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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934374/the-effect-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-on-statistical-analysis-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-cognitively-healthy-elderly-and-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Daniel Svärd, Markus Nilsson, Björn Lampinen, Jimmy Lätt, Pia C Sundgren, Erik Stomrud, Lennart Minthon, Oskar Hansson, Danielle van Westen
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to study microstructural white matter alterations in a variety of conditions including normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are common in cognitively healthy elderly as well as in AD and exhibit elevated mean diffusivity (MD) and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA). However, the effect of WMH on statistical analysis of DTI estimates has not been thoroughly studied. In the present study we address this in two ways. First, we investigate the effect of WMH on MD and FA in the dorsal and ventral cingulum, the superior longitudinal fasciculus, and the corticospinal tract, by comparing two matched groups of cognitively healthy elderly (n = 21 + 21) with unequal WMH load...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928638/affective-circuitry-alterations-in-patients-with-trigeminal-neuralgia
#2
Dave J Hayes, David Q Chen, Jidan Zhong, Ariel Lin, Brendan Behan, Matthew Walker, Mojgan Hodaie
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe chronic neuropathic facial pain disorder. Affect-related behavioral and structural brain changes have been noted across chronic pain disorders, but have not been well-studied in TN. We examined the potential impact of TN (37 patients: 23 with right-sided TN, 14 with left-sided TN), compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls, on three major white matter tracts responsible for carrying affect-related signals-i.e., cingulum, fornix, and medial forebrain bundle. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI), deterministic multi-tensor tractography for tract modeling, and a model-driven region-of-interest approach was used...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927715/microstructural-white-matter-changes-and-their-relation-to-neuropsychological-deficits-in-patients-with-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#3
Susanne Knake, Christine Roth, Marcus Belke, Jens Sonntag, Tobias Kniess, Soeren Krach, Andreas Jansen, Jens Sommer, Frieder M Paulus, Barbara Carl, Felix Rosenow, Anke M Hermsen, Katja Menzler
OBJECTIVE: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is the most common idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome. Neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging studies have led to the hypothesis that JME is related to dysfunction of frontal brain regions and mainly frontal thalamocortical networks. METHODS: We investigated possible microstructural white matter abnormalities of 20 patients with JME as compared with 20 healthy control subjects using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
September 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927207/surgical-approaches-to-the-temporal-horn-an-anatomic-analysis-of-white-matter-tract-interruption
#4
Paulo A S Kadri, Jean G de Oliveira, Niklaus Krayenbühl, Ugur Türe, Evandro P L de Oliveira, Ossama Al-Mefty, Guilherme C Ribas
BACKGROUND: Surgical access to the temporal horn is necessary to treat tumors and vascular lesions, but is used mainly in patients with mediobasal temporal epilepsy. The surgical approaches to this cavity fall into 3 primary categories: lateral, inferior, and transsylvian. The current neurosurgical literature has underestimated the interruption of involved fiber bundles and the correlated clinical manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To delineate the interruption of fiber bundles during the different approaches to the temporal horn...
April 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922736/reduced-white-matter-integrity-in-borderline-personality-disorder-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#5
Taiga Ninomiya, Harumi Oshita, Yoshihisa Kawano, Chiharu Goto, Mai Matsuhashi, Koji Masuda, Fuku Takita, Toshihiko Izumi, Ayako Inoue, Haruka Higuma, Masayuki Kanehisa, Jotaro Akiyoshi
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions. BPD may be linked to an abnormal brain anatomy, but little is known about possible impairments of the white matter microstructure in BPD or their relationship with impulsivity or risky behaviors. The aims of the present study were to explore the relationship between BPD and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters and psychological tests. METHODS: We evaluated 35 un-medicated BPD patients in a medication-free state and 50 healthy controls (HCs)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915082/a-combined-study-of-slc6a15-gene-polymorphism-and-the-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-first-episode-drug-naive-major-depressive-disorder
#6
Lijuan Wang, Zhifen Liu, Xiaohua Cao, Jianying Li, Aixia Zhang, Ning Sun, Chunxia Yang, Kerang Zhang
AIMS: The SLC6A15 gene has been identified as a novel candidate gene for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the mechanism underlying the effects of how the SLC6A15 gene affects functional brain activity of patients with MDD remains unknown. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the effect of the SLC6A15 gene polymorphism, rs1545843, on resting-state brain function in MDD with the imaging genomic technology and the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method...
