Read by QxMD icon Read

neural synchronization

Marijn Bart Martens, Monica Frega, Jessica Classen, Lisa Epping, Elske Bijvank, Marco Benevento, Hans van Bokhoven, Paul Tiesinga, Dirk Schubert, Nael Nadif Kasri
Heterozygous mutations or deletions in the human Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene cause Kleefstra syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by autistic-like features and severe intellectual disability (ID). Neurodevelopmental disorders including ID and autism may be related to deficits in activity-dependent wiring of brain circuits during development. Although Kleefstra syndrome has been associated with dendritic and synaptic defects in mice and Drosophila, little is known about the role of EHMT1 in the development of cortical neuronal networks...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kenneth S Henry, Kristina S Abrams, Johanna Forst, Matthew J Mender, Erikson G Neilans, Fabio Idrobo, Laurel H Carney
Vowels make a strong contribution to speech perception under natural conditions. Vowels are encoded in the auditory nerve primarily through neural synchrony to temporal fine structure and to envelope fluctuations rather than through average discharge rate. Neural synchrony is thought to contribute less to vowel coding in central auditory nuclei, consistent with more limited synchronization to fine structure and the emergence of average-rate coding of envelope fluctuations. However, this hypothesis is largely unexplored, especially in background noise...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Lisa M James, Brian E Engdahl, Arthur C Leuthold, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: We recently reported that six alleles from class II genes of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) confer protection from Gulf War Illness (GWI) (Georgopoulos et al., 2015). The most significant effect is exerted on Neurological-Cognitive-Mood (NCM), Pain, and Fatigue symptoms, such that higher number of copies of the protective alleles are associated with lower symptom severity. Here we tested the hypothesis that this effect is exerted by modulating the strength of neural synchronicity...
October 14, 2016: EBioMedicine
Chien-Cheng Chen, Christopher J Bockisch, Dominik Straumann, Melody Ying-Yu Huang
Spontaneous eye movements of zebrafish larvae in the dark consist of centrifugal saccades that move the eyes from a central to an eccentric position and postsaccadic centripetal drifts. In a previous study, we showed that the fitted single-exponential time constants of the postsaccadic drifts are longer in the temporal-to-nasal (T->N) direction than in the nasal-to-temporal (N->T) direction. In the present study, we further report that saccadic peak velocities are higher and saccadic amplitudes are larger in the N->T direction than in the T->N direction...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Ariel Haimovici, Pablo Balenzuela, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Synchronization of brain activity fluctuations is believed to represent communication between spatially distant neural processes. These inter-areal functional interactions develop in the background of a complex network of axonal connections linking cortical and sub-cortical neurons, termed the human "structural connectome". Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence support the view that the human brain can be modeled as a system operating at a critical point between ordered (sub-critical) and disordered (super-critical) phases...
October 19, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Tetsuya Iidaka
Humor perception is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human societies. In theories of humor perception, three factors, non-seriousness, social context, and incongruity, have been implicated in humor. In another theory, however, elaboration and reinterpretation of contexts are considered to play a role in eliciting humor. Although the neural correlates of humor appreciation have been investigated using neuroimaging methods, only a few studies have conducted such experiments under natural conditions. In the present study, two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, using a comedy movie as a stimulus, were conducted to investigate the neural correlates of humor under natural conditions...
October 18, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Nicole David, Till R Schneider, Ina Peiker, Reem Al-Jawahiri, Andreas K Engel, Elizabeth Milne
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been associated with altered neural oscillations, especially fast oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range, suggesting fundamentally disturbed temporal coordination of activity during information processing. A detailed review of available cortical oscillation studies in ASD does not convey a clear-cut picture with respect to dysfunctional oscillation patterns in the gamma or other frequency ranges. Recent evidence suggests that instead of a general failure to activate or synchronize the cortex, there is greater intra-participant variability across behavioral, fMRI and EEG responses in ASD...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Guoxing Wen, C L Philip Chen, Yan-Jun Liu, Zhi Liu
Compared with the existing neural network (NN) or fuzzy logic system (FLS) based adaptive consensus methods, the proposed approach can greatly alleviate the computation burden because it needs only to update a few adaptive parameters online. In the multiagent agreement control, the system uncertainties derive from the unknown nonlinear dynamics are counteracted by employing the adaptive NNs; the state delays are compensated by designing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. Finally, based on Lyapunov stability theory, it is demonstrated that the proposed consensus scheme can steer a multiagent system synchronizing to the predefined reference signals...
