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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923505/optogenetic-entrainment-of-neural-oscillations-with-hybrid-fiber-probes
#1
Antje Kilias, Andres Canales, Ulrich P Froriep, Seongjun Park, Ulrich Egert, Polina Anikeeva
Optogenetic modulation of neural activity is a ubiquitous tool for basic investigation of brain circuits. While the majority of optogenetic paradigms rely on short light pulses to evoke synchronized activity of optically sensitized cells, many neurobiological processes are associated with slow local field potential (LFP) oscillations. Therefore, we developed a hybrid fiber probe capable of simultaneous electrophysiological recording and optical stimulation and used it to investigate the utility of sinusoidal light stimulation for evoking oscillatory neural activity in vivo across a broad frequency range...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921937/neural-mechanisms-for-selectively-tuning-in-to-the-target-speaker-in-a-naturalistic-noisy-situation
#2
Bohan Dai, Chuansheng Chen, Yuhang Long, Lifen Zheng, Hui Zhao, Xialu Bai, Wenda Liu, Yuxuan Zhang, Li Liu, Taomei Guo, Guosheng Ding, Chunming Lu
The neural mechanism for selectively tuning in to a target speaker while tuning out the others in a multi-speaker situation (i.e., the cocktail-party effect) remains elusive. Here we addressed this issue by measuring brain activity simultaneously from a listener and from multiple speakers while they were involved in naturalistic conversations. Results consistently show selectively enhanced interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) between the listener and the attended speaker at left temporal-parietal junction, compared with that between the listener and the unattended speaker across different multi-speaker situations...
June 19, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915372/monitoring-brain-activity-and-behaviour-in-freely-moving-drosophila-larvae-using-bioluminescence
#3
Manuela Marescotti, Konstantinos Lagogiannis, Barbara Webb, R Wayne Davies, J Douglas Armstrong
We present a bioluminescence method, based on the calcium-reporter Aequorin (AEQ), that exploits targeted transgenic expression patterns to identify activity of specific neural groups in the larval Drosophila nervous system. We first refine, for intact but constrained larva, the choice of Aequorin transgene and method of delivery of the co-factor coelenterazine and assay the luminescence signal produced for different neural expression patterns and concentrations of co-factor, using standard photo-counting techniques...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915195/optimization-of-interneuron-function-by-direct-coupling-of-cell-migration-and-axonal-targeting
#4
Lynette Lim, Janelle M P Pakan, Martijn M Selten, André Marques-Smith, Alfredo Llorca, Sung Eun Bae, Nathalie L Rochefort, Oscar Marín
Neural circuit assembly relies on the precise synchronization of developmental processes, such as cell migration and axon targeting, but the cell-autonomous mechanisms coordinating these events remain largely unknown. Here we found that different classes of interneurons use distinct routes of migration to reach the embryonic cerebral cortex. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons that migrate through the marginal zone develop into Martinotti cells, one of the most distinctive classes of cortical interneurons...
June 18, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915194/a-novel-pyramidal-cell-type-promotes-sharp-wave-synchronization-in-the-hippocampus
#5
David L Hunt, Daniele Linaro, Bailu Si, Sandro Romani, Nelson Spruston
To support cognitive function, the CA3 region of the hippocampus performs computations involving attractor dynamics. Understanding how cellular and ensemble activities of CA3 neurons enable computation is critical for elucidating the neural correlates of cognition. Here we show that CA3 comprises not only classically described pyramid cells with thorny excrescences, but also includes previously unidentified 'athorny' pyramid cells that lack mossy-fiber input. Moreover, the two neuron types have distinct morphological and physiological phenotypes and are differentially modulated by acetylcholine...
June 18, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909147/leaderless-synchronization-of-coupled-neural-networks-with-the-event-triggered-mechanism
#6
Siqi Lv, Wangli He, Feng Qian, Jinde Cao
This paper is concerned with leaderless synchronization of coupled delayed neural networks. A distributed event-triggered control strategy under the periodic sampling scheme is introduced to reduce control updates. By introducing a weighted average state as a virtual leader, the leaderless synchronization problem can be transformed to the stability problem of the error system, which is defined as the distance between each node and the virtual leader. A leaderless synchronization criterion under the periodic event-triggered scheme in strongly connected networks is first derived based on Finsler's lemma...
May 30, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906979/emergence-of-synchronization-and-regularity-in-firing-patterns-in-time-varying-neural-hypernetworks
#7
Sarbendu Rakshit, Bidesh K Bera, Dibakar Ghosh, Sudeshna Sinha
We study synchronization of dynamical systems coupled in time-varying network architectures, composed of two or more network topologies, corresponding to different interaction schemes. As a representative example of this class of time-varying hypernetworks, we consider coupled Hindmarsh-Rose neurons, involving two distinct types of networks, mimicking interactions that occur through the electrical gap junctions and the chemical synapses. Specifically, we consider the connections corresponding to the electrical gap junctions to form a small-world network, while the chemical synaptic interactions form a unidirectional random network...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899027/single-trial-phase-entrainment-of-theta-oscillations-in-sensory-regions-predicts-human-associative-memory-performance
#8
Danying Wang, Andrew Clouter, Qiaoyu Chen, Kimron L Shapiro, Simon Hanslmayr
Episodic memories are rich in sensory information and often contain integrated information from different sensory modalities. For instance, we can store memories of a recent concert with visual and auditory impressions being integrated in one episode. Theta oscillations have recently been implicated in playing a causal role synchronizing and effectively binding the different modalities together in memory. However, an open question is whether momentary fluctuations in theta synchronization predict the likelihood of associative memory formation for multisensory events...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896080/preferred-tempo-and-low-audio-frequency-bias-emerge-from-simulated-sub-cortical-processing-of-sounds-with-a-musical-beat
#9
Nathaniel J Zuk, Laurel H Carney, Edmund C Lalor
Prior research has shown that musical beats are salient at the level of the cortex in humans. Yet below the cortex there is considerable sub-cortical processing that could influence beat perception. Some biases, such as a tempo preference and an audio frequency bias for beat timing, could result from sub-cortical processing. Here, we used models of the auditory-nerve and midbrain-level amplitude modulation filtering to simulate sub-cortical neural activity to various beat-inducing stimuli, and we used the simulated activity to determine the tempo or beat frequency of the music...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890190/dysregulation-and-restoration-of-homeostatic-network-plasticity-in-fragile-x-syndrome-mice
#10
Kathryn A Jewett, Kwan Young Lee, Daphne E Eagleman, Stephanie Soriano, Nien-Pei Tsai
Chronic activity perturbations in neurons induce homeostatic plasticity through modulation of synaptic strength or other intrinsic properties to maintain the correct physiological range of excitability. Although similar plasticity can also occur at the population level, what molecular mechanisms are involved remain unclear. In the current study, we utilized a multielectrode array (MEA) recording system to evaluate homeostatic neural network activity of primary mouse cortical neuron cultures. We demonstrated that chronic elevation of neuronal activity through the inhibition of GABA(A) receptors elicits synchronization of neural network activity and homeostatic reduction of the amplitude of spontaneous neural network spikes...
