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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143717/white-matter-abnormalities-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-patients-showing-cognitive-decline
#1
Jasper Olivier Nuninga, Marc Marijn Bohlken, Sanne Koops, Ania M Fiksinski, René C W Mandl, Elemi J Breetvelt, Sasja N Duijff, René S Kahn, Iris E C Sommer, Jacob A S Vorstman
BACKGROUND: Decline in cognitive functioning precedes the first psychotic episode in the course of schizophrenia and is considered a hallmark symptom of the disorder. Given the low incidence of schizophrenia, it remains a challenge to investigate whether cognitive decline coincides with disease-related changes in brain structure, such as white matter abnormalities. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is an appealing model in this context, as 25% of patients develop psychosis. Furthermore, we recently showed that cognitive decline also precedes the onset of psychosis in individuals with 22q11DS...
November 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140751/further-delineation-of-the-oculoauricular-syndrome-phenotype-a-new-family-with-a-novel-truncating-hmx1-mutation
#2
Ghada M H Abdel-Salam, Mohamed S Abdel-Hamid, Mennat I Mehrez, Ahmad M Kamal, Mohamed B Taher, Hanan H Afifi
Biallelic HMX1 mutations cause a very rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder termed as oculoauricular syndrome (OAS) because it is characterized only by the combination of eye and ear anomalies. We identified a new family bringing to three the total families reported with this disorder. Our proband presented with anteriorly protruded ears and malformed ear pinnae in association with microphthalmia, congenital cataract, microcornea, and iris and optic disc colobomata. Additionally, he had high and broad forehead with asymmetry giving a recognizable facial gestalt...
November 15, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140731/recovery-of-an-injured-cingulum-concurrent-with-improvement-of-short-term-memory-in-a-patient-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Sung Ho Jang, Seong Ho Kim, Jeong Pyo Seo
OBJECTIVES: We reported on a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) who showed recovery of an injured cingulum concurrent with improvement of short-term memory, which was demonstrated on follow-up diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). METHODS: A 55-year-old male patient suffered head trauma resulting from falling from approximately 2 m while working at a construction site. The patient showed mild memory impairment (especially short-term memory impairment) at 3 months after onset: Memory Assessment Scale (global memory: 95 (37%ile), short-term memory: 75 (5%ile), verbal memory: 80 (9%ile) and visual memory: 112 (79%ile))...
November 15, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137029/neural-reorganization-between-injured-cingula-and-the-brainstem-cholinergic-nuclei-in-a-patient-with-cerebral-concussion-a-case-report
#4
Sung Ho Jang, Young Hyeon Kwon
RATIONALE: We report on a patient who showed neural reorganization between injured cingula and the brainstem cholinergic nuclei following cerebral concussion. PATIENT CONCERNS: The main concern of the patient is memory impairment. DIAGNOSES: Cerebral concussion. OUTCOMES: When she visited our hospital at 2 years after onset, cognitive function was evaluated using 2 scales; the Wechsler Intelligence Scale, and the Seoul neuropsychological screening battery: total IQ 97, verbal immediate recall 5...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134611/exploring-white-matter-microstructure-and-olfaction-dysfunction-in-early-parkinson-disease-diffusion-mri-reveals-new-insight
#5
Soheila Sobhani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi, Alireza Vafaei Sadr
Olfaction dysfunction is considered as a robust marker of prodromal Parkinson disease (PD). Measurement of olfaction function as a screening test is unsatisfactory due to long lead time interval and low specificity for detection of PD. Use of imaging markers might yield more accurate predictive values and provide bases for combined use of imaging and clinical markers for early PD. Diffusion MRI connectometry was conducted on 85 de novo PD patients in and 36 healthy controls to find: first, white matter tracts with significant difference in quantitative anisotropy between PD groups with various degrees of olfaction dysfunction and second, second fibers with correlation with University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) score in each group using a multiple regression analysis considering age, sex, GDS and MoCA score...
November 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128929/freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-gray-and-white-matter-abnormalities
#6
Sara Pietracupa, Antonio Suppa, Neeraj Upadhyay, Costanza Giannì, Giovanni Grillea, Giorgio Leodori, Nicola Modugno, Francesca Di Biasio, Alessandro Zampogna, Claudio Colonnese, Alfredo Berardelli, Patrizia Pantano
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a disabling disorder that often affects Parkinson's disease (PD) patients in advanced stages of the disease. To study structural gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes in PD patients with and without FOG, twenty-one PD patients with FOG (PD-FOG), 16 PD patients without FOG (PD-nFOG) and 19 healthy subjects (HS) underwent a standardized MRI protocol. For the gray matter evaluation, cortical volume (CV), cortical thickness (CTh), and surface area (SA) were analyzed using the FreeSurfer pipeline...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126955/white-matter-changes-correlates-of-peripheral-neuroinflammation-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Maryam Haghashomar, Farzaneh Rahmani, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi, Shima Shahjouei, Soheila Sobhnai, Maryam Rahmani
Neuroinflammatory pathology has long been identified to contribute to the pathology of Parkinson disease. Early microstructural changes in white matter tracts might give a clue for earlier detection of PD. We investigated through diffusion MRI connectometry the structural correlates of white matter tracts of 81 patients with PD with whole blood neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), controlling for age and sex. Diffusion data were reconstructed in the MNI space using q-space diffeomorphic reconstruction to obtain the spin distribution function...