September 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904449/james-wenceslaus-papez-his-circuit-and-emotion
#7
Kalyan B Bhattacharyya
James Papez worked on the anatomical substrates of emotion and described a circuit, mainly composed of the hippocampus, thalamus and cingulum, and published his observations in 1937. However, such an idea existed before him, as evidenced by the rudimentary indications from Paul Broca, and Paul MacLean added some other structures like, septum, amygdala, and hypothalamus in its ambit and called it the limbic system. Paul Ivan Yakovlev, proposed a circuit which also referred to orbitofrontal, insular, anterior temporal lobe, and other nuclei of thalamus...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895134/new-primate-locality-from-the-early-miocene-of-patagonia-argentina
#8
Nelson M Novo, Marcelo F Tejedor, María E Pérez, J Marcelo Krause
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this work is to present a new primate locality with evidence that increases the knowledge on the radiation of the extinct platyrrhine primates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the new specimen and compared it to specimens identified as Mazzonicebus almendrae. RESULTS: The new first and second molars were comparable to Mazzonicebus almendrae in all morphological details, allowing us to allocate the new specimen to M...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892503/structural-and-functional-correlates-for-language-efficiency-in-auditory-word-processing
#9
JeYoung Jung, Sunmi Kim, Hyesuk Cho, Kichun Nam
This study aims to provide convergent understanding of the neural basis of auditory word processing efficiency using a multimodal imaging. We investigated the structural and functional correlates of word processing efficiency in healthy individuals. We acquired two structural imaging (T1-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during auditory word processing (phonological and semantic tasks). Our results showed that better phonological performance was predicted by the greater thalamus activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891522/impairments-of-cingulated-cortex-in-the-generalized-tonic-clonic-seizure-epilepsy-by%C3%A2-combining-morphological-and-functional-connectivity-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#10
Ming Ke, Bixia Jin, Guangyao Liu, Xiaoping Yang
Previous studies suggested that the patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizure had structural abnormalities in the thalamus, cingulated cortex and some other specific brain regions. Concurrently, the abnormality in thalamocortical network and basal ganglia network has been found in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. The cingulated cortex, a nexus of information processing and regulation in human brain, is implicated in the propagation of generalized spike in IGE and the previous studies have suggested that the structural features and functional connectivity of the cingulated cortex have been changed...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865345/white-matter-microstructural-deficits-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#11
David R Roalf, J Eric Schmitt, Simon N Vandekar, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Russell T Shinohara, Kosha Ruparel, Mark A Elliott, Karthik Prabhakaran, Donna M McDonald-McGinn, Elaine H Zackai, Ruben C Gur, Beverly S Emanuel, Raquel E Gur
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a neurogenetic condition associated with psychosis, report brain white matter (WM) microstructure aberrations. Several studies report that WM disruptions in 22q11DS are similar to deficits in idiopathic schizophrenia. Yet, DTI results in 22q11DS are inconsistent. We used DTI to compare WM structure in 22q11DS individuals to healthy controls (HC) and explored WM differences in 22q11DS with (+) and without (-) psychosis spectrum symptoms...
August 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837436/are-anesthesia-and-surgery-during-infancy-associated-with-decreased-white-matter-integrity-and-volume-during-childhood
#12
Robert I Block, Vincent A Magnotta, Emine O Bayman, James Y Choi, Joss J Thomas, Karolie K Kimble
BACKGROUND: Anesthetics have neurotoxic effects in neonatal animals. Relevant human evidence is limited. We sought such evidence in a structural neuroimaging study. METHODS: Two groups of children underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging: patients who, during infancy, had one of four operations commonly performed in otherwise healthy children and comparable, nonexposed control subjects. Total and regional brain tissue composition and volume, as well as regional indicators of white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity), were analyzed...
August 24, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823023/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-and-white-matter-abnormalities-among-combat-exposed-veterans
#13
Kirstin Aschbacher, Synthia H Mellon, Owen M Wolkowitz, Clare Henn-Haase, Rachel Yehuda, Janine D Flory, Linda M Bierer, Duna Abu-Amara, Charles R Marmar, Susanne G Mueller
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with abnormalities in functional connectivity of a specific cortico-limbic network; however, less is known about white matter abnormalities providing structural connections for this network. This study investigated whether the diagnosis and symptoms of PTSD are associated with alterations in fractional anisotropy (FA), an index reflecting white matter organization, across six, a priori-defined tracts. White matter FA was quantified by diffusion tensor imaging using 3 T-MRI among 57 male, combat-exposed veterans with no history of moderate to severe head injuries or current alcohol dependence: 31 met criteria for PTSD and 26 were demographically comparable, combat-exposed controls without PTSD...
