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neuronal synchronization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432303/closed-loop-deep-brain-stimulation-by-pulsatile-delayed-feedback-with-increased-gap-between-pulse-phases
#1
Oleksandr V Popovych, Borys Lysyansky, Peter A Tass
Computationally it was shown that desynchronizing delayed feedback stimulation methods are effective closed-loop techniques for the control of synchronization in ensembles of interacting oscillators. We here computationally design stimulation signals for electrical stimulation of neuronal tissue that preserve the desynchronizing delayed feedback characteristics and comply with mandatory charge deposit-related safety requirements. For this, the amplitude of the high-frequency (HF) train of biphasic charge-balanced pulses used by the standard HF deep brain stimulation (DBS) is modulated by the smooth feedback signals...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429067/neuronal-oscillations-and-synchronicity-associated-with-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-during-resting-state-in-healthy-male-volunteers
#2
Robin von Rotz, Michael Kometer, Dario Dornbierer, Jürg Gertsch, M Salomé Gachet, Franz X Vollenweider, Erich Seifritz, Oliver G Bosch, Boris B Quednow
RATIONALE: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a putative neurotransmitter, a drug of abuse, an anesthetic agent, and a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. In previous electroencephalography (EEG) studies, GHB was shown to induce an electrophysiological pattern of "paradoxical EEG-behavioral dissociation" characterized by increased delta and theta oscillations usually associated with sleep during awake states. However, no detailed source localization of these alterations and no connectivity analyses have been performed yet...
April 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427143/activity-induced-spontaneous-spikes-in-gabaergic-neurons-suppress-seizure-discharges-an-implication-of-computational-modeling
#3
Wei Lu, Jing Feng, Bo Wen, Kewei Wang, Jin-Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy, a prevalent neurological disorder, appears self-termination. The endogenous mechanism for seizure self-termination remains to be addressed in order to develop new strategies for epilepsy treatment. We aim to examine the role of activity-induced spontaneous spikes at GABAergic neurons as an endogenous mechanism in the seizure self-termination. METHODS AND RESULTS: Neuronal spikes were induced by depolarization pulses at cortical GABAergic neurons from temporal lobe epilepsy patients and mice, in which some of these neurons fired activity-induced spontaneous spikes...
February 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422957/towards-a-theory-of-cortical-columns-from-spiking-neurons-to-interacting-neural-populations-of-finite-size
#4
Tilo Schwalger, Moritz Deger, Wulfram Gerstner
Neural population equations such as neural mass or field models are widely used to study brain activity on a large scale. However, the relation of these models to the properties of single neurons is unclear. Here we derive an equation for several interacting populations at the mesoscopic scale starting from a microscopic model of randomly connected generalized integrate-and-fire neuron models. Each population consists of 50-2000 neurons of the same type but different populations account for different neuron types...
April 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416595/nonsinusoidal-beta-oscillations-reflect-cortical-pathophysiology-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Scott R Cole, Roemer van der Meij, Erik J Peterson, Coralie de Hemptinne, Philip A Starr, Bradley Voytek
Oscillations in neural activity play a critical role in neural computation and communication. There is intriguing new evidence that the nonsinusoidal features of the oscillatory waveforms may inform underlying physiological and pathophysiological characteristics. Time-domain waveform analysis approaches stand in contrast to traditional Fourier-based methods, which alter or destroy subtle waveform features. Recently it has been shown that the waveform features of oscillatory beta (13-30 Hz) events-a prominent motor cortical oscillation-may reflect near-synchronous excitatory synaptic inputs onto cortical pyramidal neurons...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416459/the-error-of-broca-from-the-traditional-localizationist-concept-to-a-connectomal-anatomy-of-human-brain
#6
REVIEW
Hugues Duffau
Neurology, especially aphasiology, was mainly built on behavioral-structural correlations ("lesion method"). In this setting, Broca's area has been considered as the "speech area"; moreover, this observation led to localizationism. However, advances in brain mapping techniques, as functional neuroimaging and direct electrical stimulation in patients undergoing awake surgery for gliomas, has resulted in a paradigmatic shift regarding models of neural architecture. In fact, the brain is organized in distributed complex networks underpinning sensorimotor, visuospatial, language, cognitive and emotional functions...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415286/dissociation-between-two-subgroups-of-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-affected-by-the-number-of-damped-oscillated-neurons
#7
Changgui Gu, Huijie Yang, Jos Ht Rohling
In mammals, the main clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain synchronizes the body rhythms to the environmental light-dark cycle. The SCN is composed of about 2×10^{4} neurons which can be classified into three oscillatory phenotypes: self-sustained oscillators, damped oscillators, and arrhythmic neurons. Exposed to an artificial external light-dark cycle with a period of 22h instead of 24h, two subgroups of the SCN can become desynchronized (dissociated). The ventrolateral (VL) subgroup receives photic input and is entrained to the external cycle and a dorsomedial (DM) subgroup oscillates with its endogenous (i...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415246/synchronization-dynamics-on-the-picosecond-time-scale-in-coupled-josephson-junction-neurons