October 11, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Bing Cao, Jun Wang, Mahadi Shahed, Beth Jelfs, Rosa H M Chan, Ying Li
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can enhance memory and cognitive functions in both rats and humans. Studies have shown that VNS influenced decision-making in epileptic patients. However, the sites of action involved in the cognitive-enhancement are poorly understood. By employing a conscious rat model equipped with vagus nerve cuff electrode, we assess the role of chronic VNS on decision-making in rat gambling task (RGT). Simultaneous multichannel-recordings offer an ideal setup to test the hypothesis that VNS may induce alterations of in both spike-field-coherence and synchronization of theta oscillations across brain areas in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Daihong Liu, Shanshan Duan, Jiuquan Zhang, Chaoyang Zhou, Minglong Liang, Xuntao Yin, Ping Wei, Jian Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with cognitive impairment. However, its neurological mechanism remains elusive. Combining regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) analyses, the present study aimed to investigate brain functional alterations in middle-aged T2DM patients, which could provide complementary information for the neural substrates underlying T2DM-associated brain dysfunction. Twenty-five T2DM patients and 25 healthy controls were involved in neuropsychological testing and structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data acquisition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sven Gottschalk, Thomas Felix Fehm, Xose Luís Deán-Ben, Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Daniel Razansky
Visualization of whole brain activity during epileptic seizures is essential for both fundamental research into the disease mechanisms and the development of efficient treatment strategies. It has been previously discussed that pathological synchronization originating from cortical areas may reinforce backpropagating signaling from the thalamic neurons, leading to massive seizures through enhancement of high frequency neural activity in the thalamocortical loop. However, the study of deep brain neural activity is challenging with the existing functional neuroimaging methods due to lack of adequate spatiotemporal resolution or otherwise insufficient penetration into subcortical areas...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
Miguel Aguilera, Manuel G Bedia, Xabier E Barandiaran
The hypothesis that brain organization is based on mechanisms of metastable synchronization in neural assemblies has been popularized during the last decades of neuroscientific research. Nevertheless, the role of body and environment for understanding the functioning of metastable assemblies is frequently dismissed. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the contribution of sensorimotor coupling to neural and behavioral metastability using a minimal computational model of plastic neural ensembles embedded in a robotic agent in a behavioral preference task...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Abdujelil Abdurahman, Haijun Jiang
This paper investigates the exponential synchronization of delayed memristor-based neural networks (MNNs) with discontinuous activation functions. Based on the framework of Filippov solution and differential inclusion theory, using new analytical techniques and introducing suitable Lyapunov functionals, some novel sufficient conditions ensuring the exponential synchronization of considered networks are established via two types of discontinuous controls: linear feedback control and adaptive control. In particular, we extend the discontinuous control strategies for neural networks with continuous dynamics to MNNs with discontinuous activations...
September 10, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Rodrigo Echeveste, Claudius Gros
The study of balanced networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons has led to several open questions. On the one hand it is yet unclear whether the asynchronous state observed in the brain is autonomously generated, or if it results from the interplay between external drivings and internal dynamics. It is also not known, which kind of network variabilities will lead to irregular spiking and which to synchronous firing states. Here we show how isolated networks of purely excitatory neurons generically show asynchronous firing whenever a minimal level of structural variability is present together with a refractory period...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Erica L Schoeller, Daniel D Clark, Sandeepa Dey, Nathan V Cao, Sheila J Semaan, Ling W Chao, Alexander S Kauffman, Lisa Stowers, Pamela L Mellon
Circadian rhythms synchronize physiological processes with the light-dark cycle and are regulated by a hierarchical system initiated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a hypothalamic region that receives direct photic input. The SCN then entrains additional oscillators in the periphery. Circadian rhythms are maintained by a molecular transcriptional feedback loop, of which BMAL1 is a key member. Disruption of circadian rhythms by deletion of the BMAL1 gene (Bmal1 KO) induces a variety of disease states, including infertility in males, due to unidentified mechanisms...
