledge about the regulation of the enzymatic activities, much less is known concerning its inducible expression, which is altered in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Cheng Xue, Jia-Long Yao, Meng-Fan Qin, Ming-Yue Zhang, Andrew C Allan, De-Fu Wang, Jun Wu
Lignified stone cells substantially reduce fruit quality. Therefore, it is desirable to inhibit stone cell development by using genetic technologies. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating lignification are poorly understood in fruit stone cells. In this study, we have shown that microRNA (miR) miR397a regulates fruit cell lignification by inhibiting laccase (LAC) genes that encode key lignin biosynthesis enzymes. Transient overexpression of PbrmiR397a, which is the miR397a of Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri), and simultaneous silencing of three LAC genes reduced the lignin content and stone cell number in pear fruit...
May 13, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Xinling Zhang, Qianqian Huo, Wei Sun, Chunxiang Zhang, Zongyin Wu, Bing Xing, Qiang Li
Depression has been well established as an independent predictor of mortality and cardiac morbidity rates in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Evidence has shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms located in pre‑microRNA (miRNA) or mature miRNA may modify various biological processes and affect the process of carcinogenesis, and the downregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) can induce depression. It has been shown that NOS1 is the target gene of miR‑146a, and that the rs2910164 G/C polymorphism can downregulate the expression of miR‑146a...
April 26, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
J L Zheng, J Sun, H Zhang, Y Zhang
Both microRNA (miRNA) and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) fall within the category of noncoding RNA. MiRNA is a 20-24 nt long, highly conserved, single-stranded noncoding RNA. MiRNA can specifically bind to the 3' untranslated region of target mRNA, induce the transcript degradation or translation inhibition, and eventually impact the biological functions of the cell, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Whereas lncRNA is an over 200 bp long, single-stranded, noncoding RNA, which can regulate the important biological processes, such as cell division, growth, differentiation and apoptosis...
May 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Jie Wang, Ming-Lei Wang, Chang-Hui Wang, Shu-Yan Sun, Han-Bing Zhang, Yang-Yang Jiang, Qi-Wu Xu, Ying Wang, Shi-Xin Gu
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most commonly diagnosed solid tumor outside the central nervous system. However, genetic factors underlying GBM remain largely unclear. Previous studies indicated that Glial fibrillary acidic protein ( GFAP ) might play an important role in the aggressiveness of GBM and also contributed to its poor overall survival. The present study aims to test (1) the associations between GFAP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and GBM cells chemoresistance and metastasis, and (2) the molecular mechanism accounting for their effects...
May 10, 2018: Aging
Guoyong Han, Long Zhang, Xuhao Ni, Zhiqiang Chen, Xiongxiong Pan, Qin Zhu, Shu Li, Jindao Wu, Xinli Huang, Xuehao Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer and has the third highest mortality rate among all cancers. MicroRNAs are a class of endogenous, single-stranded short noncoding RNAs. The purpose of this study was to study the role of microRNA-873 in HCC. METHODS: The expression of miRNA-873 and tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1 (TSLC1) in HCC tissues and cell lines was detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) or western blot...
May 3, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Pavel P Kuksa, Alexandre Amlie-Wolf, Živadin Katanic, Otto Valladares, Li-San Wang, Yuk Yee Leung
The introduction of new high-throughput small RNA sequencing protocols that generate large-scale genomics datasets along with increasing evidence of the significant regulatory roles of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have highlighted the urgent need for tools to analyze and interpret large amounts of small RNA sequencing data. However, it remains challenging to systematically and comprehensively discover and characterize sncRNA genes and specifically-processed sncRNA products from these datasets. To fill this gap, we present Small RNA-seq Portal for Analysis of sequencing expeRiments (SPAR), a user-friendly web server for interactive processing, analysis, annotation and visualization of small RNA sequencing data...
May 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Wenhao Dai, Haifeng Dong, Keke Guo, Xueji Zhang
As an important modulator of gene expression, microRNA (miRNA) has been described as a promising biomarker for the early diagnosis of cancers. A non-invasive method for real-time sensitive imaging and monitoring of miRNA in living cells is in urgent demand. Although some amplified methods have been developed, few can be programmed to assemble single intelligent nanostructures to realize sensitive intracellular miRNA detection without extra addition of an enzyme or catalytic fuel. Herein, two programmable oligonucleotide hairpin probe functionalized gold nanorods (THP-AuNRs) were designed to develop a near-infrared (NIR) laser triggered target strand displacement amplification (SDA) approach for sensitive miRNA imaging quantitative analysis in single living cells and multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTSs)...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Science
Qizhong Shi, Yongling Wang, Yonghui Mu, Xin Wang, Qingxia Fan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding single stranded RNAs of 17-25 nucleotides in size, and their altered expression has been observed in various cancers. Previous studies have confirmed that miR-433-3p has effects on cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, and its expression also correlates with sensitivity to chemotherapy. However, to date, there have been no studies on the biological functions of miR-433-3p in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: The Cell Counting Kit-8, transwell, and matrigel assays were used to test the effects of miR-433-3p and its predicted target, growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of Eca109 and KYSE30 cells, two types of esophageal cancer cell lines...