#8
K Segall, M LeGro, S Kaplan, O Svitelskiy, S Khadka, P Crotty, D Schult
Conventional digital computation is rapidly approaching physical limits for speed and energy dissipation. Here we fabricate and test a simple neuromorphic circuit that models neuronal somas, axons, and synapses with superconducting Josephson junctions. The circuit models two mutually coupled excitatory neurons. In some regions of parameter space the neurons are desynchronized. In others, the Josephson neurons synchronize in one of two states, in-phase or antiphase. An experimental alteration of the delay and strength of the connecting synapses can toggle the system back and forth in a phase-flip bifurcation...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415206/chimera-patterns-in-two-dimensional-networks-of-coupled-neurons
#9
Alexander Schmidt, Theodoros Kasimatis, Johanne Hizanidis, Astero Provata, Philipp Hövel
We discuss synchronization patterns in networks of FitzHugh-Nagumo and leaky integrate-and-fire oscillators coupled in a two-dimensional toroidal geometry. A common feature between the two models is the presence of fast and slow dynamics, a typical characteristic of neurons. Earlier studies have demonstrated that both models when coupled nonlocally in one-dimensional ring networks produce chimera states for a large range of parameter values. In this study, we give evidence of a plethora of two-dimensional chimera patterns of various shapes, including spots, rings, stripes, and grids, observed in both models, as well as additional patterns found mainly in the FitzHugh-Nagumo system...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411270/short-term-facilitation-at-a-detonator-synapse-requires-the-distinct-contribution-of-multiple-types-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channels
#10
Simon Chamberland, Alesya Evstratova, Katalin Tóth
Neuronal calcium elevations are shaped by several key parameters, including the properties, density, and the spatial location of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). These features allow presynaptic terminals to translate complex firing frequencies and tune the amount of neurotransmitter released. While synchronous neurotransmitter release relies on both P/Q- and N-type VGCCs at hippocampal MF-CA3 synapses, the specific contribution of VGCCs to calcium dynamics, neurotransmitter release and short-term facilitation remains unknown...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410418/heterogeneous-firing-responses-predict-diverse-couplings-to-presynaptic-activity-in-mice-layer-v-pyramidal-neurons
#11
Yann Zerlaut, Alain Destexhe
In this study, we present a theoretical framework combining experimental characterizations and analytical calculus to capture the firing rate input-output properties of single neurons in the fluctuation-driven regime. Our framework consists of a two-step procedure to treat independently how the dendritic input translates into somatic fluctuation variables, and how the latter determine action potential firing. We use this framework to investigate the functional impact of the heterogeneity in firing responses found experimentally in young mice layer V pyramidal cells...
April 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409112/plasticity-of-premotor-cortico-muscular-coherence-in-severely-impaired-stroke-patients-with-hand-paralysis
#12
Paolo Belardinelli, Leonard Laer, Erick Ortiz, Christoph Braun, Alireza Gharabaghi
Motor recovery in severely impaired stroke patients is often very limited. To refine therapeutic interventions for regaining motor control in this patient group, the functionally relevant mechanisms of neuronal plasticity need to be detected. Cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) may provide physiological and topographic insights to achieve this goal. Synchronizing limb movements to motor-related brain activation is hypothesized to reestablish cortico-motor control indexed by CMC. In the present study, right-handed, chronic stroke patients with right-hemispheric lesions and left hand paralysis participated in a four-week training for their left upper extremity...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401888/advances-in-pancreatic-islet-monolayer-culture-on-glass-surfaces-enable-super-resolution-microscopy-and-insights-into-beta-cell-ciliogenesis-and-proliferation
#13
Edward A Phelps, Chiara Cianciaruso, Jaime Santo-Domingo, Miriella Pasquier, Gabriele Galliverti, Lorenzo Piemonti, Ekaterine Berishvili, Olivier Burri, Andreas Wiederkehr, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Steinunn Baekkeskov
A robust and reproducible method for culturing monolayers of adherent and well-spread primary islet cells on glass coverslips is required for detailed imaging studies by super-resolution and live-cell microscopy. Guided by an observation that dispersed islet cells spread and adhere well on glass surfaces in neuronal co-culture and form a monolayer of connected cells, we demonstrate that in the absence of neurons, well-defined surface coatings combined with components of neuronal culture media collectively support robust attachment and growth of primary human or rat islet cells as monolayers on glass surfaces...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385873/synaptic-targeting-of-double-projecting-ventral-ca1-hippocampal-neurons-to-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-basal-amygdala
#14
Woong Bin Kim, Jun-Hyeong Cho
