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gamma oscillations

E Kipiani
Aim - mostly, gamma oscillations are studied in interface-type chambers. The purpose of the presented investigation is to describe the characteristics of gamma oscillations induced in submerged chambers by kainite pressure ejection. Horizontal combined entorhynal-hippocampal slices 300-350 µm were prepared from young mice (P18-28). Gamma oscillations were induced by 1 mM kainite pressure ejection at the boundary of stratum radiatum and lacunosum-moleculare of area CA1. Field potential recordings were registered from the vicinity of kainite application...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Bo Fu, Shao-Nan Wen, Kun Wang, Shao-Jun Liu, Ji-Yan Zhang, Bin Wang
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in the process of sensory discrimination. In this study, we examined the local field potential (LFP) activity response to the different stages of pain in the Prl, which is a sub-region of the mPFC. Recent studies revealed extensive information about neural oscillations, but there is limited information on the LFP profiles for acute or chronic pain, particularly in freely moving animals. This study showed that acute mechanical pain increases alpha oscillation, and decreases beta and gamma oscillations before spared nerve injury (SNI) surgery...
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
Siddhartha Mondragón-Rodríguez, Ning Gu, Frederic Manseau, Sylvain Williams
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by the presence of amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau protein aggregates. However, increasing data is suggesting that brain network alterations rather than protein deposition could account for the early pathogenesis of the disease. In the present study, we performed in vitro extracellular field recordings in the CA1/subiculum area of the hippocampus from 30 days old J20-TG-AD mice. Here, we found that theta oscillations were significantly less rhythmic than those recorded from control group...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Magdalena Nowak, Catharina Zich, Charlotte J Stagg
Purpose of Review: An increase in oscillatory activity in the γ -frequency band (approximately 50-100 Hz) has long been noted during human movement. However, its functional role has been difficult to elucidate. The advent of novel techniques, particularly transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), has dramatically increased our ability to study γ oscillations. Here, we review our current understanding of the role of γ oscillations in the human motor cortex, with reference to γ activity outside the motor system, and evidence from animal models...
2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Thomas Kustermann, Brigitte Rockstroh, Gregory A Miller, Tzvetan Popov
Oscillatory brain activity in the theta, alpha, and gamma frequency ranges has been associated with working memory (WM). In addition to alpha and theta activity associated with WM retention, and gamma band activity with item encoding, activity in the alpha band is related to the deployment of attention resources and information. The present study sought to specify distinct roles of neuromagnetic 4-7 Hz theta, 9-13 Hz alpha, and 50-70 Hz gamma power modulation and communication in fronto-parietal networks during cued, hemifield-specific item presentation in a modified Sternberg verbal WM task in 15 student volunteers...
May 28, 2018: Biological Psychology
Boleslaw Leszek Osinski, Alex Kim, Wenxi Xiao, Nisarg M Mehta, Leslie M Kay
The mammalian olfactory bulb (OB) generates gamma (40 - 100 Hz) and beta (15 - 30 Hz) local field potential (LFP) oscillations. Gamma oscillations arise at the peak of inhalation supported by dendrodendritic interactions between glutamatergic mitral cells (MCs) and GABAergic granule cells (GCs). Beta oscillations are induced by odorants in learning or odor sensitization paradigms, but their mechanism and function are still poorly understood. When centrifugal OB inputs are blocked, beta oscillations disappear, but gamma oscillations persist...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Luisa Roeder, Tjeerd Willem Boonstra, Simon S Smith, Graham K Kerr
Increasing evidence suggests cortical involvement in the control of human gait. However, the nature of corticospinal interactions remains poorly understood. We performed time-frequency analysis of electrophysiological activity acquired during treadmill and overground walking in 22 healthy, young adults. Participants walked at their preferred speed (4.2, SD 0.4 km h-1 ), which was matched across both gait conditions. Event-related power, corticomuscular coherence (CMC) and inter-trial coherence (ITC) were assessed for EEG from bilateral sensorimotor cortices and EMG from the bilateral tibialis anterior (TA) muscles...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Elham Bayat Mokhtari, J Josh Lawrence, Emily F Stone
