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Elijah Mak, Silvy Gabel, Habib Mirette, Li Su, Guy B Williams, Adam Waldman, Katie Wells, Karen Ritchie, Craig Ritchie, John O'Brien
The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of neuroimaging studies characterising brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), where both widespread atrophy and 'signature' brain regions have been implicated. In parallel, a prolonged latency period has been established in AD, with abnormal cerebral changes beginning many years before symptom onset. This raises the possibility of early therapeutic intervention, even before symptoms, when treatments could have the greatest effect on disease-course modification...
October 21, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
Sara Poletti, Veronica Aggio, Irene Bollettini, Andrea Falini, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti
The aim of the study is to investigate if gene polymorphisms in sterol regulatory element binding protein transcriptional factors SREBF-1 and SREBF-2, which regulate lipid and cholesterol metabolism, could affect white matter (WM) microstructure, the most recognized structural biomarker of bipolar disorder (BD). In a sample of 93 patients affected by BD, we investigated the effect of SREBF-1 rs11868035, and SREBF-2 rs1052717, on WM microstructure, using diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics...
October 15, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Alexandra L Clark, Lisa Delano-Wood, Scott F Sorg, Madeleine L Werhane, Karen L Hanson, Dawn M Schiehser
No known studies have directly examined white matter microstructural correlates of cognitive fatigue post-TBI in a Veteran sample. We therefore investigated the relationship between cognitive fatigue and white matter integrity in Veterans with history of mild to moderate TBI (mmTBI). 59 Veterans (TBI = 34, Veteran Controls [VCs] = 25]) with and without history of mmTBI underwent structural 3T DTI scans and completed questionnaires related to cognitive fatigue and psychiatric symptoms. Tractography was employed on six regions of interest, including the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule; genu; body and splenium of the corpus callosum; and cingulum bundle...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Richard Q Loi, Kelly M Leyden, Akshara Balachandra, Vedang Uttarwar, Donald J Hagler, Brianna M Paul, Anders M Dale, Nathan S White, Carrie R McDonald
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become a popular tool for delineating the location and extent of white matter injury in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, DTI yields nonspecific measures that are confounded by changes occurring within both the intracellular and extracellular environments. This study investigated whether an advanced diffusion method, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) could provide a more robust measure of white matter injury in TLE relative to DTI due to RSI's ability to separate intraaxonal diffusion (i...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsia
Alexander Frizell Santillo, Karl Lundblad, Markus Nilsson, Maria Landqvist Waldö, Danielle van Westen, Jimmy Lätt, Erik Blennow Nordström, Susanna Vestberg, Olof Lindberg, Christer Nilsson
Disinhibition is an important symptom in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the clinico-anatomical underpinnings remain controversial. We explored the anatomical correlates of disinhibition in neurodegenerative disease using the perspective of grey and white matter imaging. Disinhibition was assessed with a neuropsychological test and a caregiver information-based clinical rating scale in 21 patients with prefrontal syndromes due to behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 12) or progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 9), and healthy controls (n = 25)...
2016: PloS One
Sunyoung Choi, Kyu-Man Han, June Kang, Eunsoo Won, Hun Soo Chang, Woo Suk Tae, Kyu Ri Son, Su-Jin Kim, Min-Soo Lee, Byung-Joo Ham
BACKGROUND: The SLC6A15 gene has been identified as a novel candidate gene for major depressive disorder (MDD). It is presumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of MDD through regulation of glutamate transmission in the brain. However, the involvement of this gene in microstructural changes in white matter (WM) tracts remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the influence of a polymorphism of this gene (rs1545853) on the structural integrity of WM tracts in the cortico-limbic network...