November 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126669/what-can-dti-tell-about-early-cognitive-impairment-differentiation-between-mci-subtypes-and-healthy-controls-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#8
Gyula Gyebnár, Ádám Szabó, Enikő Sirály, Zsuzsanna Fodor, Anna Sákovics, Pál Salacz, Zoltán Hidasi, Éva Csibri, Gábor Rudas, Lajos R Kozák, Gábor Csukly
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) gained a lot of interest recently, especially that the conversion rate to Alzheimer Disease (AD) in the amnestic subtype (aMCI) is higher than in the non-amnestic subtype (naMCI). We aimed to determine whether and how diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) using the diffusion tensor model (DTI) can differentiate MCI subtypes from healthy subjects. High resolution 3D T1W and DWI images of patients (aMCI, n = 18; naMCI, n = 20; according to Petersen criteria) and controls (n = 27) were acquired at 3T and processed using ExploreDTI and SPM...
October 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125694/impaired-long-contact-white-matter-fibers-integrity-is-related-to-depression-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Jia-Yong Wu, Yang Zhang, Wen-Bo Wu, Gang Hu, Yun Xu
AIMS: Depression is one of the most common nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). But the pathogenesis is still unclear. Studies have shown that depression in PD is closely related to the white matter abnormalities, but the number of studies is still very small and lack of whole brain white matter lesions study. METHODS: In this study, we investigated whole brain white matter integrity in 31 depressed PD patients and 37 nondepressed PD patients by diffusion tensor imaging...
November 10, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110194/white-matter-fiber-bundle-lengths-are-shorter-in-cart-naive-hiv-an-analysis-of-quantitative-diffusion-tractography-in-south-africa
#10
Jodi M Heaps-Woodruff, John Joska, Ryan Cabeen, Laurie M Baker, Lauren E Salminen, Jacqueline Hoare, David H Laidlaw, Rachel Wamser-Nanney, Chun-Zi Peng, Susan Engelbrecht, Soraya Seedat, Dan J Stein, Robert H Paul
This study examines white matter microstructure using quantitative tractography diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (qtdMRI) in HIV+ individuals from South Africa who were naïve or early in the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Fiber bundle length (FBL) metrics, generated from qtdMRI, for whole brain and six white matter tracts of interest (TOI) were assessed for 135 HIV+ and 21 HIV- individuals. The association between FBL metrics, measures of disease burden, and neuropsychological performance were also investigated...
November 6, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104930/brain-and-behavioral-assessment-of-executive-functions-for-self-regulating-levels-of-language-in-reading-brain
#11
Virginia W Berninger, Todd L Richards, Robert D Abbott
This brief research report examines brain-behavioral relationships specific to levels of language in the complex reading brain. The first specific aim was to examine prior findings for significant fMRI connectivity from four seeds (left precuneus, left occipital temporal, left supramarginal, left inferior frontal) for each of four levels of language-subword, word (word-specific spelling or affixed words), syntax (with and without homonym foils or affix foils), and multi-sentence text to identify significant fMRI connectivity (a) unique to the lower level of language when compared to the immediately higher adjacent level of language across subword-word, word-syntax, and syntax-text comparisons; and (b) involving a brain region associated with executive functions...
November 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096127/neural-activity-during-the-viewing-of-emotional-pictures-in-veterans-with-pathological-anger-and-aggression
#12
L Heesink, T E Gladwin, M Vink, J van Honk, R Kleber, E Geuze
Anger and aggression are common mental health problems after military deployment. Anger and aggression have been associated with abnormalities in subcortical and cortical levels of the brain and their connectivity. Here, we tested brain activation during the processing of emotional stimuli in military veterans with and without anger and aggression problems. Thirty military veterans with anger and aggression problems and 29 veterans without a psychiatric diagnosis (all males) participated in this study. During an fMRI scan 32 negative, 32 positive and 32 neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System were presented in intermixed order...
September 22, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092777/white-matter-microstructural-abnormalities-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-meta-analysis-of-whole-brain-and-roi-based-studies
#13
REVIEW
Junhong Yu, Charlene L M Lam, Tatia M C Lee
Studies that examined white matter (WM) alterations in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) abound. This timely meta-analysis aims to synthesize the results of these studies. Seventy-seven studies (totalNaMCI=1844) were included. Fourteen region-of-interest-based (ROI-based) (k≥8;NaMCI≥284 per ROI) and two activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses (fractional anisotropy [FA]: k=15;NaMCI=463; mean diffusivity [MD]: k=8;NaMCI=193) were carried out. Among the many significant ROI-related findings, reliable FA and MD alterations in the fornix, uncinate fasciculus, and parahippocampal cingulum were observed in aMCI...
