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Yong-Ku Kim, Byung-Joo Ham, Kyu-Man Han
The etiology of depression is characterized by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors and brain structural alteration. Childhood adversity is a major contributing factor in the development of depression. Interactions between childhood adversity and candidate genes for depression could affect brain morphology via the modulation of neurotrophic factors, serotonergic neurotransmission, or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and this pathway may explain the subsequent onset of depression...
March 10, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Evan P Pasha, Alex C Birdsill, Stephanie Oleson, Hirofumi Tanaka, Andreana P Haley
Sex differences in cerebral white matter (WM) aging have been debated extensively over the past 2 decades without unequivocal resolution. We aimed to determine if the effects of age and arterial stiffness on WM microstructure differ between sexes. Artery elasticity via carotid artery compliance (CAC) and WM diffusion metrics via diffusion tensor image-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured in 155 (87 females) middle-aged (40-62 years) adults. Males demonstrated poorer water diffusion metrics in WM than women in the corpus callosum body, cingulum, and cingulum (hippocampal)...
February 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Raluca Pascalau, Roxana Popa Stănilă, Silviu Sfrângeu, Bianca Szabo
BACKGROUND: The limbic tracts are involved in crucial cerebral functions such as memory, emotion and behavior. The complex architecture of the limbic circuit makes it harder to approach compared to other white matter networks. Our study aims to describe the three-dimensional anatomy of the limbic white matter by use of two complementary study methods, namely ex vivo fiber dissection and in vivo MRI based tractography. METHODS: Three fiber dissection protocols were performed using blunt wooden instruments and a surgical microscope on formalin fixed brains prepared according to the Klingler method...
February 28, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Daniel G Dillon, Atilla Gonenc, Emily Belleau, Diego A Pizzagalli
BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies report reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, whether FA covaries with key depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, is unclear. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 38 unmedicated adults with MDD and 52 healthy controls. DTI metrics were extracted from regions of interest that have consistently shown reduced FA in MDD. Analyses focused first on identifying group differences, and then determining whether reduced FA in depressed adults was related to individual differences in anhedonia and depressive severity...
February 27, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
M P Noonan, R B Mars, J Sallet, R I M Dunbar, L K Fellows
Social skills rely on a specific set of cognitive processes, raising the possibility that individual differences in social networks are related to differences in specific brain structural and functional networks. Here, we tested this hypothesis with multimodality neuroimaging. With diffusion MRI (DMRI), we showed that differences in structural integrity of particular white matter (WM) tracts, including cingulum bundle, extreme capsule and arcuate fasciculus were associated with an individual's social network size (SNS)...
February 19, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
M Vandekerckhove, W Van Hecke, M Quirin, J De Mey
Current research on emotion shows an increasing interest in the neuronal correlates of emotion regulation (ER). While previous research on ER has focused on gray matter correlates, this study represents the first exploratory study on white matter integrity and brain networks of ER. Responding to the gap between cognitive and affective approaches of ER, pertaining to some of the daily emotional stressors, the present study investigates a complementary experiential approach such as 'Emotional approach' or the tendency to affectively acknowledge, understand and express emotional experience (cf...
February 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Farzaneh Rahmani, Sommayeh Mohammadi Jooyandeh, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Search for Parkinson's disease (PD) progression biomarkers has led to the identification of both motor and non-motor symptoms relevant of prodromal PD that could be eye-opening to the spreading underlying Lewy body pathogenesis. One most robust predictor of PD is the REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and one most common early non-motor symptom of PD is depression. With RBD, frequently coexisting with clinical depression and both predicting dopamine transmission dysfunction, we aimed to survey structural associates of depressive symptoms in early PD patients with comorbid RBD...
February 13, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Fayçal Ben Bouallègue, Denis Mariano-Goulart, Pierre Payoux
Joint analysis of amyloid and metabolic PET patterns across healthy, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects was performed using baseline 18F-florbetapir and 18F-FDG PET of 684 subjects from the ADNI (251 normal, 204 stable MCI, 85 AD converters, and 144 AD). Correlation between regional amyloid and metabolic uptake was measured and predictive value of PET profile regarding AD conversion in cognitively impaired subjects was assessed using survival analysis and support vector machine classification (SVM)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jessika Nystedt, Markus Nilsson, Andreas Jönsen, Petra Nilsson, Anders Bengtsson, Åsa Lilja, Jimmy Lätt, Peter Mannfolk, Pia C Sundgren
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether white matter microstructure is altered in patients suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and if so, whether such alterations differed between patients with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms. METHODS: Structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed in 64 female SLE patients (mean age 36.9 years, range 18.2-52.2 years) and 21 healthy controls (mean age 36.7 years, range 23...
February 7, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Raimo A Salo, Ilya Belevich, Eppu Manninen, Eija Jokitalo, Olli Gröhn, Alejandra Sierra
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) reveals microstructural features of grey and white matter non-invasively. The contrast produced by DTI, however, is not fully understood and requires further validation. We used serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) to acquire tissue metrics, i.e., anisotropy and orientation, using three-dimensional Fourier transform-based (3D-FT) analysis, to correlate with fractional anisotropy and orientation in DTI. SBEM produces high-resolution 3D data at the mesoscopic scale with good contrast of cellular membranes...
February 2, 2018: NeuroImage
Heidi I L Jacobs, Trey Hedden, Aaron P Schultz, Jorge Sepulcre, Rodrigo D Perea, Rebecca E Amariglio, Kathryn V Papp, Dorene M Rentz, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson
Animal models of Alzheimer's disease have suggested that tau pathology propagation, facilitated by amyloid pathology, may occur along connected pathways. To investigate these ideas in humans, we combined amyloid scans with longitudinal data on white matter connectivity, hippocampal volume, tau positron emission tomography and memory performance in 256 cognitively healthy older individuals. Lower baseline hippocampal volume was associated with increased mean diffusivity of the connecting hippocampal cingulum bundle (HCB)...
