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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644911/interictal-oscillations-and-focal-epileptic-disorders
#1
Maxime Lévesque, Pariya Salami, Zahra Shiri, Massimo Avoli
Neuronal network oscillations represent a main feature of the brain activity recorded in the EEG under normal and pathological conditions such as epilepsy. Specific oscillations occur between seizures in patients and in animal models of focal epilepsy, and thus they are termed interictal. According to their shape and intrinsic signal frequency, interictal oscillations are classified as spikes and high frequency oscillations (HFOs). Interictal spikes are recorded in the "wideband" EEG signal and consist of large-amplitude events that usually last less than 1 s; HFOs, in contrast, are extracted by amplifying the appropriately filtered EEG signal, and are usually categorized as ripples (80-200 Hz) and fast ripples (250-500 Hz)...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634306/representations-of-time-varying-cochlear-implant-stimulation-in-auditory-cortex-of-awake-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#2
Luke A Johnson, Charles C Della Santina, Xiaoqin Wang
Electrical stimulation of the auditory periphery organ by cochlear implant (CI) generates highly synchronized inputs to the auditory system. It has long been thought such inputs would lead to highly synchronized neural firing along the ascending auditory pathway. However, neurophysiological studies with hearing animals have shown that the central auditory system progressively converts temporal representations of time-varying sounds to firing rate-based representations. It is not clear whether this coding principle also applies to highly synchronized CI inputs...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633960/effect-of-stimulus-level-on-the-temporal-response-properties-of-the-auditory-nerve-in-cochlear-implants
#3
Michelle L Hughes, Sarah A Laurello
Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) have been used to examine temporal response patterns of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. ECAP responses to individual pulses in a pulse train vary across stimulation rates for individual CI users. For very slow rates, auditory neurons have ample time to discharge, recover, and respond to each pulse in the train. As the pulse rate increases, an alternating ECAP-amplitude pattern occurs. As the stimulation rate increases further, the alternating pattern eventually ceases and the overall ECAP amplitudes are diminished, yielding a relatively stochastic state that presumably reflects a combination of adaptation, desynchronization, and facilitation across fibers...
June 13, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627584/gastric-electrical-stimulation-improves-enteric-neuronal-survival
#4
Nian Wang, Kun Li, Shuangning Song, Jie Chen
Research and clinical experience with vagotomy have confirmed that damage to the central nervous system severely affects physiological movement in the gastrointestinal system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of synchronized dual-pulse gastric electrical stimulation (SGES) on the apoptosis of enteric neurons and the possible pathways involved in these effects in vagotomized rats. For this purpose, Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into a control group, an early subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group (ESDV group), an early subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group with short-term SGES (ESDV + SSGES group), a terminal subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group (TSDV group) and a terminal subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group with long-term SGES (TSDV + LSGES group)...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624585/contributions-of-the-lateral-habenula-to-circadian-timekeeping
#5
REVIEW
Beatriz Baño-Otálora, Hugh D Piggins
Over the past 20years, substantive research has firmly implicated the lateral habenula in myriad neural processes including addiction, depression, and sleep. More recently, evidence has emerged suggesting that the lateral habenula is a component of the brain's intrinsic daily or circadian timekeeping system. This system centers on the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus that is synchronized to the external world through environmental light information received directly from the eye...
June 15, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619818/antagonistic-regulation-of-the-second-mitotic-wave-by-eyes-absent-sine-oculis-and-combgap-coordinates-proliferation-and-specification-in-the-drosophila-retina
#6
Trevor L Davis, Ilaria Rebay
The transition from proliferation to specification is fundamental to the development of appropriately patterned tissues. In the developing Drosophila eye, Eyes absent (Eya) and Sine oculis (So) orchestrate the progression of progenitor cells from asynchronous cell division to G1 arrest and neuronal specification at the morphogenetic furrow. Here, we uncover a novel role for Eya and So in promoting cell cycle exit in the Second Mitotic Wave (SMW), a synchronized, terminal cell division that occurs several hours after passage of the furrow...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619653/on-optimal-spatial-filtering-for-the-detection-of-phase-coupling-in-multivariate-neural-recordings
#7
G Waterstraat, G Curio, V V Nikulin
INTRODUCTION: Neuronal oscillations synchronize processing in the brain over large spatiotemporal scales and thereby facilitate integration of individual functional modules. Up to now, the relation between the phases of neuronal oscillations and behavior or perception has mainly been analyzed in sensor space of multivariate EEG/MEG recordings. However, sensor-space analysis distorts the topographies of the underlying neuronal sources and suffers from low signal-to-noise ratio. Instead, we propose an optimized source reconstruction approach (Phase Coupling Optimization, PCO)...
