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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350988/micrornas-establish-uniform-traits-during-the-architecture-of-vertebrate-embryos
#1
Dionna M Kasper, Albertomaria Moro, Emma Ristori, Anand Narayanan, Guillermina Hill-Teran, Elizabeth Fleming, Miguel Moreno-Mateos, Charles E Vejnar, Jing Zhang, Donghoon Lee, Mengting Gu, Mark Gerstein, Antonio Giraldez, Stefania Nicoli
Proper functioning of an organism requires cells and tissues to behave in uniform, well-organized ways. How this optimum of phenotypes is achieved during the development of vertebrates is unclear. Here, we carried out a multi-faceted and single-cell resolution screen of zebrafish embryonic blood vessels upon mutagenesis of single and multi-gene microRNA (miRNA) families. We found that embryos lacking particular miRNA-dependent signaling pathways develop a vascular trait similar to wild-type, but with a profound increase in phenotypic heterogeneity...
March 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340487/microrna-4739-regulates-osteogenic-and-adipocytic-differentiation-of-immortalized-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-via-targeting-lrp3
#2
Mona Elsafadi, Muthurangan Manikandan, Nehad M Alajez, Rimi Hamam, Raed Abu Dawud, Abdullah Aldahmash, Zafar Iqbal, Musaad Alfayez, Moustapha Kassem, Amer Mahmood
Understanding the regulatory networks underlying lineage differentiation and fate determination of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) is a prerequisite for their therapeutic use. The goal of the current study was to unravel the novel role of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 3 (LRP3) in regulating the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of immortalized hBMSCs. Gene expression profiling revealed significantly higher LRP3 levels in the highly osteogenic hBMSC clone imCL1 than in the less osteogenic clone imCL2, as well as a significant upregulation of LRP3 during the osteogenic induction of the imCL1 clone...
March 8, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327787/overexpression-of-mir-484-and-mir-744-in-vero-cells-alters-dengue-virus-replication
#3
Juan Camilo Castrillón-Betancur, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima
BACKGROUND: Dengue is considered one of the world's most important mosquito-borne diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding single-stranded RNAs that play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Although miRNAs possess antiviral activity against many mammalian-infecting viruses, their involvement in Dengue virus (DENV) replication remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of miR-484 and miR-744 in DENV infection and to examine whether DENV infection alters the expression of both miRNAs...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327113/low-cell-number-single-tube-amplification-sta-of-total-rna-revealed-transcriptome-changes-from-pluripotency-to-endothelium
#4
Yi-Hsuan Lee, Ya-Wen Hsueh, Yao-Hung Peng, Kung-Chao Chang, Kuen-Jer Tsai, H Sunny Sun, Ih-Jen Su, Po-Min Chiang
BACKGROUND: In addition to messenger RNA (mRNA), noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are essential components in cellular machineries for translation and splicing. Besides their housekeeping functions, ncRNAs are involved in cell type-specific regulation of translation, mRNA stability, genome structure, and accessibility. To have a comprehensive understanding of the identities and functions of different cell types, a method to comprehensively quantify both mRNA and ncRNA in a sensitive manner is highly desirable...
March 21, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325684/monitoring-and-visualizing-microrna-dynamics-during-live-cell-differentiation-using-microrna-responsive-non-viral-reporter-vectors
#5
Hideyuki Nakanishi, Kenji Miki, Kaoru R Komatsu, Masayuki Umeda, Megumi Mochizuki, Azusa Inagaki, Yoshinori Yoshida, Hirohide Saito
MicroRNA (miRNA) activity differs with cell type, suggesting it can be used as a cell marker. In this study, we developed novel miRNA-responsive non-viral reporter vectors to continuously monitor and visualize miRNA dynamics during differentiation and to efficiently purify target living cells. Each vector codes miRNA-responsive and reference reporter genes in a single mRNA. These two genes are independent modules but transcribed by a single promoter, which enables us to distinguish miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional repression from transcriptional repression...
March 2, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306671/noninvasive-monitoring-of-acute-and-chronic-rejection-in-heart-transplantation
#6
Maria G Crespo-Leiro, Gonzalo Barge-Caballero, David Couto-Mallon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent years have seen advances in the early detection of cardiac graft rejection. RECENT FINDINGS: We review the possibilities offered by tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, cardiac computed tomography, single positron emission tomography, gene expression profiling, and quantitation of donor-derived cell-free DNA, and microRNAs. SUMMARY: Noninvasive monitoring of acute and chronic rejection after cardiac transplantation is an unmet need and remains a challenge...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301276/epigenetic-alterations-as-biomarkers-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#7
Pascal Syren, Roland Andersson, Monika Bauden, Daniel Ansari
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) prognosis remains very poor and has only marginally improved during the last decades. Epigenetic alterations have been the focus of many recent studies and offer valuable options for PDAC detection, prognosis and treatment. DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA (miR) level changes can be used as biomarkers. These alterations occur early in carcinogenesis and may be specific for PDAC. Additionally, epigenetic alterations can be analyzed from cell-free DNA, free-circulating nucleosomes or shed tumor cells in blood...