The acquisition and retrieval of contextual fear memory requires coordinated neural activity in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and amygdala. The contextual information encoded in the hippocampus is conveyed to the mPFC and amygdala for contextual fear conditioning. Previous studies have suggested that a CA1 neuronal population in the ventral hippocampus (VH) projects to both the mPFC and amygdala and is recruited in context-dependent control of conditioned fear. However, how double-projecting ventral CA1 (vCA1) neurons modulate the activity of the mPFC and amygdala at the synaptic level has not been previously determined...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384268/interplay-between-periodic-stimulation-and-gabaergic-inhibition-in-striatal-network-oscillations
#15
Jovana J Belić, Arvind Kumar, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski
Network oscillations are ubiquitous across many brain regions. In the basal ganglia, oscillations are also present at many levels and a wide range of characteristic frequencies have been reported to occur during both health and disease. The striatum, the main input nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives massive glutamatergic inputs from the cortex and is highly susceptible to external oscillations. However, there is limited knowledge about the exact nature of this routing process and therefore, it is of key importance to understand how time-dependent, external stimuli propagate through the striatal circuitry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380364/organization-of-circadian-behavior-relies-on-glycinergic-transmission
#16
Lia Frenkel, Nara I Muraro, Andrea N Beltrán González, María S Marcora, Guillermo Bernabó, Christiane Hermann-Luibl, Juan I Romero, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Eduardo M Castaño, Cristina Marino-Busjle, Daniel J Calvo, M Fernanda Ceriani
The small ventral lateral neurons (sLNvs) constitute a central circadian pacemaker in the Drosophila brain. They organize daily locomotor activity, partly through the release of the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), coordinating the action of the remaining clusters required for network synchronization. Despite extensive efforts, the basic principles underlying communication among circadian clusters remain obscure. We identified classical neurotransmitters released by sLNvs through disruption of specific transporters...
April 4, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377699/computational-model-of-recurrent-subthalamo-pallidal-circuit-for-generation-of-parkinsonian-oscillations
#17
Osamu Shouno, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Atsushi Nambu, Kenji Doya
Parkinson's disease is a movement disorder caused by dopamine depletion in the basal ganglia. Abnormally synchronized neuronal oscillations between 8 and 15 Hz in the basal ganglia are implicated in motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, how these abnormal oscillations are generated and maintained in the dopamine-depleted state is unknown. Based on neural recordings in a primate model of Parkinson's disease and other experimental and computational evidence, we hypothesized that the recurrent circuit between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) generates and maintains parkinsonian oscillations, and that the cortical excitatory input to the STN amplifies them...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374013/communication-between-brain-areas-based-on-nested-oscillations
#18
Mathilde Bonnefond, Sabine Kastner, Ole Jensen
Unraveling how brain regions communicate is crucial for understanding how the brain processes external and internal information. Neuronal oscillations within and across brain regions have been proposed to play a crucial role in this process. Two main hypotheses have been suggested for routing of information based on oscillations, namely communication through coherence and gating by inhibition. Here, we propose a framework unifying these two hypotheses that is based on recent empirical findings. We discuss a theory in which communication between two regions is established by phase synchronization of oscillations at lower frequencies (<25 Hz), which serve as temporal reference frame for information carried by high-frequency activity (>40 Hz)...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373712/a-small-change-in-neuronal-network-topology-can-induce-explosive-synchronization-transition-and-activity-propagation-in-the-entire-network
#19
Zhenhua Wang, Changhai Tian, Mukesh Dhamala, Zonghua Liu
We here study explosive synchronization transitions and network activity propagation in networks of coupled neurons to provide a new understanding of the relationship between network topology and explosive dynamical transitions as in epileptic seizures and their propagations in the brain. We model local network motifs and configurations of coupled neurons and analyze the activity propagations between a group of active neurons to their inactive neuron neighbors in a variety of network configurations. We find that neuronal activity propagation is limited to local regions when network is highly clustered with modular structures as in the normal brain networks...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367402/increased-long-distance-event-related-gamma-band-connectivity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Erol Başar, Banu Femir, Derya Durusu Emek-Savaş, Bahar Güntekin, Görsev G Yener
BACKGROUND: Brain oscillatory responses can be used for non-invasive analyses of cortico-cortical connectivity, local neuronal synchronization, and coherence of oscillations in many neuropsychiatric conditions including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present paper, we examine sensory-evoked and event-related gamma coherences elicited by visual stimuli in three sub-gamma bands in two sub-groups of patients with AD (i.e., acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor treated and untreated) and healthy controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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