June 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618595/anticipated-synchronization-in-neuronal-circuits-unveiled-by-a-phase-response-curve-analysis
#8
Fernanda S Matias, Pedro V Carelli, Claudio R Mirasso, Mauro Copelli
Anticipated synchronization (AS) is a counterintuitive behavior that has been observed in several systems. When AS occurs in a sender-receiver configuration, the latter can predict the future dynamics of the former for certain parameter values. In particular, in neuroscience AS was proposed to explain the apparent discrepancy between information flow and time lag in the cortical activity recorded in monkeys. Despite its success, a clear understanding of the mechanisms yielding AS in neuronal circuits is still missing...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618541/qualitative-changes-in-phase-response-curve-and-synchronization-at-the-saddle-node-loop-bifurcation
#9
Janina Hesse, Jan-Hendrik Schleimer, Susanne Schreiber
Prominent changes in neuronal dynamics have previously been attributed to a specific switch in onset bifurcation, the Bogdanov-Takens (BT) point. This study unveils another, relevant and so far underestimated transition point: the saddle-node-loop bifurcation, which can be reached by several parameters, including capacitance, leak conductance, and temperature. This bifurcation turns out to induce even more drastic changes in synchronization than the BT transition. This result arises from a direct effect of the saddle-node-loop bifurcation on the limit cycle and hence spike dynamics...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611618/potential-mechanisms-and-functions-of-intermittent-neural-synchronization
#10
Sungwoo Ahn, Leonid L Rubchinsky
Neural synchronization is believed to play an important role in different brain functions. Synchrony in cortical and subcortical circuits is frequently variable in time and not perfect. Few long intervals of desynchronized dynamics may be functionally different from many short desynchronized intervals although the average synchrony may be the same. Recent analysis of imperfect synchrony in different neural systems reported one common feature: neural oscillations may go out of synchrony frequently, but primarily for a short time interval...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611617/prediction-of-the-seizure-suppression-effect-by-electrical-stimulation-via-a-computational-modeling-approach
#11
Sora Ahn, Sumin Jo, Sang Beom Jun, Hyang Woon Lee, Seungjun Lee
In this paper, we identified factors that can affect seizure suppression via electrical stimulation by an integrative study based on experimental and computational approach. Preferentially, we analyzed the characteristics of seizure-like events (SLEs) using our previous in vitro experimental data. The results were analyzed in two groups classified according to the size of the effective region, in which the SLE was able to be completely suppressed by local stimulation. However, no significant differences were found between these two groups in terms of signal features or propagation characteristics (i...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611590/cryptochrome-is-a-regulator-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-visual-system-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Milena Damulewicz, Gabriella M Mazzotta, Elena Sartori, Ezio Rosato, Rodolfo Costa, Elzbieta M Pyza
Drosophila CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) is a blue light sensitive protein with a key role in circadian photoreception. A main feature of CRY is that light promotes an interaction with the circadian protein TIMELESS (TIM) resulting in their ubiquitination and degradation, a mechanism that contributes to the synchronization of the circadian clock to the environment. Moreover, CRY participates in non-circadian functions such as magnetoreception, modulation of neuronal firing, phototransduction and regulation of synaptic plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606117/investigating-the-impact-of-electrical-stimulation-temporal-distribution-on-cortical-network-responses
#13
Francesca Scarsi, Jacopo Tessadori, Michela Chiappalone, Valentina Pasquale
BACKGROUND: The brain is continuously targeted by a wealth of stimuli with complex spatio-temporal patterns and has presumably evolved in order to cope with those inputs in an optimal way. Previous studies investigating the response capabilities of either single neurons or intact sensory systems to external stimulation demonstrated that stimuli temporal distribution is an important, if often overlooked, parameter. RESULTS: In this study we investigated how cortical networks plated over micro-electrode arrays respond to different stimulation sequences in which inter-pulse intervals followed a 1/f (β) distribution, for different values of β ranging from 0 to ∞...
June 12, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605528/abnormal-resting-state-connectivity-in-a-substantia-nigra-related-striato-thalamo-cortical-network-in-a-large-sample-of-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-schizophrenia
#14
Matteo Martino, Paola Magioncalda, Hua Yu, Xiaojing Li, Qiang Wang, Yajing Meng, Wei Deng, Yinfei Li, Mingli Li, Xiaohong Ma, Timothy Lane, Niall W Duncan, Georg Northoff, Tao Li
Objective: The dopamine hypothesis is one of the most influential theories of the neurobiological background of schizophrenia (SCZ). However, direct evidence for abnormal dopamine-related subcortical-cortical circuitry disconnectivity is still lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to test dopamine-related substantia nigra (SN)-based striato-thalamo-cortical resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in SCZ. Method: Based on our a priori hypothesis, we analyzed a large sample resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset from first-episode drug-naïve SCZ patients (n = 112) and healthy controls (n = 82) using the SN as the seed region for an investigation of striato-thalamo-cortical FC...