March 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299324/micrornas-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-diabetes-mellitus
#8
REVIEW
Yue Ding, Xue Sun, Peng-Fei Shan
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major macrovascular complication of diabetes mellitus. Recently, although CVD morbidity and mortality have decreased as a result of comprehensive control of CVD risk factors, CVD remains the leading cause of death of patients with diabetes in many countries, indicating the potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. MicroRNAs are a class of noncoding, single-stranded RNA molecules that are involved in β-cell function, insulin secretion, insulin resistance, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue and which play an important role in glucose homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diabetic complications...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297724/intraocular-delivery-of-mir-146-inhibits-diabetes-induced-retinal-functional-defects-in-diabetic-rat-model
#9
Pei Zhuang, Chithra K Muraleedharan, Shunbin Xu
Purpose: Previously, we showed that microRNA-146 (miR-146) is a pivotal negative feedback regulator of multiple nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation pathways in retinal endothelial cells (RECs). We hypothesized that miR-146 plays an important role in diabetic retinopathy (DR) by inhibiting diabetes-induced inflammatory response in the retina. The purpose of the current study is to test this hypothesis in vivo. Methods: Lentiviruses expressing rno-miR-146a, lenti-miR-146a, and negative control oligonucleotide with scrambled sequence, lenti-miR-neg ctl, were produced...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295463/immune-phenotype-and-function-of-nk-and-t-cells-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-who-received-a-single-dose-of-anti-mir-122-rg-101
#10
Femke Stelma, Meike H van der Ree, Marjan J Sinnige, Anthony Brown, Leo Swadling, J Marleen L de Vree, Sophie B Willemse, Marc van der Valk, Paul Grint, Steven Neben, Paul Klenerman, Eleanor Barnes, Neeltje A Kootstra, Hendrik W Reesink
MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is an important host factor for the hepatitis C (HCV) virus. Treatment with RG-101, a GalNAc conjugated anti-miR-122 oligonucleotide, resulted in a significant viral load reduction in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection. Here, we analyzed the effects of RG-101 therapy on antiviral immunity. 32 CHC patients HCV genotype 1, 3 and 4 received a single subcutaneous administration with RG-101 at 2 mg/kg (n=14), 4 mg/kg (n=14) or placebo (n=2 per dosing group). Plasma and PBMCs were collected at multiple time points and comprehensive immunological analyses were performed...
March 11, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294076/microrna-biogenesis-in-hypoxia
#11
Veronika Bandara, Michael Zenon Michael, Jonathan Mark Gleadle
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 17-22 nucleotide, non-coding, single stranded RNA molecules that play a key role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Hypoxia is a reduction in the normal level of tissue oxygen (O2) tension, and is a feature of chronic vascular disease, pulmonary disease and many cancers. Tissue hypoxia can have widespread effects on cellular functions, as O2 availability is critical for many cellular processes. Cells respond to changes in O2 tension through multiple molecular and cellular mechanisms, including changes in gene expression through transcriptional and translational mechanisms...
March 13, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281537/moving-towards-totipotency-without-a-single-mir-acle
#12
Noam Maoz, Yosef Buganim
Totipotency is the ability of a single cell to form an entire embryo, including extra-embryonic tissues, an ability we have yet to recapitalize, in vitro. In a recent paper published in Science, Choi et al. showed that pluripotent stem cells lacking microRNA miR-34a, have an expanded cell fate potential allowing differentiation into not only embryonic but also extraembryonic lineages.
