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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528963/neuronal-activity-patterns-in-the-developing-barrel-cortex
#1
Heiko J Luhmann, Rustem Khazipov
The developing barrel cortex reveals a rich repertoire of neuronal activity patterns, which have been also found in other sensory neocortical areas and in other species including the somatosensory cortex of preterm human infants. The earliest stage is characterized by asynchronous, sparse single cell firing at low frequencies. During the second stage neurons show correlated firing, which is initially mediated by electrical synapses and subsequently transforms into network bursts depending on chemical synapses...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528901/responses-to-spatial-contrast-in-the-mouse-suprachiasmatic-nuclei
#2
Joshua W Mouland, Adam R Stinchcombe, Daniel B Forger, Timothy M Brown, Robert J Lucas
A direct retinal projection targets the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) (an important hypothalamic control center). The accepted function of this projection is to convey information about ambient light (irradiance) to synchronize the SCN's endogenous circadian clock with local time and drive the diurnal variations in physiology and behavior [1-4]. Here, we report that it also renders the SCN responsive to visual images. We map spatial receptive fields (RFs) for SCN neurons and find that only a minority are excited (or inhibited) by light from across the scene as expected for irradiance detectors...
May 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527681/decreased-food-anticipatory-activity-of-obese-mice-relates-to-hypothalamic-c-fos-expression
#3
C Luna-Illades, T Morales, M Miranda-Anaya
During daily Food Restriction (FR), obese Neotomodon alstoni mice present decreased Food Anticipatory Activity (FAA) compared to lean mice. Here, we investigated whether FOS expression in hypothalamic nuclei involved in food synchronization and anticipation parallels decreased FAA during daily FR of obese N. alstoni. Locomotor activity of lean and obese mice in ad libitum feeding conditions was monitored for at least two weeks. Then, a gradual restriction of food access was followed to establish a 5h period of daily food access...
May 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522527/lineage-dependent-spatial-and-functional-organization-of-the-mammalian-enteric-nervous-system
#4
Reena Lasrado, Werend Boesmans, Jens Kleinjung, Carmen Pin, Donald Bell, Leena Bhaw, Sarah McCallum, Hui Zong, Liqun Luo, Hans Clevers, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Vassilis Pachnis
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is essential for digestive function and gut homeostasis. Here we show that the amorphous neuroglia networks of the mouse ENS are composed of overlapping clonal units founded by postmigratory neural crest-derived progenitors. The spatial configuration of ENS clones depends on proliferation-driven local interactions of ENS progenitors with lineally unrelated neuroectodermal cells, the ordered colonization of the serosa-mucosa axis by clonal descendants, and gut expansion. Single-cell transcriptomics and mutagenesis analysis delineated dynamic molecular states of ENS progenitors and identified RET as a regulator of neurogenic commitment...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521127/synaptic-plasticity-engrams-and-network-oscillations-in-amygdala-circuits-for-storage-and-retrieval-of-emotional-memories
#5
REVIEW
Marco Bocchio, Sadegh Nabavi, Marco Capogna
The neuronal circuits of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are crucial for acquisition, consolidation, retrieval, and extinction of associative emotional memories. Synaptic plasticity in BLA neurons is essential for associative emotional learning and is a candidate mechanism through which subsets of BLA neurons (commonly termed "engram") are recruited during learning and reactivated during memory retrieval. In parallel, synchronous oscillations in the theta and gamma bands between the BLA and interconnected structures have been shown to occur during consolidation and retrieval of emotional memories...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516429/cardinal-epigenetic-role-of-non-coding-regulatory-rnas-in-circadian-rhythm
#6
REVIEW
Utpal Bhadra, Pradipta Patra, Manika Pal-Bhadra
Circadian rhythm which governs basic physiological activities like sleeping, feeding and energy consumption is regulated by light-controlled central clock genes in the pacemaker neuron. The timekeeping machinery with unique transcriptional and post-transcriptional feedback loops is controlled by different small regulatory RNAs in the brain. Roles of the multiple neuronal genes, especially post-transcriptional regulation, splicing, polyadenylation, mature mRNA editing, and stability of translation products, are controlled by epigenetic activities orchestrated via small RNAs...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512401/increased-gamma-connectivity-in-the-human-prefrontal-cortex-during-the-bereitschaftspotential
#7
Kisun Kim, June Sic Kim, Chun Kee Chung
The Bereitschaftspotential (BP) is a slow negative cortical potential preceding voluntary movement. Since movement preparation is dependent upon the synchronous activity of a variety of neurons, BP may develop through the exchange of information among motor-related neurons. However, the relationship between BP and information flow is not yet well-known. In the present study, we aimed to investigate how the connectivity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) changes during the occurrence of BP. Electrocorticography (ECoG) was recorded in five patients with epilepsy...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508746/ciliomotor-circuitry-underlying-whole-body-coordination-of-ciliary-activity-in-the-platynereis-larva
#8
Csaba Verasztó, Nobuo Ueda, Luis A Bezares-Calderón, Aurora Panzera, Elizabeth A Williams, Réza Shahidi, Gáspár Jékely
Ciliated surfaces harbouring synchronously beating cilia can generate fluid flow or drive locomotion. In ciliary swimmers, ciliary beating, arrests, and changes in beat frequency are often coordinated across extended or discontinuous surfaces. To understand how such coordination is achieved, we studied the ciliated larvae of Platynereis dumerilii, a marine annelid. Platynereis larvae have segmental multiciliated cells that regularly display spontaneous coordinated ciliary arrests. We used whole-body connectomics, activity imaging, transgenesis, and neuron ablation to characterize the ciliomotor circuitry...
