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Empagliflozine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922347/the-cardiovascular-benefits-associated-with-the-use-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-real-world-data
#1
REVIEW
Gallwitz Baptist
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with numerous comorbidities that significantly reduce quality of life, increase mortality and complicate treatment decisions. In a recent cardiovascular outcomes trial, Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients (EMPA-REG OUTCOME), the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin was shown to reduce cardiovascular (CV) mortality and heart failure in high-risk patients with T2D with a previous CV event or with established CV disease (CVD)...
April 2018: European Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908295/hyperglycaemic-impairment-of-par2-mediated-vasodilation-prevention-by-inhibition-of-aortic-endothelial-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-and-minimizing-oxidative-stress
#2
Mahmoud El-Daly, Vivek Krishna Pulakazhi Venu, Mahmoud Saifeddine, Koichiro Mihara, Sean Kang, Paul W M Fedak, Laurie A Alston, Simon A Hirota, Hong Ding, Chris R Triggle, Morley D Hollenberg
Hyperglycaemia is a major contributor to diabetic cardiovascular disease with hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction recognized as the initiating cause. Coagulation pathway-regulated proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) that can regulate vascular tone in vivo cause eNOS-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation; but, the impact of hyperglycaemia on this vasodilatory action of PAR stimulation and the signalling pathways involved are unknown. We hypothesized that vascular sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 activity and hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress involving Src-kinase, EGF receptor-kinase, Rho-kinase and protein-kinase-C biochemical signalling pathways would compromise PAR2-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation...
June 13, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907581/analysis-of-fractures-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-treated-with-empagliflozin-in-pooled-data-from-placebo-controlled-trials-and-a-head-to-head-study-versus-glimepiride
#3
Sven Kohler, Stefan Kaspers, Afshin Salsali, Cordula Zeller, Hans J Woerle
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of empagliflozin on bone fractures and bone mineral density in patients with type 2 diabetes in pooled placebo-controlled trial data and a head-to-head study versus glimepiride. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Pooled data were analyzed from patients who were randomized 1:1:1 to empagliflozin 10 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg, or placebo in phase I-III clinical trials. Data were also analyzed from the EMPA-REG H2H-SU trial in which patients received empagliflozin 25 mg or glimepiride as an add-on to metformin for 104 weeks with a 104-week extension...
June 15, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895557/effect-of-empagliflozin-on-liver-fat-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial-e-lift-trial
#4
Mohammad Shafi Kuchay, Sonal Krishan, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Khalid Jamal Farooqui, Manish Kumar Singh, Jasjeet Singh Wasir, Beena Bansal, Parjeet Kaur, Ganesh Jevalikar, Harmendeep Kaur Gill, Narendra Singh Choudhary, Ambrish Mithal
OBJECTIVE: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have been shown to reduce liver fat in rodent models. Data regarding the effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors on human liver fat are scarce. This study examined the effect of empagliflozin (an SGLT-2 inhibitor) on liver fat in patients with type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by using MRI-derived proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Fifty patients with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD were randomly assigned to either the empagliflozin group (standard treatment for type 2 diabetes plus empagliflozin 10 mg daily) or the control group (standard treatment without empagliflozin) for 20 weeks...
June 12, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885108/effect-of-empagliflozin-a-selective-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-on-kidney-and-peripheral-nerves-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#5
Kyung Ae Lee, Heung Yong Jin, Na Young Lee, Yu Ji Kim, Tae Sun Park
The effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on peripheral nerves and kidneys in diabetes mellitus (DM) remains unexplored. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the effect of empagliflozin in diabetic rats. DM in rats was induced by streptozotocin injection, and diabetic rats were treated with empagliflozin 3 or 10 mg/kg. Following 24-week treatment, response thresholds to four different stimuli were tested and found to be lower in diabetic rats than in normal rats. Empagliflozin significantly prevented hypersensitivity (P<0...