April 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Hee-Kyung Na, Jung-Sub Wi, Hye Young Son, Jong G Ok, Yong-Min Huh, Tae Geol Lee
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) biosensors have attracted much interest due to their capacity for multiplexing, miniaturization, and high performance, which offers the potential for their integration into lab-on-a-chip platforms for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. The need for microRNA (miRNA)-sensing platforms is particularly urgent because miRNAs are key regulators and biomarkers in numerous pathological processes and diseases. Unfortunately, however, development of such miRNA-sensing platforms has not yet been achieved...
April 22, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Shulian Bai, Bangtian Xu, Yongcan Guo, Juhui Qiu, Wen Yu, Guoming Xie
While detection of microRNA with or without signal amplification is highly informative, nanosensors with high specificity for cell-specific RNA detection are rare. Methods: In this study, a tetrahedral DNA nanostructure (TDN) with a specific function was combined with gold nanoparticles (Au-NP) possessing fluorescence quenching effects and a large surface area to fabricate a fluorescence resonance energy transfer based nanosensor (Au-TDNN). The presence of miR-21 (target) can separate the fluorescent dye-labeled detection probe on Au-TDNNs from Au-NPs, which separates the donor and acceptor, thus inducing an intensive fluorescence signal...
2018: Theranostics
Jessica S Kurata, Ren-Jang Lin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are posttranscriptional gene regulators that play important roles in the control of cell fitness, differentiation, and development. The CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing system is composed of the Cas9 nuclease in complex with a single guide RNA (sgRNA) and directs DNA cleavage at a predetermined site. Several CRISPR-Cas9 libraries have been constructed for genome-scale knockout screens of protein function; however few libraries have included miRNA genes. Here we constructed a miRNA-focused CRISPR-Cas9 library that targets 1,594 (85%) annotated human miRNA stem-loops...
May 2, 2018: RNA
Rebecca Ruhl, Shushan Rana, Katherine Kelley, Cristina Espinosa-Diez, Clayton Hudson, Christian Lanciault, Charles R Thomas, V Liana Tsikitis, Sudarshan Anand
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death. The biologic response of CRC to standard of care adjuvant therapies such as chemotherapy and radiation are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRs) have been shown to affect CRC progression and metastasis. Therefore, we hypothesized that specific miRs modulate CRC response to chemoradiation. METHODS: In this study, we used miR expression profiling and discovered a set of microRNAs upregulated rapidly in response to either a single 2 Gy dose fraction or a 10 Gy dose of γ-radiation in mouse colorectal carcinoma models...
May 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
Martin Bartošík, Roman Hrstka, Ludmila Jiráková
BACKGROUND: Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) strains, especially HPV 16 and HPV 18, is associated with the onset of various malignant diseases, including cervical carcinoma in women. HPV DNA testing is thus being implemented as a complementary method to standard cytological examination, mainly due to its increased sensitivity. AIM: This review outlines the role of HPV in cervical carcinogenesis, with a focus on the formation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN1-3) and the molecular mechanism underlying cellular transformation...
2018: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Luyi Ye, Fengyong Zhao, Qixiu Yang, Jiamin Zhang, Qin Li, Chen Wang, Zhonghui Guo, Ying Yang, Ziyan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Recently, basigin (BSG), which carries OK antigens on red blood cells (RBCs), was reported to be the receptor of the Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (PfRh5). BSG-PfRh5 is the only essential receptor-ligand pair in P. falciparum invasion that is known to date. However, the kind of OK/BSG polymorphism involved in the selection pressure caused by P. falciparum malaria has not been determined. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected to detect the expression of OK/BSG...
April 29, 2018: Transfusion
Nadim Tawil, Shilpa Chennakrishnaiah, Rayhaan Bassawon, Radia Johnson, Esterina D'Asti, Janusz Rak
Molecular profiling of human cancers revealed a startling diversity in disease-causing mechanisms superseding histological and anatomical commonalities. The emerging molecular subtypes and disease entities are often driven by distinct oncogenic pathways and their effectors, including those acting extracellularly on the vascular and coagulation systems. Indeed, several oncogenic mutations such as those affecting protein-coding genes (RAS, EGFR, PTEN, TP53) and non-coding RNA (microRNA) regulate multiple effectors of the coagulation system (coagulome), including tissue factor, protease activated receptors, clotting factors, mediators of platelet function and fibrinolysis...
April 2018: Thrombosis Research
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