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microRna single cell

Saikat Chakraborty, Yamuna Krishnan
The miR-17-92a cluster, also known as 'oncomiR-1', is an RNA transcript that plays a pivotal regulatory role in cellular processes, including the cell cycle, proliferation and apoptosis. Its dysregulation underlies the development of several cancers. Oncomir-1 comprises six constituent miRNAs, each processed with different efficiencies as a function of both developmental time and tissue type. The structural mechanisms that regulate such differential processing are unknown, and this has impeded our understanding of the dysregulation of oncomiR-1 in pathophysiology...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Wenhui Qiao, Nong Cao, Lei Yang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-protein-coding, highly conserved single-stranded RNA molecules. The abnormal expression of miRNAs has been demonstrated to have an important function in the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. microRNA-154 (miR-154) has been reported to be downregulated in non-small cell lung, colorectal and prostate cancer. However, the expression and roles of miR-154 in gastric cancer remain to be established. The present study measured the expression levels of miR-154 in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
Laura Z Rassenti, Veronica Balatti, Emanuela M Ghia, Alexey Palamarchuk, Luisa Tomasello, Paolo Fadda, Yuri Pekarsky, George F Widhopf, Thomas J Kipps, Carlo M Croce
Loss of miR-15/16 is the most common genetic lesion in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), promoting overexpression of BCL2, which factors in leukemia pathogenesis. Indeed, an inhibitor of Bcl2, venetoclcax, is highly active in the treatment of patients with CLL. However, single-agent venetoclcax fails to eradicate minimal residual disease in most patients. Accordingly, we were interested in other genes that may be regulated by miR-15/16, which may target other drivers in CLL. We found that miR-15/16 targets ROR1, which encodes an onco-embryonic surface protein expressed on the CLL cells of over 90% of patients, but not on virtually all normal postpartum tissues...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chang Zheng, Xuelian Li, Lingzi Xia, Xue Fang, Xiaowei Quan, Zhihua Yin, Yuxia Zhao, Baosen Zhou
Occurrence and development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a complex process affected both by gene and environment. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs' (miRNAs) biogenesis influenced the expression of mature miRNAs, further had an impact on risk of NSCLC. Our study focused on the correlation between rs213210, rs421446 or rs107822 polymorphisms in pri-miR-219-1 and susceptibility or prognosis of NSCLC in Chinese. A case-control study of 405 new-diagnosis patients and 405 controls was performed...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
Marion Flum, Michael Kleemann, Helga Schneider, Benjamin Weis, Simon Fischer, René Handrick, Kerstin Otte
Apoptosis is a genetically directed process of programmed cell death. A variety of microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNAs of about 22 nucleotides in length have been shown to be involved in the regulation of the intrinsic or extrinsic apoptotic pathways. There is increasing evidence that the aberrant expression of miRNAs plays a causal role in the development of diseases such as cancer. This makes miRNAs promising candidate molecules as therapeutic targets or agents. MicroRNA (miR)-217-5p has been implicated in carcinogenesis of various cancer entities, including colorectal cancer...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
V Kubaczková, L Sedlarikova, B Bollová, V Sandecká, M Stork, L Pour, S Sevcikova
Unlike bone marrow biopsies, liquid biopsies represent a gentler, more accessible, less painful, repeatable and more comprehensive approach to get biologically relevant information about the entire tumor but also about treatment response and level of minimal residual disease. This is all possible since peripheral blood contains not only circulating tumor cells but also many circulating molecules of nucleic acids (microRNA, cell-free DNA, long non-coding RNA etc.). Multiple myeloma is a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by multifocal tumor deposits in the bone marrow but also focal lesions elsewhere...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Yuhai Zhao, Lin Cong, Walter J Lukiw
microRNAs (miRNAs) comprise a class of ~18-25 nucleotide (nt) single-stranded non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) that are the smallest known carriers of gene-encoded, post-transcriptional regulatory information in both plants and animals. There are many fundamental similarities between plant and animal miRNAs-the miRNAs of both kingdoms play essential roles in development, aging and disease, and the shaping of the transcriptome of many cell types. Both plant and animal miRNAs appear to predominantly exert their genetic and transcriptomic influences by regulating gene expression at the level of messenger RNA (mRNA) stability and/or translational inhibition...