April 25, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880432/renal-protection-by-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-and-its-underlying-mechanisms-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Akira Mima
AIM: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most frequent cause of mortality and morbidity, leading a global health burden. This review will focus on the potential therapeutic interventions using Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors that could prevent the development and progression of DKD. RESULTS: SGLT2 inhibitors have been widely used as anti-diabetic drugs. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that these drugs, which improve glycemic control and hypertension and decrease body weight, decrease the risk of renal function impairment and heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877321/leptin-cardiovascular-diseases-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
REVIEW
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Maciej Banach
Leptin, an adipokine that is implicated in the control of food intake via appetite suppression, may also stimulate oxidative stress, inflammation, thrombosis, arterial stiffness, angiogenesis and atherogenesis. These leptin-induced effects may predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases. In the present review we discuss the evidence linking leptin levels with the presence, severity and/or prognosis of both coronary artery disease and non-cardiac vascular diseases such as stroke, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) as well as with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
June 7, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858866/the-effect-of-antidiabetic-medications-on-the-cardiovascular-system-a-critical-appraisal-of-current-data
#8
REVIEW
Panagiotis Anagnostis, Pavlos Siolos, Konstantinos Christou, Nifon K Gkekas, Nikoletta Kosmidou, Vasilios G Athyros, Asterios Karagiannis
Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. This risk seems to be reduced by achievement of euglycemia. However, after the withdrawal of rosiglitazone from the market, the question arose as to whether this risk concerns simply a matter of euglycemia or the distinct role played by each antidiabetic drug with respect to its effect on CVD risk. To address this issue, many studies have been published during the last decade involving old and new antidiabetic agents, which however yielded contradictory results...
March 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849291/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-induced-diabetic-ketoacidosis-with-minimal-hyperglycemia
#9
D Taylor Gammons, Francis L Counselman
The case of a 56-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented to the emergency department in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) with only mild hyperglycemia is presented. The patient was taking empagliflozin (Jardiance®), a sodium-glucose cotransporter -2 inhibitor, which has now been recognized as causing this unusual presentation of DKA. Emergency physicians need to be aware of this complication, as the euglycemia/mild hyperglycemia and a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus can make the correct diagnosis of DKA a challenge...
February 2018: Clinical practice and cases in emergency medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848274/cardiovascular-benefit-of-sglt2-inhibitors-in-the-therapeutics-of-diabetes-mellitus-a-close-look-beyond-the-horizon
#10
Dylan Y Ren, Yingmei Zhang
Cardiovascular complications are among the main reasons for the high morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes, making the management of cardiovascular complications an integral component in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Along the same line, the US Food and Drug Administration mandated all new diabetic drugs and therapies have a safe cardiovascular profile. Among various drugs available for the treatment against type 2 diabetes, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors represent a class of newly developed anti-diabetic agents with properties of mitigating cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes...
May 30, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846314/the-role-of-sglt2-inhibitors-in-managing-type-2-diabetes
#11
Velen Tat, Christopher P Forest
The sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, and ertugliflozin represent a novel class of medications to manage type 2 diabetes through urinary excretion of glucose. These drugs block glucose reabsorption by the kidneys to increase glucosuria. These drugs provide hemoglobin A1C reduction, promote weight loss, and remain hypoglycemic-neutral when not used in combination with insulin or secretagogues. Canagliflozin and empagliflozin have shown cardiovascular benefit...
June 2018: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807374/-diabetes-mellitus-type-2-recent-publications-and-new-drugs
#12
Ulf Elbelt
Since 2013 several placebo-controlled cardiovascular outcomes trails on new classes of glucose-lowering agents in addition to standard care have been reported. These trails were designed to demonstrate non-inferiority to placebo with regard to cardiovascular safety for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at high cardiovascular risk.For the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-receptor agonists liraglutide and semaglutide as well as for the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors empagliflozin and canagliflozin statistically significant reductions of the primary composite outcome (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or cardiovascular death) were demonstrated...
June 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802538/effects-of-the-sglt-2-inhibitor-empagliflozin-on-renal-tissue-oxygenation-in-non-diabetic-subjects-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-protocol
#13
Marie-Eve Muller, Menno Pruijm, Olivier Bonny, Michel Burnier, Anne Zanchi
INTRODUCTION: Empagliflozin is an SGLT-2 inhibitor (SGLT-2i) which belongs to a new class of hypoglycemic drugs with the unique property of decreasing blood glucose independently from insulin, through an increase in glycosuria. In addition to decreasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, empagliflozin has nephroprotective properties in high cardiovascular risk patients with type 2 diabetes. Decreased hyperfiltration and shifting towards more favorable renal fuel energetics with improved renal oxygenation may explain some of these properties...