May 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507227/when-two-wrongs-make-a-right-synchronized-neuronal-bursting-from-combined-electrical-and-inhibitory-coupling
#9
Reimbay Reimbayev, Kevin Daley, Igor Belykh
Synchronized cortical activities in the central nervous systems of mammals are crucial for sensory perception, coordination and locomotory function. The neuronal mechanisms that generate synchronous synaptic inputs in the neocortex are far from being fully understood. In this paper, we study the emergence of synchronization in networks of bursting neurons as a highly non-trivial, combined effect of electrical and inhibitory connections. We report a counterintuitive find that combined electrical and inhibitory coupling can synergistically induce robust synchronization in a range of parameters where electrical coupling alone promotes anti-phase spiking and inhibition induces anti-phase bursting...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505726/entrainment-range-of-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-affected-by-the-difference-in-the-neuronal-amplitudes-between-the-light-sensitive-and-light-insensitive-regions
#10
Changgui Gu, Huijie Yang, Zhongyuan Ruan
Mammals not only can be synchronized to the natural 24-h light-dark cycle, but also to a cycle with a non-24-h period. The range of the period of the external cycle, for which the animals can be entrained to, is called the entrainment range, which differs among species. The entrainment range as a characteristic of the animal is determined by the main circadian clock, i.e., the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain. The SCN is composed of ∼10000 heterogeneous neurons, which can be divided into two subgroups, i...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501498/the-role-of-sleep-in-the-plasticity-of-the-olfactory-system
#11
REVIEW
Masahiro Yamaguchi
The central olfactory system mediates a variety of odor-guided behaviors crucial for maintenance of animal life. The olfactory neural circuit must be highly plastic to ensure that it responds appropriately to changing odor circumstances. Recent studies have revealed that the processing of odor information changes drastically during waking and sleep and that neural activity during sleep plays pivotal roles in the structural reorganization and functional plasticity of the olfactory system. While olfactory information from the external world is efficiently transferred to the olfactory cortex (OC) via the olfactory bulb (OB) during waking, this information flow is attenuated during slow-wave sleep: during slow-wave sleep, the OC neurons exhibit synchronous discharges without odor input under the entrainment of sharp waves in the local field potential recording...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499987/evoked-potentials-in-final-epoch-of-self-initiated-hand-movement-a-study-in-patients-with-depth-electrodes
#12
Miloslav Kukleta, Alena Damborská, Baris Turak, Jacques Louvel
Comparison between the intended and performed motor action can be expected to occur in the final epoch of a voluntary movement. In search for electrophysiological correlates of this mental process the purpose of the current study was to identify intracerebral sites activated in final epoch of self-paced voluntary movement. Intracerebral EEG was recorded from 235 brain regions of 42 epileptic patients who performed self-paced voluntary movement task. Evoked potentials starting at 0 to 243ms after the peak of averaged, rectified electromyogram were identified in 21 regions of 13 subjects...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498705/incoherence-mediated-remote-synchronization
#13
Liyue Zhang, Adilson E Motter, Takashi Nishikawa
In previously identified forms of remote synchronization between two nodes, the intermediate portion of the network connecting the two nodes is not synchronized with them but generally exhibits some coherent dynamics. Here we report on a network phenomenon we call incoherence-mediated remote synchronization (IMRS), in which two noncontiguous parts of the network are identically synchronized while the dynamics of the intermediate part is statistically and information-theoretically incoherent. We identify mirror symmetry in the network structure as a mechanism allowing for such behavior, and show that IMRS is robust against dynamical noise as well as against parameter changes...