March 10, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280736/microrna-related-polymorphisms-in-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-genes-are-predictive-of-limited-disease-small-cell-lung-cancer-treatment-outcomes
#13
Wei Jiang, Wenjue Zhang, Lihong Wu, Lipin Liu, Yu Men, Jingbo Wang, Jun Liang, Zhouguang Hui, Zongmei Zhou, Nan Bi, Luhua Wang
The phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway plays an important role in cancer progression and treatment, including that of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), a disease with traditionally poor prognosis. Given the regulatory role of microRNA (miRNA) in gene expression, we examined the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at miRNA-binding sites of genes in the mTOR pathway with the prognosis of patients with limited-disease SCLC. A retrospective study was conducted of 146 patients with limited-disease SCLC treated with chemoradiotherapy...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278199/monitoring-integrity-and-localization-of-modified-single-stranded-rna-oligonucleotides-using-ultrasensitive-fluorescence-methods
#14
Philipp Heissig, Waldemar Schrimpf, Philipp Hadwiger, Ernst Wagner, Don C Lamb
Short single-stranded oligonucleotides represent a class of promising therapeutics with diverse application areas. Antisense oligonucleotides, for example, can interfere with various processes involved in mRNA processing through complementary base pairing. Also RNA interference can be regulated by antagomirs, single-stranded siRNA and single-stranded microRNA mimics. The increased susceptibility to nucleolytic degradation of unpaired RNAs can be counteracted by chemical modification of the sugar phosphate backbone...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277007/microrna-mediated-non-viral-direct-conversion-of-embryonic-fibroblasts-to-cardiomyocytes-comparison-of-commercial-and-synthetic-non-viral-vectors
#15
Hyosuk Kim, Dongkyu Kim, Sook Hee Ku, Kwangmeyung Kim, Sun Hwa Kim, Ick Chan Kwon
Technological advances opened up new ways of directing cell fate conversion from one cell lineage to another. The direct cell conversion technique has recently attracted much attention in regenerative medicine to treat devastated organs and tissues, particularly having limited regenerative capacity such as the heart and brain. Unfortunately, its clinical application is severely limited due to a safety concern and immunogenicity of viral vectors, as human gene therapy did in the beginning stages. In this study, we examined the possibility of adopting non-viral vectors to direct cell conversion from mouse embryonic fibroblasts to induced cardiomyocytes (iCM) by transient transfection of four types of chemically synthesized micro-RNA mimics (miRNA-1, 133, 208, and 499)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264152/building-electromagnetic-hot-spots-in-living-cells-via-target-triggered-nanoparticle-dimerization
#16
Wen Zhou, Qiang Li, Huiqiao Liu, Jie Yang, Dingbin Liu
Electromagnetic hot spots of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) have been extensively employed for bioanalysis in solution or on substrate, but building hot spots in living systems for probing targets of interest has not been achieved yet because of the complex and dynamic physiological environment. Herein, we show that a target-programmed nanoparticle dimerization can be combined with the background-free Raman reporters (alkyne, C≡C and nitrile, C≡N) for multiplexed imaging of microRNAs (miRNAs) in living cells...
March 6, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262114/micrornas-mediate-therapeutic-and-preventive-effects-of-natural-agents-in-breast-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Zhipin Liang, Yaguang Xi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a set of non-coding small RNA molecules that play a critical role in regulation of protein coding genes in cells. MiRNAs have been extensively studied as novel biomarkers, therapeutic targets, and new drugs in various human diseases. Breast cancer is a one of the leading tumor types significantly affecting women health worldwide. Over the past decade, a number of natural agents, such as paclitaxel and curcumin, have been applied for treatment and prevention of breast cancer due to their relatively low toxicity...
December 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254952/effects-of-microrna-34a-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-cytochrome-p450-probe-drugs-in-mice
#18
Joseph L Jilek, Ye Tian, Ai-Ming Yu
MicroRNAs (miR) including miR-34a have been shown to regulate nuclear receptor, drug-metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression in various cell model systems. However, to what degree miRNAs would affect pharmacokinetics (PK) at the systemic level remains unknown. Additionally, miR-34a replacement therapy represents a new cancer treatment strategy, whereas it is undefined if miR-34a therapeutics would causes any drug-drug interactions (DDI). To address the questions, we developed a practical single-mouse PK approach and investigated the effects of a bioengineered miR-34a agent on the PK of multiple Cytochrome P450 (CYP) probe drugs (midazolam, dextromethorphan, phenacetin, diclofenac, and chlorzoxazone) administered as a cocktail to mouse models...
March 2, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247308/differential-maturation-of-mir-17%C3%A2-%C3%A2-92-cluster-members-in-human-cancer-cell-lines
#19
Mozhgan Abasi, Fatemeh Kohram, Parviz Fallah, Arash Arashkia, Masoud Soleimani, Nosratollah Zarghami, Hossein Ghanbarian
While some microRNAs are transcribed from a specific promoter, at least one third of human miRNA genes are clustered, wherein multiple miRNA genes are generated from a single primary transcript such as miR-17 ~ 92 cluster. Although six members of the cluster are generated from a single transcript, the mature level of each member may be diverse in various cell types. Here, we attempt to monitor the mature level of miR-17, miR-92a, and miR-20a from miR-17 ~ 92 cluster in blood (HL60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cells) and Jurkat) and breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) cancer cell lines...
February 28, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243959/mirnas-as-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-current-perspectives
#20
Mateusz Florczuk, Adam Szpechcinski, Joanna Chorostowska-Wynimko
Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. Up to 85% of lung cancer cases are diagnosed as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The effectiveness of NSCLC treatment is expected to be improved through the implementation of robust and specific biomarkers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding molecules that play a key role in the regulation of basic cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, by controlling gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Deregulation of miRNA activity results in the loss of homeostasis and the development of a number of pathologies, including lung cancer...
February 27, 2017: Targeted Oncology
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