August 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815853/changes-to-white-matter-microstructure-in-transient-ischemic-attack-a-longitudinal-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#14
Jennifer K Ferris, Jodi D Edwards, Jennifer A Ma, Lara A Boyd
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is associated with localized ischemic changes, identifiable by diffusion-weighted imaging. Past research has not considered whether TIA is also associated with diffuse changes to white matter microstructure; further past work has not tracked changes longitudinally. Here we examine whole-brain changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) in individuals with TIA presenting with sensorimotor symptoms. Twenty individuals with a recent (within 30 days) TIA and 12 healthy older adults were recruited...
August 16, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782901/the-effects-of-memory-training-on-behavioral-and-microstructural-plasticity-in-young-and-older-adults
#15
Ann-Marie Glasø de Lange, Anne Cecilie Sjøli Bråthen, Darius A Rohani, Håkon Grydeland, Anders M Fjell, Kristine B Walhovd
Age differences in human brain plasticity are assumed, but have not been systematically investigated. In this longitudinal study, we investigated changes in white matter (WM) microstructure in response to memory training relative to passive and active control conditions in 183 young and older adults. We hypothesized that (i) only the training group would show improved memory performance and microstructural alterations, (ii) the young adults would show larger memory improvement and a higher degree of microstructural alterations as compared to the older adults, and (iii) changes in memory performance would relate to microstructural alterations...
August 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780927/white-matter-microstructure-predicts-longitudinal-social-cognitive-outcomes-after-paediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#16
N P Ryan, S Genc, M H Beauchamp, K O Yeates, S Hearps, C Catroppa, V A Anderson, T J Silk
BACKGROUND: Deficits in social cognition may be among the most profound and disabling sequelae of paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the neuroanatomical correlates of longitudinal outcomes in this domain remain unexplored. This study aimed to characterize social cognitive outcomes longitudinally after paediatric TBI, and to evaluate the use of sub-acute diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to predict these outcomes. METHODS: The sample included 52 children with mild complex-severe TBI who were assessed on cognitive theory of mind (ToM), pragmatic language and affective ToM at 6- and 24-months post-injury...
August 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763879/-study-of-fraction-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-on-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-adultperipheral-facial-paralysis
#17
Y J Zhu, G L Ma, T B Song, L Du, R C Guo, S L Sun, H Li, L G Sun
Objective: To analysis the change of brain functional activity in the left and right peripheral facial paralysis by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) of fraction amplitude of low frequency fluctuation(fALFF) measurement technique, and research the abnormal brain region with different side patients whether there are differences. Methods: A total of 43 patients with peripheral facial paralysis patients (patient groups, divided into left / right two subgroups) and 21 healthy volunteers (control group) in this study...
July 18, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759745/changes-of-metabolism-and-functional-connectivity-in-late-onset-deafness-evidence-from-cerebral-18-f-fdg-pet
#18
Antoine Verger, Stéphane Roman, Rose-May Chaudat, Olivier Felician, Mathieu Ceccaldi, Mira Didic, Eric Guedj
Hearing loss is known to impact brain function. The aim of this study was to characterize cerebral metabolic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) changes in elderly patients fulfilling criteria for cochlear implant and investigate the impact of hearing loss on functional connectivity. Statistical Parametric Mapping-T-scores-maps comparisons of (18)F-FDG-PET of 27 elderly patients fulfilling criteria for cochlear implant for hearing loss (best-aided speech intelligibility lower or equal to 50%) and 27 matched healthy subjects (p < 0...
July 27, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759619/fmri-to-probe-sex-related-differences-in-brain-function-with-multitasking
#19
Melanie Tschernegg, Christa Neuper, Reinhold Schmidt, Guilherme Wood, Martin Kronbichler, Franz Fazekas, Christian Enzinger, Marisa Koini
BACKGROUND: Although established as a general notion in society, there is no solid scientific foundation for the existence of sex-differences in multitasking. Reaction time and accuracy in dual task conditions have an inverse relationship relative to single task, independently from sex. While a more disseminated network, parallel to decreasing accuracy and reaction time has been demonstrated in dual task fMRI studies, little is known so far whether there exist respective sex-related differences in activation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748055/multiple-talon-cusps-on-maxillary-central-incisor-a-case-report
#20
Suresh Kv, Pramod R C, Seema Roodmal Yadav, Nilesh Kumar, Mounesh Kumar C D, Sreeja P Kumar
Dental anomalies affecting the teeth are relatively common. Simultaneous occurrence of multiple dental abnormalities in a single tooth is uncommon and relatively rare. One such abnormality routinely encountered in dental clinics is the talon cusp. It is also referred to as dens evaginatus, characterized by the presence of an accessory cusp-like structure projecting from the cingulum of anterior teeth. It has an increased predilection for maxillary teeth and permanent dentition. Although numerous cases of talon cusp have been reported in the literature, occurrence of multiple talon cusps in maxillary central incisors has not been found in the literature...
2017: Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects
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