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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146941/developmental-excitatory-to-inhibitory-gaba-polarity-switch-is-disrupted-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-potential-target-for-clinical-therapeutics
#1
Hayder Amin, Federica Marinaro, Davide De Pietri Tonelli, Luca Berdondini
Individuals with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) show cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions, developmental delays in childhood and risk of developing schizophrenia and autism. Despite extensive previous studies in adult animal models, a possible embryonic root of this syndrome has not been determined. Here, in neurons from a 22q11.2 DS mouse model (Lgdel (+/-)), we found embryonic-premature alterations in the neuronal chloride cotransporters indicated by dysregulated NKCC1 and KCC2 protein expression levels...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143800/hungry-neurons-metabolic-insights-on-seizure-dynamics
#2
REVIEW
Paolo Bazzigaluppi, Azin Ebrahim Amini, Iliya Weisspapir, Bojana Stefanovic, Peter L Carlen
Epilepsy afflicts up to 1.6% of the population and the mechanisms underlying the appearance of seizures are still not understood. In past years, many efforts have been spent trying to understand the mechanisms underlying the excessive and synchronous firing of neurons. Traditionally, attention was pointed towards synaptic (dys)function and extracellular ionic species (dys)regulation. Recently, novel clinical and preclinical studies explored the role of brain metabolism (i.e., glucose utilization) of seizures pathophysiology revealing (in most cases) reduced metabolism in the inter-ictal period and increased metabolism in the seconds preceding and during the appearance of seizures...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140973/a-coupled-oscillator-model-of-olfactory-bulb-gamma-oscillations
#3
Guoshi Li, Thomas A Cleland
The olfactory bulb transforms not only the information content of the primary sensory representation, but also its underlying coding metric. High-variance, slow-timescale primary odor representations are transformed by bulbar circuitry into secondary representations based on principal neuron spike patterns that are tightly regulated in time. This emergent fast timescale for signaling is reflected in gamma-band local field potentials, presumably serving to efficiently integrate olfactory sensory information into the temporally regulated information networks of the central nervous system...
November 15, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134143/eeg-sensorimotor-rhythms-variation-and-functional-connectivity-measures-during-motor-imagery-linear-relations-and-classification-approaches
#4
Carlos A Stefano Filho, Romis Attux, Gabriela Castellano
Hands motor imagery (MI) has been reported to alter synchronization patterns amongst neurons, yielding variations in the mu and beta bands' power spectral density (PSD) of the electroencephalography (EEG) signal. These alterations have been used in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), in an attempt to assign distinct MI tasks to commands of such a system. Recent studies have highlighted that information may be missing if knowledge about brain functional connectivity is not considered. In this work, we modeled the brain as a graph in which each EEG electrode represents a node...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131945/enantioselectivity-of-2-2-3-5-6-pentachlorobiphenyl-pcb-95-atropisomers-toward-ryanodine-receptors-ryrs-and-their-influences-on-hippocampal-neuronal-networks
#5
Wei Feng, Jing Zheng, Gaelle Robin, Yao Dong, Makoto Ichikawa, Yoshihisa Inoue, Tadashi Mori, Takeshi Nakano, Isaac N Pessah
Nineteen ortho-substituted PCBs are chiral and found enantioselectively enriched in ecosystems. Their differential actions on biological targets are not understood. PCB 95 (2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), a chiral PCB of current environmental relevance, is among the most potent towards modifying ryanodine receptors (RyR) function and Ca2+ signaling. PCB 95 atropisomers are separated and assigned aR- and aS-PCB 95 using 3 chiral-columns HPLC and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Studies of RyR1-enriched microsomes show aR-PCB 95 with >4X greater potency (EC50=0...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124505/transitions-between-asynchronous-and-synchronous-states-a-theory-of-correlations-in-small-neural-circuits
#6
Diego Fasoli, Anna Cattani, Stefano Panzeri
The study of correlations in neural circuits of different size, from the small size of cortical microcolumns to the large-scale organization of distributed networks studied with functional imaging, is a topic of central importance to systems neuroscience. However, a theory that explains how the parameters of mesoscopic networks composed of a few tens of neurons affect the underlying correlation structure is still missing. Here we consider a theory that can be applied to networks of arbitrary size with multiple populations of homogeneous fully-connected neurons, and we focus its analysis to a case of two populations of small size...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123400/comparison-of-spontaneous-brain-activity-revealed-by-regional-homogeneity-in-aqp4-igg-neuromyelitis-optica-optic-neuritis-versus-mog-igg-optic-neuritis-patients-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#7
Junqing Wang, Yuan Tian, Yi Shao, Hui Feng, Limin Qin, Weiwei Xu, Hongjuan Liu, Quangang Xu, Shihui Wei, Lin Ma
Objective: Many previous studies have demonstrated that neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients have abnormalities of brain anatomy and function. However, differences in spontaneous brain activity between myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG ON and aquaporin 4(AQP4)-neuromyelitis optica-optic neuritis (ON) remain unknown. In the current study, we investigated the brain neural homogeneity in MOG-IgG ON versus AQP4-IgG NMO-ON subjects by regional homogeneity (ReHo) method using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122723/the-neuronal-network-involved-in-self-attribution-of-an-artificial-hand-a-lesion-network-symptom-mapping-study
#8
Max Wawrzyniak, Julian Klingbeil, Daniel Zeller, Dorothee Saur, Joseph Classen
The feeling of body-ownership can be experimentally manipulated using the rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm. Participants experience a sense of ownership over an artificial hand when their hidden real hand and the visible artificial hand are synchronously stroked. Using lesion masks and behavioral data from a previous study on RHI failure in acute stroke patients, we here employed lesion network-symptom-mapping (LNSM) based on normative functional connectome data to identify lesion-dependent network connectivity related to the experience of self-attribution of an artificial hand in the RHI paradigm...