Neurons in a micro-circuit connected by chemical synapses can have their connectivity affected by the prior activity of the cells. The number of synapses available for releasing neurotransmitter can be decreased by repetitive activation through depletion of readily releasable neurotransmitter (NT), or increased through facilitation, where the probability of release of NT is increased by prior activation. These competing effects can create a complicated and subtle range of time-dependent connectivity. Here we investigate the probabilistic properties of facilitation and depression (FD) for a presynaptic neuron that is receiving a Poisson spike train of input...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience
Giulia Liberati, Maxime Algoet, Anne Klöcker, Susana Ferrao Santos, Jose Geraldo Ribeiro-Vaz, Christian Raftopoulos, André Mouraux
Salient nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimuli elicit low-frequency local field potentials (LFPs) in the human insula. Nociceptive stimuli also elicit insular gamma-band oscillations (GBOs), possibly preferential for thermonociception, which have been suggested to reflect the intensity of perceived pain. To shed light on the functional significance of these two responses, we investigated whether they would be modulated by stimulation intensity and temporal expectation - two factors contributing to stimulus saliency...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wadim Vodovozov, Justus Schneider, Shehabeldin Elzoheiry, Jan-Oliver Hollnagel, Andrea Lewen, Oliver Kann
Gamma oscillations (30-100 Hz) represent a physiological fast brain rhythm that occurs in many cortex areas in awake mammals, including humans. They associate with sensory perception, voluntary movement, and memory formation and require precise synaptic transmission between excitatory glutamatergic neurons and inhibitory GABAergic interneurons such as parvalbumin-positive basket cells. Notably, gamma oscillations are exquisitely sensitive to shortage in glucose and oxygen supply (metabolic stress), with devastating consequences for higher cognitive functions...
May 28, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Tian-Hang Zhou, Nora E Mueller, Kevin M Spencer, Sonal G Mallya, Kathryn Eve Lewandowski, Lesley A Norris, Deborah L Levy, Bruce M Cohen, Dost Öngür, Mei-Hua Hall
OBJECTIVES: Gamma oscillation is important for cortico-cortical coordination and the integration of information across neural networks. The 40 Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR), which reflects neural synchrony in the gamma band (30-100 Hz), is abnormal in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). The present study used the ASSR at multiple frequencies to examine (1) gamma dysfunction in patients with SZ, schizoaffective (SA), and bipolar disorder (BD) compared with controls, (2) the relationship between ASSR measures and clinical symptom severity, and (3) the relationship between ASSR measures and real-life community functioning...
May 25, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Kristel De Groot, Jan W Van Strien
The autism spectrum hypothesis states that not only diagnosed individuals but also individuals from the general population exhibit a certain amount of autistic traits. While this idea is supported by neuroimaging studies, there have been few electrophysiological studies. Specifically, there have been no spontaneous resting-state studies yet. In order to examine the autism spectrum hypothesis, the present study tried to predict the level of autistic traits typically developing young adults (n = 93) exhibit from spontaneous resting-state gamma power, a measure that has been linked to social functioning impairments seen in autism...
May 24, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Bob Bramson, Ole Jensen, Ivan Toni, Karin Roelofs
The human anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) is involved in regulating social-emotional behavior, presumably by modulating effective connectivity with down-stream parietal, limbic, and motor cortices. Regulating that connectivity might rely on theta-band oscillations (4-8 Hz), a brain rhythm known to create overlapping periods of excitability between distant regions by temporally releasing neurons from inhibition. Here, we use magnetoencephalography (MEG) to understand how aPFC theta-band oscillations implement control over prepotent social-emotional behaviors, i...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jewel E Crasta, Michael H Thaut, Charles W Anderson, Patricia L Davies, William J Gavin
Neurophysiological research has shown that auditory and motor systems interact during movement to rhythmic auditory stimuli through a process called entrainment. This study explores the neural oscillations underlying auditory-motor entrainment using electroencephalography. Forty young adults were randomly assigned to one of two control conditions, an auditory-only condition or a motor-only condition, prior to a rhythmic auditory-motor synchronization condition (referred to as combined condition). Participants assigned to the auditory-only condition (auditory-first group) listened to 400 trials of auditory stimuli presented every 800ms, while those in the motor-only condition (motor-first group) were asked to tap rhythmically every 800ms without any external stimuli...