October 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080698/cilostazol-alleviates-white-matter-degeneration-caused-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-mice-implication-of-its-mechanism-from-gene-expression-analysis
#14
Ryo Ohtomo, Taro Bannai, Gaku Ohtomo, Akihiro Shindo, Hidekazu Tomimoto, Shoji Tsuji, Atsushi Iwata
Cilostazol is known to alleviate white matter demyelination due to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rodent models, although their pharmacological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of cilostazol in relation to gene expression profile. Bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) mice were treated with oral administration of cilostazol or placebo starting from a week after the surgery. Demyelination of the cingulum was compared between the 2 groups 2, 6, and 10 weeks after initial drug administration...
October 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050641/white-matter-pathways-in-persistent-developmental-stuttering-lessons-from-tractography
#15
Vered Kronfeld-Duenias, Oren Civier, Ofer Amir, Ruth Ezrati-Vinacour, Michal Ben-Shachar
PURPOSE: Fluent speech production relies on the coordinated processing of multiple brain regions. This highlights the role of neural pathways that connect distinct brain regions in producing fluent speech. Here, we aim to investigate the role of the white matter pathways in persistent developmental stuttering (PDS), where speech fluency is disrupted. METHODS: We use diffusion weighted imaging and tractography to compare the white matter properties between adults who do and do not stutter...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036815/diaschisis-like-association-of-hippocampal-atrophy-and-posterior-cingulate-cortex-hypometabolism-in-cognitively-normal-elderly-depends-on-impaired-integrity-of-parahippocampal-cingulum-fibers
#16
Florian U Fischer, Dominik Wolf
Hippocampal atrophy and hypometabolism of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), early markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), have been shown to be associated in late mild cognitive impairment and early AD via atrophy of connecting cingulum fibers. Recently, a direct association of hippocampal atrophy and PCC hypometabolism has been shown in cognitively normal elderly. We aimed to investigate if this association might be modulated by partly non-hippocampogenic alterations of parahippocampal cingulum (PHC) integrity...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034720/investigating-the-neuroanatomical-substrate-of-pathological-laughing-and-crying-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-with-multimodal-neuroimaging-techniques
#17
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Sophia Xirou, Georgios Velonakis, Michalis Rentzos, Vasiliki Zouvelou, Ioannis Zalonis, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis
OBJECTIVE: Pathological laughing and crying (PLC) is common in several neurological and psychiatric diseases and is associated with a distributed network involving the frontal cortex, the brainstem and cortico-pontine-cerebellar circuits. By applying multimodal neuroimaging approach, we examined the neuroanatomical substrate of PLC in a sample of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: We studied 56 non-demented ALS patients and 25 healthy controls (HC)...
October 15, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992395/changes-in-white-matter-microstructure-predict-lithium-response-in-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder
#18
Vivian Kafantaris, Linda Spritzer, Vishal Doshi, Ema Saito, Philip R Szeszko
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether response to lithium treatment in pediatric bipolar disorder can be predicted by changes in white matter microstructure in key cortico-limbic tracts involved in emotion regulation. METHODS: Eighteen clinically referred lithium-naive patients (mean age 15.5 years) were administered clinical rating scales and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) examinations at baseline and following 4 weeks of lithium treatment. Clinical ratings were repeated following 8 weeks of treatment...
October 9, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992269/white-matter-correlates-of-psychopathic-traits-in-a-female-community-sample
#19
Philip Lindner, Meenal Budhiraja, Johan Westerman, Ivanka Savic, Jussi Jokinen, Jari Tiihonen, Sheilagh Hodgins
Psychopathy comprises interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial facets that vary dimensionally in the population and are associated with criminal offending and adverse psychosocial outcomes. Evidence associating these facets with white matter microstructure of the uncinate fasciculus and the cingulum tracts is inconsistent and derives principally from studies of male offenders. In a sample of 99 young women presenting a range of scores on the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, we used Diffusion Tensor Imaging, tractography and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics to investigate microstructure across the brain and of the uncinate fasciculus and cingulum...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984377/age-and-sex-related-effects-in-children-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-properties-a-comparison-of-voxelwise-and-tractography-methods
#20
Naomi J Goodrich-Hunsaker, Tracy J Abildskov, Garrett Black, Erin D Bigler, Daniel M Cohen, Leslie K Mihalov, Barbara A Bangert, H Gerry Taylor, Keith O Yeates
Although there are several techniques to analyze diffusion-weighted imaging, any technique must be sufficiently sensitive to detect clinical abnormalities. This is especially critical in disorders like mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), where pathology is likely to be subtle. mTBI represents a major public health concern, especially for youth under 15 years of age. However, the developmental period from birth to 18 years is also a time of tremendous brain changes. Therefore, it is important to establish the degree of age- and sex-related differences...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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