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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935581/crosstalks-between-kisspeptin-neurons-and-somatostatin-neurons-are-not-photoperiod-dependent-in-the-ewe-hypothalamus
#1
Laurence Dufourny, Didier Lomet
Seasonal reproduction is under the control of gonadal steroid feedback, itself synchronized by day-length or photoperiod. As steroid action on GnRH neurons is mostly indirect and therefore exerted through interneurons, we looked for neuroanatomical interactions between kisspeptin (KP) neurons and somatostatin (SOM) neurons, two populations targeted by sex steroids, in three diencephalic areas involved in the central control of ovulation and/or sexual behavior: the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the preoptic area (POA) and the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl)...
September 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931930/bistability-and-up-down-state-alternations-in-inhibition-dominated-randomly-connected-networks-of-lif-neurons
#2
Elisa M Tartaglia, Nicolas Brunel
Electrophysiological recordings in cortex in vivo have revealed a rich variety of dynamical regimes ranging from irregular asynchronous states to a diversity of synchronized states, depending on species, anesthesia, and external stimulation. The average population firing rate in these states is typically low. We study analytically and numerically a network of sparsely connected excitatory and inhibitory integrate-and-fire neurons in the inhibition-dominated, low firing rate regime. For sufficiently high values of the external input, the network exhibits an asynchronous low firing frequency state (L)...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928646/cortical-activation-during-action-observation-action-execution-and-interpersonal-synchrony-in-adults-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs-study
#3
Anjana N Bhat, Michael D Hoffman, Susanna L Trost, McKenzie L Culotta, Jeffrey Eilbott, Daisuke Tsuzuki, Kevin A Pelphrey
Introduction: Humans engage in Interpersonal Synchrony (IPS) as they synchronize their own actions with that of a social partner over time. When humans engage in imitation/IPS behaviors, multiple regions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices are activated including the putative Mirror Neuron Systems (Iacoboni, 2005; Buxbaum et al., 2014). In the present study, we compared fNIRS-based cortical activation patterns across three conditions of action observation ("Watch" partner), action execution ("Do" on your own), and IPS (move "Together")...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922856/building-up-absence-seizures-in-the-somatosensory-cortex-from-network-to-cellular-epileptogenic-processes
#4
Guillaume Jarre, Tristan Altwegg-Boussac, Mark S Williams, Florian Studer, Mathilde Chipaux, Olivier David, Stéphane Charpier, Antoine Depaulis, Séverine Mahon, Isabelle Guillemain
The epileptogenic processes leading to recurrent seizures in Genetic Epilepsies are largely unknown. Using the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rat from Strasbourg, we investigated in vivo the network and single neuron mechanisms responsible for the early emergence of epileptic activity. Local field potential recordings in the primary somatosensory cortex (SoCx), from the second post-natal week to adulthood, showed that immature cortical discharges progressively evolved into typical spike-and-wave discharges following a 3-step maturation process...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922129/dissipativity-and-synchronization-of-generalized-bam-neural-networks-with-multivariate-discontinuous-activations
#5
Dongshu Wang, Lihong Huang, Longkun Tang
This paper is concerned with the dissipativity and synchronization problems of a class of delayed bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks in which neuron activations are modeled by discontinuous bivariate functions. First, the concept of the Filippov solution is extended to functional differential equations with discontinuous right-hand sides and mixed delays via functional differential inclusions. The global dissipativity of the Filippov solution to the considered BAM neural networks is proven using generalized Halanay inequalities and matrix measure approaches...
September 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921856/disruption-of-perineuronal-nets-increases-the-frequency-of-sharp-wave-ripple-events
#6
ZhiYong Sun, P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Adam Caccavano, Megan Allen, Jason Balmuth, Stefano Vicini, Jian-Young Wu, Katherine Conant
Hippocampal sharp wave ripples (SWRs) represent irregularly occurring synchronous neuronal population events that are observed during phases of rest and slow wave sleep. SWR activity that follows learning involves sequential replay of training-associated neuronal assemblies and is critical for systems level memory consolidation. SWRs are initiated by CA2 or CA3 pyramidal cells and require initial excitation of CA1 pyramidal cells as well as participation of parvalbumin (PV) expressing fast spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921823/encoding-seasonal-information-in-a-two-oscillator-model-of-the-multi-oscillator-circadian-clock
#7
Jihwan Myung, Scott D Pauls
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a collection of about 10,000 neurons, each of which functions as a circadian clock with slightly different periods and phases, that work in concert to form and maintain the master circadian clock for the organism. The diversity among neurons confers on the SCN the ability to robustly encode both the 24-hour light pattern as well as the seasonal time. Cluster synchronization brings the different neurons into line and reduces the large population to essentially two oscillators, coordinated by a macroscopic network motif of asymmetric repulsive-attractive coupling...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917695/the-impact-of-gabaergic-drugs-on-tms-induced-brain-oscillations-in-human-motor-cortex
#8
Isabella Premoli, Til O Bergmann, Matteo Fecchio, Mario Rosanova, Andrea Biondi, Paolo Belardinelli, Ulf Ziemann
Brain responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as measured with electroencephalography (EEG) have so far been assessed either by TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs), mostly reflecting phase-locked neuronal activity, or time-frequency-representations (TFRs), reflecting oscillatory power arising from a mixture of both evoked (i.e., phase-locked) and induced (i.e., non-phase-locked) responses. Single-pulse TMS of the human primary motor cortex induces a specific pattern of oscillatory changes, characterized by an early (30-200 ms after TMS) synchronization in the α- and β-bands over the stimulated sensorimotor cortex and adjacent lateral frontal cortex, followed by a late (200-400 ms) α- and β-desynchronization over the stimulated and contralateral sensorimotor cortex...