May 21, 2018: Neuropsychologia
David Tingley, György Buzsáki
The hippocampus constructs a map of the environment. How this "cognitive map" is utilized by other brain regions to guide behavior remains unexplored. To examine how neuronal firing patterns in the hippocampus are transmitted and transformed, we recorded neurons in its principal subcortical target, the lateral septum (LS). We observed that LS neurons carry reliable spatial information in the phase of action potentials, relative to hippocampal theta oscillations, while the firing rates of LS neurons remained uninformative...
May 15, 2018: Neuron
Christine E Boone, Heydar Davoudi, Jon B Harrold, David J Foster
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorder. The Fmr1 null mouse models much of the human disease including hyperarousal, sensory hypersensitivity, seizure activity, and hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment. Sleep architecture is disorganized in FXS patients, but has not been examined in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice. Hippocampal neural activity during sleep, which is implicated in memory processing, also remains uninvestigated in Fmr1-KO mice...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Yi Pu, Brian R Cornwell, Douglas Cheyne, Blake W Johnson
In rodents, hippocampal cell assemblies formed during learning of a navigation task are observed to re-emerge during resting (offline) periods, accompanied by high-frequency oscillations (HFOs). This phenomenon is believed to reflect mechanisms for strengthening newly-formed memory traces. Using magnetoencephalography recordings and a beamforming source location algorithm (synthetic aperture magnetometry), we investigated high-gamma (80-140 Hz) oscillations in the hippocampal region in 18 human participants during inter-trial rest periods in a virtual navigation task...
May 14, 2018: NeuroImage
Daniel Rojas-Líbano, Jonathan Wimmer Del Solar, Marcelo Aguilar-Rivera, Rodrigo Montefusco-Siegmund, Pedro Esteban Maldonado
An important unresolved question about neural processing is the mechanism by which distant brain areas coordinate their activities and relate their local processing to global neural events. A potential candidate for the local-global integration are slow rhythms such as respiration. In this article, we asked if there are modulations of local cortical processing which are phase-locked to (peripheral) sensory-motor exploratory rhythms. We studied rats on an elevated platform where they would spontaneously display exploratory and rest behaviors...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Xiaoming Du, Laura M Rowland, Ann Summerfelt, Fow-Sen Choa, George F Wittenberg, Krista Wisner, Andrea Wijtenburg, Joshua Chiappelli, Peter Kochunov, L Elliot Hong
Cerebellar-prefrontal connectivity has been recognized as important for behaviors ranging from motor coordination to cognition. Many of these behaviors are known to involve excitatory or inhibitory modulations from the prefrontal cortex. We used cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) to probe cerebellar-evoked electrical activity in prefrontal cortical areas and used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures of prefrontal GABA and glutamate levels to determine if they are correlated with those potentials...
May 15, 2018: Cerebellum
Rodolfo Solís-Vivanco, Ole Jensen, Mathilde Bonnefond
Alpha oscillations (8-14 Hz) are proposed to represent an active mechanism of functional inhibition of neuronal processing. Specifically, alpha oscillations are associated with pulses of inhibition repeating every ∼100 msec. Whether alpha phase, similar to alpha power, is under top-down control remains unclear. Moreover, the sources of such putative top-down phase control are unknown. We designed a cross-modal (visual/auditory) attention study in which we used magnetoencephalography to record the brain activity from 34 healthy participants...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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