May 25, 2018: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800506/antihyperglycemic-medications-and-impact-on-cardiovascular-outcomes-a-review-of-current-evidence
#14
Stormi E Gale, Jeannie L Poon, Kristin Watson
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are known to be at an increased risk for macrovascular complications, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the greatest drivers of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Over the past decade, the number of treatment options for type 2 DM has increased. In 2008, the United States Food and Drug Administration mandated an evaluation of cardiovascular (CV) outcomes associated with antihyperglycemic agents. Since that time, the CV risk-benefit profile of many antihyperglycemic treatment modalities have been evaluated; however, results have remained inconsistent...
May 25, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800428/in-type-2-diabetes-with-cvd-and-kidney-disease-empagliflozin-reduced-mortality-and-hospitalization
#15
Louise Moist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783787/plasma-pharmacokinetic-determination-of-canagliflozin-and-its-metabolites-in-a-type-2-diabetic-rat-model-by-uplc-ms-ms
#16
Song-Tao Dong, Hui-Min Niu, Yin Wu, Jia-Lei Jiang, Ying Li, Kun-Yu Jiang, Xin Wang, Mao-Fan Zhang, Ming-Feng Han, Sheng-Nan Meng
Canagliflozin is a novel, orally selective inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, a sensitive and efficient UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of canagliflozin and its metabolites in rat plasma was established and applied to pharmacokinetics in a type 2 diabetic rat model. We firstly investigated the pharmacokinetic changes of canagliflozin and its metabolites in type 2 diabetic rats in order to use canagliflozin more safely, reasonably and effectively...
May 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777264/empagliflozin-reduces-cardiovascular-events-mortality-and-renal-events-in-participants-with-type-2-diabetes-after-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-subanalysis-of-the-empa-reg-outcome%C3%A2-randomised-trial
#17
Subodh Verma, C David Mazer, David Fitchett, Silvio E Inzucchi, Egon Pfarr, Jyothis T George, Bernard Zinman
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: After coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in individuals with type 2 diabetes, there remains a considerable residual cardiovascular risk. In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial in participants with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease, empagliflozin reduced the risk of cardiovascular death by 38%, all-cause mortality by 32%, hospitalisation for heart failure by 35% and incident or worsening nephropathy by 39% vs placebo when given in addition to standard of care...
May 19, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766636/empagliflozin-as-add-on-to-linagliptin-in-a-fixed-dose-combination-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-glycemic-efficacy-and-safety-profile-in-a-52-week-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
Ryuzo Kawamori, Masakazu Haneda, Keiko Suzaki, Gang Cheng, Kosuke Shiki, Yuki Miyamoto, Fernando Solimando, Christopher Lee, Jisoo Lee, Jyothis George
AIMS: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin (Empa) 10 or 25 mg as add-on to linagliptin (Lina) 5 mg (fixed-dose combination, Empa/Lina 10/5 or 25/5) in insufficiently controlled Japanese type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: The trial (40 sites; May 2015-March 2017) screened 433 adults (≥20 years) who were treatment-naive or on one oral antidiabetic drug for ≥12 weeks (discontinued at enrolment)...
May 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766633/empagliflozin-as-adjunct-to-insulin-in-japanese-participants-with-type-1-diabetes-results-of-a-4-week-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-phase-2-trial
#19
Akira Shimada, Toshiaki Hanafusa, Atsutaka Yasui, Ganghyuck Lee, Yusuke Taneda, Akiko Sarashina, Kosuke Shiki, Jyothis George, Nima Soleymanlou, Jan Marquard
AIMS: This phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02702011) with 4 sites in Japan investigated the pharmacodynamics (PD), pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety profile of empagliflozin in Japanese participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) as adjunctive therapy to insulin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants using multiple daily injections of insulin for ≥12 months, with HbA1c of 7.5%-10.0%, entered a 2-week, open-label, placebo run-in period, followed by a 4-week, double-blind period during which participants were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive empagliflozin 2...
May 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748368/cardiovascular-effects-of-new-oral-glucose-lowering-agents-dpp-4-and-sglt-2-inhibitors
#20
REVIEW
André J Scheen
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major challenge in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glucose-lowering agents that reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events would be considered a major advance, as recently reported with liraglutide and semaglutide, 2 glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, and with empagliflozin and canagliflozin, 2 SGLT-2 (sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2) inhibitors, but not with DPP-4 (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) inhibitors. The present review is devoted to CV effects of new oral glucose-lowering agents...
May 11, 2018: Circulation Research
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