November 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115213/maintained-avalanche-dynamics-during-task-induced-changes-of-neuronal-activity-in-nonhuman-primates
#9
Shan Yu, Tiago L Ribeiro, Christian Meisel, Samantha Chou, Andrew Mitz, Richard Saunders, Dietmar Plenz
Sensory events, cognitive processing and motor actions correlate with transient changes in neuronal activity. In cortex, these transients form widespread spatiotemporal patterns with largely unknown statistical regularities. Here, we show that activity associated with behavioral events carry the signature of scale-invariant spatiotemporal clusters, neuronal avalanches. Using high-density microelectrode arrays in nonhuman primates, we recorded extracellular unit activity and the local field potential (LFP) in premotor and prefrontal cortex during motor and cognitive tasks...
November 8, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109679/extracellular-electrophysiological-measurements-of-cooperative-signals-in-astrocytes-populations
#10
Ana L G Mestre, Pedro M C Inácio, Youssef Elamine, Sanaz Asgarifar, Ana S Lourenço, Maria L S Cristiano, Paulo Aguiar, Maria C R Medeiros, Inês M Araújo, João Ventura, Henrique L Gomes
Astrocytes are neuroglial cells that exhibit functional electrical properties sensitive to neuronal activity and capable of modulating neurotransmission. Thus, electrophysiological recordings of astroglial activity are very attractive to study the dynamics of glial signaling. This contribution reports on the use of ultra-sensitive planar electrodes combined with low noise and low frequency amplifiers that enable the detection of extracellular signals produced by primary cultures of astrocytes isolated from mouse cerebral cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109258/definition-of-the-hypothalamic-gnrh-pulse-generator-in-mice
#11
Jenny Clarkson, Su Young Han, Richard Piet, Timothy McLennan, Grace M Kane, Jamie Ng, Robert W Porteous, Joon S Kim, William H Colledge, Karl J Iremonger, Allan E Herbison
The pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone (LH) is critical for mammalian fertility. However, despite several decades of investigation, the identity of the neuronal network generating pulsatile reproductive hormone secretion remains unproven. We use here a variety of optogenetic approaches in freely behaving mice to evaluate the role of the arcuate nucleus kisspeptin (ARN(KISS)) neurons in LH pulse generation. Using GCaMP6 fiber photometry, we find that the ARN(KISS) neuron population exhibits brief (∼1 min) synchronized episodes of calcium activity occurring as frequently as every 9 min in gonadectomized mice...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108940/cortical-layers-rhythms-and-bold-signals
#12
REVIEW
René Scheeringa, Pascal Fries
This review investigates how laminar fMRI can complement insights into brain function derived from the study of rhythmic neuronal synchronization. Neuronal synchronization in various frequency bands plays an important role in neuronal communication between brain areas, and it does so on the backbone of layer-specific interareal anatomical projections. Feedforward projections originate predominantly in supragranular cortical layers and terminate in layer 4, and this pattern is reflected in inter-laminar and interareal directed gamma-band influences...
November 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107683/hypoxia-regulates-the-level-of-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-enzymes-and-interrupts-inhibitory-synapse-stability-in-primary-cultured-neurons
#13
Seojin Hwang, Sangwoo Ham, Seong-Eun Lee, Yunjong Lee, Gum Hwa Lee
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main neurotransmitter of inhibitory synaptic transmission, which is critical for oscillatory activity and synchronization of neurons in neural networks. GABA is synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) enzymes in the inhibitory neuron and, thus, the deregulation of GAD enzymes and subsequent change of GABAergic activity are involved in various neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. Under hypoxic conditions, neurons undergo neuropathological alterations which can be subtle or severe...