September 6, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Cintia Massillo, Guillermo N Dalton, Paula L Farré, Paola De Luca, Adriana De Siervi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that target mRNA to reduce protein expression. They play fundamental roles in several diseases, including prostate cancer (PCa). A single miRNA can target hundreds of mRNAs and coordinately regulate them, which implicates them in nearly every biological pathway. Hence, miRNAs modulate proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, adhesion, migration, invasion and metastasis, most of them constituting crucial hallmarks of cancer. Due to these properties, miRNAs emerged as promising tools for diagnostic, prognosis and management of cancer patients...
October 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Sweta Ramachandran, Alexander Lowenthal, Carissa Ritner, Shiri Lowenthal, Harold S Bernstein
Biomarkers of heart failure in adults have been extensively studied. However, biomarkers to monitor the progression of heart failure in children with univentricular physiology are less well understood. We proposed that as mediators of diverse pathophysiology, miRNAs contained within circulating microvesicles could serve as biomarkers for the presence and progression of heart failure in univentricular patients. To test this, we studied the association of heart failure with elevations in specific miRNAs isolated from circulating microvesicles in a cohort of children with univentricular heart disease and heart failure...
2017: PloS One
Ying Xu, Yihua Bei, Shutong Shen, Jialiang Zhang, Yichao Lu, Junjie Xiao, Xinli Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Aberrant vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation plays an important role in the development of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) have been implicated in the progression of PAH. miR-222 has a pro-proliferation effect on VSMCs while it has an anti-proliferation effect on vascular endothelial cells (ECs). As the biological function of a single miRNA could be cell-type specific, the role of miR-222 in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation is not clear and deserves to be explored...
August 30, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Björn Bluhm, Harald W A Ehlen, Tatjana Holzer, Veronika S Georgieva, Juliane Heilig, Lena Pitzler, Julia Etich, Toman Bortecen, Christian Frie, Kristina Probst, Anja Niehoff, Daniele Belluoccio, Jocelyn Van den Bergen, Bent Brachvogel
Cartilage originates from mesenchymal cell condensations that differentiate into chondrocytes of transient growth plate cartilage or permanent cartilage of the articular joint surface and trachea. MicroRNAs fine-tune the activation of entire signaling networks and thereby modulate complex cellular responses, but so far only limited data are available on miRNAs that regulate cartilage development.Here we characterize a miRNA which promotes the biosynthesis of a key component in the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway in cartilage...
August 29, 2017: Development
H K Manku, J K Dhanoa, S Kaur, J S Arora, C S Mukhopadhyay
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (19-25 base long), non-coding RNAs that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression by cleaving targeted mRNAs in several eukaryotes. The miRNAs play vital roles in multiple biological and metabolic processes, including developmental timing, signal transduction, cell maintenance and differentiation, diseases and cancers. Experimental identification of microRNAs is expensive and lab-intensive. Alternatively, computational approaches for predicting putative miRNAs from genomic or exomic sequences rely on features of miRNAs viz...
August 14, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Tomotsugu Koyama, Fumihiko Sato, Masaru Ohme-Takagi
Sophisticated regulation of gene expression, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes, is required for leaf differentiation, growth, and senescence. The impact of miR319 and its target TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN BINDING FACTOR (TCP) genes on leaf development has been extensively investigated, but the redundancies of these gene families often interfere with the evaluation of their function and regulation in the developmental context. Here, we present the genetic evidence of the involvement of the MIR319 and TCP gene families in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf development...
August 25, 2017: Plant Physiology
Sung Hwan Cho, Hui Jeong An, Kyung Ah Kim, Jung Jae Ko, Ji Hyang Kim, Young Ran Kim, Eun Hee Ahn, HyungChul Rah, Woo Sik Lee, Nam Keun Kim
MicroRNAs post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in animals and plants. The aim of this study was to identify new target genes for microRNA polymorphisms (miR-146aC>G and miR-196a2T>C) in primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). We cloned and transfected miR-146aC>G and miR-196a2T>C into human granulosa cells and used microarrays and qPCR-arrays to examine the changes in the messenger RNA expression profile. We show miR-146aC>G and miR-196a2T>C change the mRNA expression patterns in granulosa cell...