2016: PloS One
Xia Deng, Chun-Yan Tang, Jie Zhang, Lei Zhu, Zun-Chun Xie, Hong-Han Gong, Xiang-Zuo Xiao, Ren-Shi Xu
The cortical thickness has gained an extensive attention as a pathological alteration of sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD), the alteration of pathological cortical thickness may distinctly contribute to the consistent clinical manifestations. Therefore, we investigated the cortical thickness correlates of clinical manifestations in the mid-stage sPD from the Han population of Chinese mainland (HPCM). A sample of 67 mid-stage sPD patients and 35 matched controls from HPCM were performed a corticometry of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the assessment of clinical manifestations including the demographic and disease-related characteristics, and underwent the final analysis of the cortical thickness correlates with the clinical manifestations...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Maria A Rocca, Laura Vacchi, Mariaemma Rodegher, Alessandro Meani, Vittorio Martinelli, Francesca Possa, Giancarlo Comi, Andrea Falini, Massimo Filippi
Using fMRI during a face encoding (FE) task, we investigated the behavioral and fMRI correlates of FE in patients with relapse-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) at different stages of the disease and their relation with attentive-executive performance and structural MRI measures of disease-related damage. A fMRI FE task was administered to 75 MS patients (11 clinically isolated syndromes - CIS, 40 relapsing-remitting - RRMS - and 24 secondary progressive - SPMS) and 22 healthy controls (HC). fMRI activity during the face encoding condition was correlated with behavioral, clinical, neuropsychological and structural MRI variables...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Cenan Hepdurgun, Özgün Özalay, Seda Eroğlu, Irmak Polat Nazlı, Ömer Kitiş, Ali Saffet Gönül
The majority of the research studying the prefrontal region has focused on gray matter injury. However, recent studies show that damage to white matter also contributes to the development of cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Through the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), it is now possible to assess the white matter fiber pathways between brain regions. With Diffusion Tensor Tractography (DTT), fibers of interest can be three dimensionally reconstructed and associated measurements can be performed...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
Man-Young Jung, Jong-Geol Kim, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, W Irene C Rijpstra, Eugene L Madsen, So-Jeong Kim, Heeji Hong, Ok-Ja Si, Melina Kerou, Christa Schleper, Sung-Keun Rhee
A wide diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) within the phylum Thaumarchaeota exists and plays a key role in the N cycle in a variety of habitats. In this study, we isolated and characterized an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon, strain MY3, from a coal tar-contaminated sediment. Phylogenetically, strain MY3 falls in clade 'Nitrosocosmicus' of the thaumarchaeotal group I.1b. The cells of strain MY3 are large "walnut-like" cocci, divide by binary fission along a central cingulum, and form aggregates. Strain MY3 is mesophilic and neutrophilic...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo
BACKGROUND: We report on a patient who appeared to show recovery of an injured anterior cingulum via an aberrant neural tract between an injured cingulum and the basalis nucleus of Meynert following traumatic brain injury (TBI), which was demonstrated on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). METHODS: A 47-year-old male who had suffered a pedestrian traffic accident underwent conservative management for diffuse traumatic axonal injury. When starting rehabilitation at 6 weeks after onset, evaluation using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) could not be performed due to the severity of his cognitive dysfunction...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chieh-En Jane Tseng, Seán Froudist-Walsh, Philip J Brittain, Vyacheslav Karolis, Chiara Caldinelli, Jasmin Kroll, Serena J Counsell, Steven C R Williams, Robin M Murray, Chiara Nosarti
Very preterm (<32 weeks of gestation) birth is associated with structural brain alterations and memory impairments throughout childhood and adolescence. Here, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to study the neuroanatomy of recognition memory in 49 very preterm-born adults and 50 controls (mean age: 30 years) during completion of a task involving visual encoding and recognition of abstract pictures. T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted images were also collected. Bilateral hippocampal volumes were calculated and tractography of the fornix and cingulum was performed and assessed in terms of volume and hindrance modulated orientational anisotropy (HMOA)...
September 20, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Farida Grinberg, Ivan I Maximov, Ezequiel Farrher, Irene Neuner, Laura Amort, Heike Thönneßen, Eileen Oberwelland, Kerstin Konrad, N Jon Shah
The most common modality of diffusion MRI used in the ageing and development studies is diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) providing two key measures, fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity. Here, we investigated diffusional changes occurring between childhood (average age 10.3 years) and mitddle adult age (average age 54.3 years) with the help of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), a recent novel extension of DTI that provides additional metrics quantifying non-Gaussianity of water diffusion in brain tissue...