October 28, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104149/spatial-attention-modulates-visual-gamma-oscillations-across-the-human-ventral-stream
#14
Lorenzo Magazzini, Krish D Singh
Oscillatory synchronization in the gamma frequency range has been proposed as a neuronal mechanism to prioritize processing of relevant stimuli over competing ones. Recent studies in animals found that selective spatial attention enhanced gamma-band synchronization in high-order visual areas (V4) and increased the gamma peak frequency in V1. The existence of such mechanisms in the human visual system is yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study, we used MEG, in combination with an optimised stimulus design, to record visual gamma oscillations from human early visual cortex, while participants performed a visuospatial attention cueing task...
November 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101393/sensory-coding-accuracy-and-perceptual-performance-are-improved-during-the-desynchronized-cortical-state
#15
Charles B Beaman, Sarah L Eagleman, Valentin Dragoi
Cortical activity changes continuously during the course of the day. At a global scale, population activity varies between the 'synchronized' state during sleep and 'desynchronized' state during waking. However, whether local fluctuations in population synchrony during wakefulness modulate the accuracy of sensory encoding and behavioral performance is poorly understood. Here, we show that populations of cells in monkey visual cortex exhibit rapid fluctuations in synchrony ranging from desynchronized responses, indicative of high alertness, to highly synchronized responses...
November 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097542/lattice-system-of-functionally-distinct-cell-types-in-the-neocortex
#16
Hisato Maruoka, Nao Nakagawa, Shun Tsuruno, Seiichiro Sakai, Taisuke Yoneda, Toshihiko Hosoya
The mammalian neocortex contains many cell types, but whether they organize into repeated structures has been unclear. We discovered that major cell types in neocortical layer 5 form a lattice structure in many brain areas. Large-scale three-dimensional imaging revealed that distinct types of excitatory and inhibitory neurons form cell type-specific radial clusters termed microcolumns. Thousands of microcolumns, in turn, are patterned into a hexagonal mosaic tessellating diverse regions of the neocortex. Microcolumn neurons demonstrate synchronized in vivo activity and visual responses with similar orientation preference and ocular dominance...
November 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096205/stochastic-spike-synchronization-in-a-small-world-neural-network-with-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity
#17
Sang-Yoon Kim, Woochang Lim
We consider the Watts-Strogatz small-world network (SWN) consisting of subthreshold neurons which exhibit noise-induced spikings. This neuronal network has adaptive dynamic synaptic strengths governed by the spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). In previous works without STDP, stochastic spike synchronization (SSS) between noise-induced spikings of subthreshold neurons was found to occur in a range of intermediate noise intensities. Here, we investigate the effect of additive STDP on the SSS by varying the noise intensity...
October 12, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095852/neuronal-correlates-of-ketamine-and-walking-induced-gamma-oscillations-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-mediodorsal-thalamus
#18
Katrina E Furth, Alex J McCoy, Caroline Dodge, Judith R Walters, Andres Buonanno, Claire Delaville
Alterations in the function of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and its major thalamic source of innervation, the mediodorsal (MD) thalamus, have been hypothesized to contribute to the symptoms of schizophrenia. The NMDAR antagonist ketamine, used to model schizophrenia, elicits a brain state resembling early stage schizophrenia characterized by cognitive deficits and increases in cortical low gamma (40-70 Hz) power. Here we sought to determine how ketamine differentially affects spiking and gamma local field potential (LFP) activity in the rat mPFC and MD thalamus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094462/functional-integration-across-oscillation-frequencies-by-cross-frequency-phase-synchronization
#19
J Matias Palva, Satu Palva
Neuronal oscillations and their inter-areal synchronization may be instrumental in regulating neuronal communication in distributed networks. Several lines of research have, however, shown that cognitive tasks engage neuronal oscillations simultaneously in multiple frequency bands that have distinct functional roles in cognitive processing. Gamma oscillations (30-120 Hz) are associated with bottom-up processing while slower oscillations in delta (1-4 Hz), theta- (4-7Hz), alpha (8-14 Hz), and beta (14-30 Hz) frequency bands may have roles in executive or top-down controlling functions, although also other distinctions have been made...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092444/observability-and-synchronization-of-neuron-models
#20
Luis A Aguirre, Leonardo L Portes, Christophe Letellier
Observability is the property that enables recovering the state of a dynamical system from a reduced number of measured variables. In high-dimensional systems, it is therefore important to make sure that the variable recorded to perform the analysis conveys good observability of the system dynamics. The observability of a network of neuron models depends nontrivially on the observability of the node dynamics and on the topology of the network. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, to perform a study of observability using four well-known neuron models by computing three different observability coefficients...
October 2017: Chaos
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