2017: PloS One
Cecilia Oliver, Mónica Pradillo, Sara Jover-Gil, Nieves Cuñado, María Rosa Ponce, Juan Luis Santos
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~22-nt single-stranded noncoding RNAs with regulatory roles in a wide range of cellular functions by repressing eukaryotic gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. Here, we analyzed the effects on meiosis and fertility of hypomorphic or null alleles of the HYL1, HEN1, DCL1, HST and AGO1 genes, which encode miRNA-machinery components in Arabidopsis. Reduced pollen and megaspore mother cell number and fertility were shown by the mutants analyzed. These mutants also exhibited a relaxed chromatin conformation in male meiocytes at the first meiotic division, and increased chiasma frequency, which is likely to be due to increased levels of mRNAs from key genes involved in homologous recombination...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Cary N Weiss, Keisuke Ito
MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) are a class of endogenously encoded ~22 nucleotide, noncoding, single-stranded RNAs that contribute to development, body planning, stem cell differentiation, and tissue identity through posttranscriptional regulation and degradation of transcripts. Given their importance, it is predictable that dysregulation of MiRNAs, which target a wide variety of transcripts, can result in malignant transformation. In this review, we explore the discovery of MiRNAs, their mechanism of action, and the tools that aid in their discovery and study...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Alireza Korourian, Raheleh Roudi, Ahmad Shariftabrizi, Zahra Madjd
microRNAs are small single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules which modify gene expression by silencing potential target genes. The aberrant expression of RhoA, a small GTPase protein of Rho family, is involved in gastric cancer tumorigenesis. Since miR-31 is a pleomorphic molecule, we evaluated the miR-31/RhoA axis in inducing the malignant phenotype of gastric cancer cells MKN-45. Also, the clinicopathological significance of RhoA was investigated in a well-defined collection of gastric carcinomas which were embedded in tissue microarray blocks...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Keiichi Koshizuka, Toyoyuki Hanazawa, Takayuki Arai, Atsushi Okato, Naoko Kikkawa, Naohiko Seki
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that act as fine-tuners of the post-transcriptional control of protein-coding or noncoding RNAs by repressing translation or cleaving RNA transcripts in a sequence-dependent manner in cells. Accumulating evidence have been indicated that aberrantly expressed miRNAs are deeply involved in human pathogenesis, including cancers. Surprisingly, these small, single-stranded RNAs (18-23 nucleotides) have been shown to function as antitumor or oncogenic RNAs in several types of cancer cells...
August 23, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Xue Chen, Wei Zhao, Ye Yuan, Yan Bai, Yong Sun, Wenliang Zhu, Zhimin Du
Considering complicated microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and action mechanisms, it was thought so high energy-consuming for a cell to afford simultaneous over-expression of many miRNAs. Thus it prompts that an alternative miRNA regulation pattern on protein-encoding genes must exist, which has characteristics of energy-saving and precise protein output. In this study, expression tendency of proteins encoded by miRNAs' target genes was evaluated in human organ scale, followed by quantitative assessment of miRNA synergism...
2017: PeerJ
Gopinath M Sundaram, Hisyam M Ismail, Mohsin Bashir, Manish Muhuri, Candida Vaz, Srikanth Nama, Ghim Siong Ow, Ivshina Anna Vladimirovna, Rajkumar Ramalingam, Brian Burke, Vivek Tanavde, Vladimir Kuznetsov, E Birgitte Lane, Prabha Sampath
Epithelial carcinomas are well known to activate a prolonged wound-healing program that promotes malignant transformation. Wound closure requires the activation of keratinocyte migration via a dual-state molecular switch. This switch involves production of either the anti-migratory microRNA miR-198 or the pro-migratory follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) protein from a single transcript; miR-198 expression in healthy skin is down-regulated in favor of FSTL1 upon wounding, which enhances keratinocyte migration and promotes re-epithelialization...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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