September 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Joshua D Burks, Phillip A Bonney, Andrew K Conner, Chad A Glenn, Robert G Briggs, James D Battiste, Tressie McCoy, Daniel L O'Donoghue, Dee H Wu, Michael E Sughrue
OBJECTIVE Gliomas invading the anterior corpus callosum are commonly deemed unresectable due to an unacceptable risk/benefit ratio, including the risk of abulia. In this study, the authors investigated the anatomy of the cingulum and its connectivity within the default mode network (DMN). A technique is described involving awake subcortical mapping with higher attention tasks to preserve the cingulum and reduce the incidence of postoperative abulia for patients with so-called butterfly gliomas. METHODS The authors reviewed clinical data on all patients undergoing glioma surgery performed by the senior author during a 4-year period at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Daichi Sone, Miho Ota, Norihide Maikusa, Yukio Kimura, Kaoru Sumida, Kota Yokoyama, Etsuko Imabayashi, Masako Watanabe, Yutaka Watanabe, Mitsutoshi Okazaki, Noriko Sato, Hiroshi Matsuda
PURPOSE: Cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with ipsilateral amygdala enlargement (AE) have increasingly been reported. However, the white matter (WM) abnormalities of TLE patients with AE remain poorly investigated. Here we explored macrostructural and microstructural WM abnormalities in TLE patients with AE compared to normal controls and TLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected 17 patients with unilateral TLE with AE (TLE-AE) based on automated amygdala volumetry using FreeSurfer software, and 34 healthy controls and 35 patients with unilateral TLE with HS (TLE-HS) were also recruited...
September 11, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Pierre-Edouard Billot, Patrice Andrieu, Alessandra Biondi, Sandrine Vieillard, Thierry Moulin, Jean-Louis Millot
Emotion regulation is defined as an important mechanism for human adaptation. fMRI studies have recently highlighted its neural bases but most research uses visual stimulation to induce emotion, none of them using odorant stimulations. Nevertheless, olfaction is intimately linked to emotional processes, sharing some same neural bases and thus constitutes a valuable emotion-inducer in experimental conditions. The present study aims to determine the cerebral areas which might be involved in down-regulation, using pleasant and unpleasant odours as emotion-inducers...
September 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Huey-Ling Chiang, Yu-Jen Chen, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not only often comorbid but also overlapped in behavioral and cognitive abnormalities. Little is known about whether these shared phenotypes are based on common or different underlying neuropathologies. Therefore, this study aims to examine the disorder-specific alterations in white matter (WM) structural property. METHOD: The three comparison groups included 23 male adults with ASD (21...
September 15, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Ping-Hong Yeh, Cheng Guan Koay, Binquan Wang, John Morissette, Elyssa Sham, Justin Senseney, David Joy, Alex Kubli, Chen-Haur Yeh, Victora Eskay, Wei Liu, Louis M French, Terrence R Oakes, Gerard Riedy, John Ollinger
The aim of this study was to apply recently developed automated fiber segmentation and quantification methods using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and DTI-based deterministic and probabilistic tractography to access local and global diffusion changes in blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (bmTBI). Two hundred and two (202) male active US service members who reported persistent post-concussion symptoms for more than 6 months after injury were recruited. An additional forty (40) male military controls were included for comparison...
September 15, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Angelina Paolozza, Sarah Treit, Christian Beaulieu, James N Reynolds
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can cause central nervous system dysfunction and widespread structural anomalies as detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study focused on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of white matter in a large sample of PAE participants that allowed us to examine correlations with behavioral outcomes. Participants were confirmed PAE (n = 69, mean age = 12.5 ± 3.2 years) or typically developing control children (n = 67, mean age = 12.1 ± 3.2 years) who underwent brain MRI, eye movement tasks, and psychometric tests...
September 13, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Lena K L Oestreich, Ofer Pasternak, Martha E Shenton, Marek Kubicki, Xue Gong, Simon McCarthy-Jones, Thomas J Whitford
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence to suggest that delusions associated with schizophrenia arise from altered structural brain connectivity. The present study investigated whether structural changes in three major fasciculi that interconnect the limbic system - the cingulum bundle, uncinate fasciculus and fornix - are associated with delusions in chronic schizophrenia patients. METHODS: Free-water corrected Diffusion Tensor Imaging was used to investigate the association between delusions and both microstructural changes within these three fasciculi and extracellular changes in the surrounding free-water...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
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