June 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604771/locking-of-correlated-neural-activity-to-ongoing-oscillations
#15
Tobias Kühn, Moritz Helias
Population-wide oscillations are ubiquitously observed in mesoscopic signals of cortical activity. In these network states a global oscillatory cycle modulates the propensity of neurons to fire. Synchronous activation of neurons has been hypothesized to be a separate channel of signal processing information in the brain. A salient question is therefore if and how oscillations interact with spike synchrony and in how far these channels can be considered separate. Experiments indeed showed that correlated spiking co-modulates with the static firing rate and is also tightly locked to the phase of beta-oscillations...
June 12, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596820/neural-synchronization-deficits-linked-to-cortical-hyper-excitability-and-auditory-hypersensitivity-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#16
Lauren E Ethridge, Stormi P White, Matthew W Mosconi, Jun Wang, Ernest V Pedapati, Craig A Erickson, Matthew J Byerly, John A Sweeney
BACKGROUND: Studies in the fmr1 KO mouse demonstrate hyper-excitability and increased high-frequency neuronal activity in sensory cortex. These abnormalities may contribute to prominent and distressing sensory hypersensitivities in patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS). The current study investigated functional properties of auditory cortex using a sensory entrainment task in FXS. METHODS: EEG recordings were obtained from 17 adolescents and adults with FXS and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596729/detection-and-evaluation-of-spatio-temporal-spike-patterns-in-massively-parallel-spike-train-data-with-spade
#17
Pietro Quaglio, Alper Yegenoglu, Emiliano Torre, Dominik M Endres, Sonja Grün
Repeated, precise sequences of spikes are largely considered a signature of activation of cell assemblies. These repeated sequences are commonly known under the name of spatio-temporal patterns (STPs). STPs are hypothesized to play a role in the communication of information in the computational process operated by the cerebral cortex. A variety of statistical methods for the detection of STPs have been developed and applied to electrophysiological recordings, but such methods scale poorly with the current size of available parallel spike train recordings (more than 100 neurons)...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596722/unique-structural-features-of-membrane-bound-c-terminal-domain-motifs-modulate-complexin-inhibitory-function
#18
David Snead, Alex L Lai, Rachel T Wragg, Daniel A Parisotto, Trudy F Ramlall, Jeremy S Dittman, Jack H Freed, David Eliezer
Complexin is a small soluble presynaptic protein that interacts with neuronal SNARE proteins in order to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis. While the SNARE-binding central helix of complexin is required for both the inhibition of spontaneous fusion and the facilitation of synchronous fusion, the disordered C-terminal domain (CTD) of complexin is specifically required for its inhibitory function. The CTD of worm complexin binds to membranes via two distinct motifs, one of which undergoes a membrane curvature dependent structural transition that is required for efficient inhibition of neurotransmitter release, but the conformations of the membrane-bound motifs remain poorly characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595006/selective-targeting-of-neurons-with-inorganic-nanoparticles-revealing-the-crucial-role-of-nanoparticle-surface-charge
#19
Silvia Dante, Alessia Petrelli, Enrica Maria Petrini, Roberto Marotta, Alessandro Maccione, Alessandro Alabastri, Alessandra Quarta, Francesco De Donato, Tiziana Ravasenga, Ayyappan Sathya, Roberto Cingolani, Remo Proietti Zaccaria, Luca Berdondini, Andrea Barberis, Teresa Pellegrino
Nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used in biomedical applications but the factors that influence their interactions with living cells need to be elucidated. Here, we reveal the role of NP surface charge in determining their neuronal interactions and electrical responses. We discovered that negatively charged NPs administered at low concentration (10nM) interact with the neuronal membrane and at the synaptic cleft, whereas positively- and neutrally-charged NPs never localize on neurons. This effect is shape and material independent...
June 8, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592690/dynamics-of-human-subthalamic-neuron-phase-locking-to-motor-and-sensory-cortical-oscillations-during-movement
#20
Witold J Lipski, Thomas A Wozny, Ahmad Alhourani, Efstathios Kondylis, Robert S Turner, Donald J Crammond, Robert Mark Richardson
Coupled oscillatory activity recorded between sensorimotor regions of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop is thought to reflect information transfer relevant to movement. A neuronal firing-rate model of basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry, however, has dominated thinking about basal ganglia function for the past three decades, without knowledge of the relationship between basal ganglia single neuron firing and cortical population activity during movement itself. We recorded activity from 34 subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons, simultaneously with cortical local field potentials and motor output, in eleven subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) undergoing awake deep brain stimulator lead placement...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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