September 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916788/a-v0-core-neuronal-circuit-for-inspiration
#9
Jinjin Wu, Paolo Capelli, Julien Bouvier, Martyn Goulding, Silvia Arber, Gilles Fortin
Breathing in mammals relies on permanent rhythmic and bilaterally synchronized contractions of inspiratory pump muscles. These motor drives emerge from interactions between critical sets of brainstem neurons whose origins and synaptic ordered organization remain obscure. Here, we show, using a virus-based transsynaptic tracing strategy from the diaphragm muscle in the mouse, that the principal inspiratory premotor neurons share V0 identity with, and are connected by, neurons of the preBötzinger complex that paces inspiration...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912694/from-cortical-blindness-to-conscious-visual-perception-theories-on-neuronal-networks-and-visual-training-strategies
#10
REVIEW
Vanessa Hadid, Franco Lepore
Homonymous hemianopia (HH) is the most common cortical visual impairment leading to blindness in the contralateral hemifield. It is associated with many inconveniences and daily restrictions such as exploration and visual orientation difficulties. However, patients with HH can preserve the remarkable ability to unconsciously perceive visual stimuli presented in their blindfield, a phenomenon known as blindsight. Unfortunately, the nature of this captivating residual ability is still misunderstood and the rehabilitation strategies in terms of visual training have been insufficiently exploited...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912551/the-antipsychotic-drugs-olanzapine-and-haloperidol-modify-network-connectivity-and-spontaneous-activity-of-neural-networks-in-vitro
#11
Egor Dzyubenko, Georg Juckel, Andreas Faissner
Impaired neural synchronization is a hallmark of psychotic conditions such as schizophrenia. It has been proposed that schizophrenia-related cognitive deficits are caused by an unbalance of reciprocal inhibitory and stimulatory signaling. This supposedly leads to decreased power of induced gamma oscillations during the performance of cognitive tasks. In light of this hypothesis an efficient antipsychotic treatment should modify the connectivity and synchronization of local neural circuits. To address this issue, we investigated a model of hippocampal neuronal networks in vitro...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910740/generation-of-low-gamma-oscillations-in-a-gabaergic-network-model-of-the-striatum
#12
Zhihua Wu, Aike Guo, Xiaodi Fu
Striatal oscillations in the low-gamma frequency range have been consistently recorded in a number of experimental studies. However, whether these rhythms are locally generated in the striatum circuit, which is mainly composed of GABAergic neurons, remains an open question. GABAergic medium spiny projection neurons represent the great majority of striatal neurons, but they fire at very low rates. GABAergic fast-spiking interneurons typically show firing rates that are approximately 10 times higher than those of principal neurons, but they are a very small minority of the total neuronal population...
September 11, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903981/serotonin-drives-predatory-feeding-behavior-via-synchronous-feeding-rhythms-in-the-nematode-pristionchus-pacificus
#13
Misako Okumura, Martin Wilecki, Ralf J Sommer
Feeding behaviors in a wide range of animals are regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, although the exact neural circuits and associated mechanism are often unknown. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus can kill other nematodes by opening prey cuticles with movable teeth. Previous studies showed that exogenous serotonin treatment induces a predatory-like tooth movement and slower pharyngeal pumping in the absence of prey, however, physiological functions of serotonin during predation and other behaviors in P...