February 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Hea Ree Park, Min Jae Seong, Young-Min Shon, Eun Yeon Joo, Dae-Won Seo, Seung Bong Hong
Ictal automatism with preserved responsiveness (APR) has been reported, particularly in nondominant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. This study sought to investigate the relationship between APRs and increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) using ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in TLE. Forty-seven subjects with right mesial TLE (15 with and 32 without APR) were enrolled. Patients with APR (APR+) were subdivided into four groups according to degree of responsiveness during seizures...
January 19, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Xiaoling Zhang, Jie Gao, Feng Zhu, Wei Wang, Yajuan Fan, Qingyan Ma, Xiancang Ma, Jian Yang
This study aims to explore whether auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia are associated with the white matter abnormalities in tracts connecting language, auditory and memory/limbic networks in first-episode and chronic schizophrenia patients. 21 first-episode (FE-AVH) and 12 chronic (chronic-AVH group) patients who suffered from auditory verbal hallucinations and 26 healthy controls (HC group) were enrolled. Diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics was performed to assess the white matter changes between the two patient groups and HC group...
January 25, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Hanan El Marroun, Runyu Zou, Ryan L Muetzel, Vincent W Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Tonya White, Henning Tiemeier
BACKGROUND: Prenatal maternal depression has been associated with multiple problems in offspring involving affect, cognition, and neuroendocrine functioning. This suggests that prenatal depression influences neurodevelopment. However, the underlying neurodevelopmental mechanism remains unclear. We prospectively assessed whether maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and at the child's age 3 years are related to white matter microstructure in 690 children. The association of paternal depressive symptoms with childhood white matter microstructure was assessed to evaluate genetic or familial confounding...
February 2, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
RATIONALE: Approximately 30% of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) develop disinhibition, a condition that involves several brain structures, including the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we report on a patient with severe disinhibition and injuries of the amygdala, OFC, and ACC following TBI. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 27-year-old male patient suffered an in-car accident. DIAGNOSES: Since the onset of the TBI, the patient showed severe disinhibition including violence, as follows: 1) he sometimes attacked therapists and nurses with no provocation, 2) while he was laying on a bed, he shouted and kicked the bed when asked questions, and 3) during therapy with a difficult task, he behaved violently to a therapist...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ana Paula Arantes Bueno, Walter Hugo L Pinaya, Luciana M Moura, Maxime Bertoux, Ratko Radakovic, Matthew C Kiernan, Antonio Lucio Teixeira, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Michael Hornberger, João Ricardo Sato
Cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is heterogeneous but now recognized as a feature in non-demented patients and no longer exclusively attributed to executive dysfunction. However, despite common reports of temporal lobe changes and memory deficits in ALS, episodic memory has been less explored. In the current study, we examined how the Papez circuit-a circuit known to participate in memory processes-is structurally and functionally affected in ALS patients (n = 20) compared with healthy controls (n = 15), and whether these changes correlated with a commonly used clinical measure of episodic memory...
January 27, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Rongrong Bian, Yuqun Zhang, Yuan Yang, Yingying Yin, Xiaoxin Zhao, Huanxin Chen, Yonggui Yuan
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments are common in asthma, which is a serious global health problem characterized by chronic airway inflammation. However, the underlying neuromechanism is still unclear. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the neuromechanism underlying cognitive impairments of asthma. We hypothesized that asthma patients exhibit altered white matter (WM) microstructures, which may contribute to their cognitive impairments. STUDY TYPE: Case-control study...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Sekwang Lee, Yoon Hye Na, Hyun Im Moon, Woo Suk Tae, Sung-Bom Pyun
Cerebellar mutism (CM) is a rare neurological condition characterized by lack of speech due to cerebellar lesions. CM is often reported in children. We describe a rare case of CM after spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage. The patient showed mutism, irritability, decreased spontaneous movements and oropharyngeal apraxia. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed significant volume reduction of medial frontal projection fibers from the corpus callosum. In Tracts Constrained by UnderLying Anatomy (TRACULA) analysis, forceps major and minor and bilateral cingulum-angular bundles were not visualized...
December 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Giuseppe Rollo, Paolo Pichierri, Antonio Marsilio, Marco Filipponi, Michele Bisaccia, Luigi Meccariello
Introduction: The nonunion rate has been reported between 0.1% and 15%. There are also several predisposing factors for the onset of complications: general factors connected with the patient and specific factors related to the fracture site. The purpose of our study is to review the etiology of nonunion of the clavicle in its atrophic form and investigate the outcomes of the revision treatment in a single step. Materials and methods: Retrospective study on 71 patients suffering from nonunions due to the following treatments: conservative in 13 patients; plate fixation in 12; closed reduction and fixation with K-wire in 24; open reduction and fixation with K-wire...
September 2017: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
Alejandro Keymer-Gausset, Anna Alonso-Solís, Iluminada Corripio, Rosa B Sauras-Quetcuti, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Erick J Canales-Rodriguez, Eva Grasa-Bello, Enric Álvarez, Maria J Portella
Previous works have studied structural brain characteristics in first-episode psychosis (FEP), but few have focused on the relation between brain differences and illness trajectories. The aim of this study is to analyze gray and white matter changes in FEP patients and their relation with one-year clinical outcomes. A sample of 41 FEP patients and 41 healthy controls (HC), matched by age and educational level was scanned with a 3T MRI during the first month of illness onset. One year later, patients were assigned to two illness trajectories (schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia)...
January 12, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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