October 5, 2016: Endocrinology
Kali Woodruff Carr, Ahren B Fitzroy, Adam Tierney, Travis White-Schwoch, Nina Kraus
Speech communication involves integration and coordination of sensory perception and motor production, requiring precise temporal coupling. Beat synchronization, the coordination of movement with a pacing sound, can be used as an index of this sensorimotor timing. We assessed adolescents' synchronization and capacity to correct asynchronies when given online visual feedback. Variability of synchronization while receiving feedback predicted phonological memory and reading sub-skills, as well as maturation of cortical auditory processing; less variable synchronization during the presence of feedback tracked with maturation of cortical processing of sound onsets and resting gamma activity...
October 1, 2016: Brain and Language
Simona Ferrante, Noelia Chia Bejarano, Emilia Ambrosini, Antonio Nardone, Anna M Turcato, Marco Monticone, Giancarlo Ferrigno, Alessandra Pedrocchi
It has been largely suggested in neuroscience literature that to generate a vast variety of movements, the Central Nervous System (CNS) recruits a reduced set of coordinated patterns of muscle activities, defined as muscle synergies. Recent neurophysiological studies have recommended the analysis of muscle synergies to finely assess the patient's impairment, to design personalized interventions based on the specific nature of the impairment, and to evaluate the treatment outcomes. In this scope, the aim of this study was to design a personalized multi-channel functional electrical stimulation (FES) controller for gait training, integrating three novel aspects: (1) the FES strategy was based on healthy muscle synergies in order to mimic the neural solutions adopted by the CNS to generate locomotion; (2) the FES strategy was personalized according to an initial locomotion assessment of the patient and was designed to specifically activate the impaired biomechanical functions; (3) the FES strategy was mapped accurately on the altered gait kinematics providing a maximal synchronization between patient's volitional gait and stimulation patterns...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Xueliang Shang, Bo Xu, Qun Li, Baohui Zhai, Xiaxia Xu, Tao Zhang
This study aims to investigate if neural oscillations can play a role as a bridge between the alteration of glutamatergic system and emotional behaviors in simulated microgravity (SM) mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups: SM and control groups. The animal model was established by hindlimb unloading (HU). The mice were exposed to HU continued for 14days. Weight and sucrose consumption were measured. The degree of anxious and depressive was evaluated by Open field test and Elevated plus maze test...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Yannick Daviaux, Sylvain Cremoux, Jessica Tallet, David Amarantini, Christophe Cornu, Thibault Deschamps
It is known that anxiety (ANX) impairs action-perception coupling. This study tests whether this impairment could be associated with an alteration of the sensorimotor function. To this aim, the cortical activities underlying the sensorimotor function were recorded in twelve volunteers in a reach-to-grasp paradigm, in which the level of ANX and the position of a glass were manipulated. The experimental manipulation of the ANX-related somatosensory state was expected to prompt participants to underestimate their reaching-to-grasp capabilities while the sensorimotor-related oscillatory brain activities around the 6-Hz (θ) frequency over motor-related and parietal regions were expected to be modulated...
September 28, 2016: Neuroscience
Edson Filho, Maurizio Bertollo, Gabriella Tamburro, Lorenzo Schinaia, Jonas Chatel-Goldman, Selenia di Fronso, Claudio Robazza, Silvia Comani
BACKGROUND: Research on cooperative behavior and the social brain exists, but little research has focused on real-time motor cooperative behavior and its neural correlates. In this proof of concept study, we explored the conceptual notion of shared and complementary mental models through EEG mapping of two brains performing a real-world interactive motor task of increasing difficulty. We used the recently introduced participative "juggling paradigm," and collected neuro-physiological and psycho-social data...
2016: PeerJ
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"