September 13, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900900/mapping-the-information-trace-in-local-field-potentials-by-a-computational-method-of-two-dimensional-time-shifting-synchronization-likelihood-based-on-graphic-processing-unit-acceleration
#14
Zi-Fang Zhao, Xue-Zhu Li, You Wan
The local field potential (LFP) is a signal reflecting the electrical activity of neurons surrounding the electrode tip. Synchronization between LFP signals provides important details about how neural networks are organized. Synchronization between two distant brain regions is hard to detect using linear synchronization algorithms like correlation and coherence. Synchronization likelihood (SL) is a non-linear synchronization-detecting algorithm widely used in studies of neural signals from two distant brain areas...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900188/decoding-finger-movement-in-humans-using-synergy-of-eeg-cortical-current-signals
#15
Natsue Yoshimura, Hayato Tsuda, Toshihiro Kawase, Hiroyuki Kambara, Yasuharu Koike
The synchronized activity of neuronal populations across multiple distant brain areas may reflect coordinated interactions of large-scale brain networks. Currently, there is no established method to investigate the temporal transitions between these large-scale networks that would allow, for example, to decode finger movements. Here we applied a matrix factorization method employing principal component and temporal independent component analyses to identify brain activity synchronizations. In accordance with previous studies investigating "muscle synergies", we refer to this activity as "brain activity synergy"...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899919/astrocyte-mediated-neuronal-synchronisation-properties-revealed-by-false-gliotransmitter-release
#16
Tiina M Pirttimaki, Robert E Sims, Gregory Saunders, Serena A Antonio, Neela Krushna Codadu, H Rheinallt Parri
Astrocytes spontaneously release glutamate as a gliotransmitter (GT) resulting in the generation of extrasynaptic NMDA-R mediated slow inward currents (SICs) in neighbouring neurons, which can increase local neuronal excitability. However, there is a deficit in our knowledge of the factors that control spontaneous astrocyte GT release, and the extent of its influence. We found that in rat brain slices, increasing the supply of the physiological transmitter glutamate increased the frequency and signalling charge of SICs over an extended period...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893998/engineering-a-light-activated-caspase-3-for-precise-ablation-of-neurons-in-vivo
#17
Ashley D Smart, Roland A Pache, Nathan D Thomsen, Tanja Kortemme, Graeme W Davis, James A Wells
The circuitry of the brain is characterized by cell heterogeneity, sprawling cellular anatomy, and astonishingly complex patterns of connectivity. Determining how complex neural circuits control behavior is a major challenge that is often approached using surgical, chemical, or transgenic approaches to ablate neurons. However, all these approaches suffer from a lack of precise spatial and temporal control. This drawback would be overcome if cellular ablation could be controlled with light. Cells are naturally and cleanly ablated through apoptosis due to the terminal activation of caspases...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890054/home-cage-odors-spatial-cues-elicit-theta-phase-gamma-amplitude-coupling-between-olfactory-bulb-and-dorsal-hippocampus
#18
Roberta Ribas Pena, Daniel de Castro Medeiros, Leonardo de Oliveira Guarnieri, Julio Boriollo Guerra, Vinícius Rezende Carvalho, Eduardo Mazoni Andrade Marçal Mendes, Grace Schenatto Pereira, Márcio Flávio Dutra Moraes
The brain oscillations may play a critical role in synchronizing neuronal assemblies in order to establish appropriate sensory-motor integration. In fact, studies have demonstrated phase-amplitude coupling of distinct oscillatory rhythms during cognitive processes. Here we investigated whether olfacto-hippocampal coupling occurs when mice are detecting familiar odors located in a spatially restricted area of a new context. The spatial olfactory task (SOT) was designed to expose mice to a new environment in which only one quadrant (target) contains odors provided by its own home-cage bedding...
September 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887898/beta-band-oscillations-during-passive-listening-to-metronome-sounds-reflect-improved-timing-representation-after-short-term-musical-training-in-healthy-older-adults
#19
Takako Fujioka, Bernhard Ross
Sub-second time intervals in musical rhythms provide predictive cues about future events to performers and listeners through an internalized representation of timing. While the acuity of automatic, sub-second timing as well as cognitively controlled, supra-second timing declines with aging, musical experts are less affected. The present study investigated the influence of piano training on temporal processing abilities in older adults using behavioural and neuronal correlates. We hypothesized that neuroplastic changes in beta networks, caused by training in sensorimotor coordination with timing processing, can be assessed even in the absence of movement...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887593/v-snare-function-in-chromaffin-cells
#20
REVIEW
Madhurima Dhara, Ralf Mohrmann, Dieter Bruns
Vesicle fusion is elementary for intracellular trafficking and release of signal molecules, thus providing the basis for diverse forms of intercellular communication like hormonal regulation or synaptic transmission. A detailed characterization of the mechanisms underlying exocytosis is key to understand how the nervous system integrates information and generates appropriate responses to stimuli. The machinery for vesicular release employs common molecular players in different model systems including neuronal and neuroendocrine cells, in particular members of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) protein family, Sec1/Munc18-like proteins, and other accessory factors...
September 8, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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