April 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495371/detecting-joint-pausiness-in-parallel-spike-trains
#14
Matthias Gärtner, Sevil Duvarci, Jochen Roeper, Gaby Schneider
BACKGROUND: Transient periods with reduced neuronal discharge - called 'pauses' - have recently gained increasing attention. In dopamine neurons, pauses are considered important teaching signals, encoding negative reward prediction errors. Particularly simultaneous pauses are likely to have increased impact on information processing. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: Available methods for detecting joint pausing analyze temporal overlap of pauses across spike trains...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491003/theta-rhythmopathy-as-a-cause-of-cognitive-disability-in-tle
#15
Tristan Shuman, Benjamin Amendolara, Peyman Golshani
Memory difficulties are commonly associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and cause significant disability. This article reviews the role of altered hippocampal theta oscillations and theta-gamma coupling as potential causes of memory disturbance in temporal lobe epilepsy, dissecting the potential mechanisms underlying these changes in large-scale neuronal synchronization. We discuss development of treatments for cognitive dysfunction directed at restoring theta rhythmicity and future directions for research...
March 2017: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489826/a-rhodopsin-in-the-brain-functions-in-circadian-photoentrainment-in-drosophila
#16
Jinfei D Ni, Lisa S Baik, Todd C Holmes, Craig Montell
Animals partition their daily activity rhythms through their internal circadian clocks, which are synchronized by oscillating day-night cycles of light. The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster senses day-night cycles in part through rhodopsin-dependent light reception in the compound eye and photoreceptor cells in the Hofbauer-Buchner eyelet. A more noteworthy light entrainment pathway is mediated by central pacemaker neurons in the brain. The Drosophila circadian clock is extremely sensitive to light. However, the only known light sensor in pacemaker neurons, the flavoprotein cryptochrome (Cry), responds only to high levels of light in vitro...
May 10, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489548/retinal-circuit-emulator-with-spatiotemporal-spike-outputs-at-millisecond-resolution-in-response-to-visual-events
#17
Yuki Hayashida, Yuka Kudo, Ryoya Ishida, Hirotsugu Okuno, Tetsuya Yagi
To gain insights on how visual information of the real world is filtered, compressed, and encoded by the vertebrate retinas, emulating in silico the spatiotemporal patterns of the graded and action potentials of neuronal responses to natural visual scenes on biological time scale is a feasible approach. As a basic platform for such an emulation, we here developed a compact hardware system comprising an analog silicon retina and a field-programmable gate array module. With utilizing the Izhikevich formalism, a retinal circuit model that emulates spiking of ganglion cells was implemented in this system...
May 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486505/modeling-of-inter-neuronal-coupling-medium-and-its-impact-on-neuronal-synchronization
#18
Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Rehan, Keum-Shik Hong
In this paper, modeling of the coupling medium between two neurons, the effects of the model parameters on the synchronization of those neurons, and compensation of coupling strength deficiency in synchronization are studied. Our study exploits the inter-neuronal coupling medium and investigates its intrinsic properties in order to get insight into neuronal-information transmittance and, there from, brain-information processing. A novel electrical model of the coupling medium that represents a well-known RLC circuit attributable to the coupling medium's intrinsic resistive, inductive, and capacitive properties is derived...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484384/mechanisms-of-winner-take-all-and-group-selection-in-neuronal-spiking-networks
#19
Yanqing Chen
A major function of central nervous systems is to discriminate different categories or types of sensory input. Neuronal networks accomplish such tasks by learning different sensory maps at several stages of neural hierarchy, such that different neurons fire selectively to reflect different internal or external patterns and states. The exact mechanisms of such map formation processes in the brain are not completely understood. Here we study the mechanism by which a simple recurrent/reentrant neuronal network accomplish group selection and discrimination to different inputs in order to generate sensory maps...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484370/clustered-protocadherins-are-required-for-building-functional-neural-circuits
#20
Sonoko Hasegawa, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Makiko Kumagai, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Etsuko Tarusawa, Hiro Kanda, Makoto Sanbo, Yumiko Yoshimura, Masumi Hirabayashi, Takahiro Hirabayashi, Takeshi Yagi
Neuronal identity is generated by the cell-surface expression of clustered protocadherin (Pcdh) isoforms. In mice, 58 isoforms from three gene clusters, Pcdhα, Pcdhβ, and Pcdhγ, are differentially expressed in neurons. Since cis-heteromeric Pcdh oligomers on the cell surface interact homophilically with that in other neurons in trans, it has been thought that the Pcdh isoform repertoire determines the binding specificity of synapses. We previously described the cooperative functions of isoforms from all three Pcdh gene clusters in neuronal survival and synapse formation in the spinal cord...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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