June 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886328/finite-time-synchronization-of-stochastic-coupled-neural-networks-subject-to-markovian-switching-and-input-saturation
#11
P Selvaraj, R Sakthivel, O M Kwon
This paper addresses the problem of finite-time synchronization of stochastic coupled neural networks (SCNNs) subject to Markovian switching, mixed time delay, and actuator saturation. In addition, coupling strengths of the SCNNs are characterized by mutually independent random variables. By utilizing a simple linear transformation, the problem of stochastic finite-time synchronization of SCNNs is converted into a mean-square finite-time stabilization problem of an error system. By choosing a suitable mode dependent switched Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, a new set of sufficient conditions is derived to guarantee the finite-time stability of the error system...
June 7, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885482/long-range-temporal-correlations-in-the-brain-distinguish-conscious-wakefulness-from-induced-unconsciousness
#12
Thomas Thiery, Tarek Lajnef, Etienne Combrisson, Arthur Dehgan, Pierre Rainville, George A Mashour, Stefanie Blain-Moraes, Karim Jerbi
Rhythmic neuronal synchronization across large-scale networks is thought to play a key role in the regulation of conscious states. Changes in neuronal oscillation amplitude across states of consciousness have been widely reported, but little is known about possible changes in the temporal dynamics of these oscillations. The temporal structure of brain oscillations may provide novel insights into the neural mechanisms underlying consciousness. To address this question, we examined long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) of EEG oscillation amplitudes recorded during both wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unconsciousness...
June 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883623/modeling-asynchronous-event-sequences-with-rnns
#13
Stephen Wu, Sijia Liu, Sunghwan Sohn, Sungrim Moon, Chung-Il Wi, Young Juhn, Hongfang Liu
Sequences of events have often been modeled with computational techniques, but typical preprocessing steps and problem settings do not explicitly address the ramifications of timestamped events. Clinical data, such as is found in electronic health records (EHRs), typically comes with timestamp information. In this work, we define event sequences and their properties: synchronicity, evenness, and co-cardinality; we then show how asynchronous, uneven, and multi-cardinal problem settings can support explicit accountings of relative time...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882174/numerical-optimization-of-coordinated-reset-stimulation-for-desynchronizing-neuronal-network-dynamics
#14
Shigeru Kubota, Jonathan E Rubin
Excessive synchronization in neural activity is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). A promising technique for treating PD is coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation in which a neural population is desynchronized by the delivery of spatially-distributed current stimuli using multiple electrodes. In this study, we perform numerical optimization to find the energy-optimal current waveform for desynchronizing neuronal network with CR stimulation, by proposing and applying a new optimization method based on the direct search algorithm...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880718/regulation-of-gnrh-pulsatility-in-sheep
#15
Casey C Nestor, Michelle N Bedenbaugh, Stanley M Hileman, Lique M Coolen, Michael N Lehman, Robert L Goodman
Early work in ewes provided a wealth of information on the physiological regulation of pulsatile GnRH secretion by internal and external inputs. Identification of the neural systems involved, however, was limited by the lack of information on neural mechanisms underlying generation of GnRH pulses. Over the last decade considerable evidence supported the hypothesis that a group of neurons in the arcuate nucleus that contain kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (KNDy neurons) are responsible for synchronizing secretion of GnRH during each pulse in ewes...
June 7, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879145/almost-periodic-synchronization-of-quaternion-valued-shunting-inhibitory-cellular-neural-networks-with-mixed-delays-via-state-feedback-control
#16
Yongkun Li, Huimei Wang
This paper studies the drive-response synchronization for quaternion-valued shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks (QVSICNNs) with mixed delays. First, QVSICNN is decomposed into an equivalent real-valued system in order to avoid the non-commutativity of the multiplicity. Then, the existence of almost periodic solutions is obtained based on the Banach fixed point theorem. An novel state-feedback controller is designed to ensure the global exponential almost periodic synchronization. At the end of the paper, an example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877817/a-synchronous-neural-recording-platform-for-multiple-high-resolution-cmos-probes-and-passive-electrode-arrays
#17
Gian Nicola Angotzi, Mario Malerba, Fabio Boi, Ermanno Miele, Alessandro Maccione, Hayder Amin, Marco Crepaldi, Luca Berdondini
Electrophysiological signals in the brain are distributed over broad spatial and temporal scales. Monitoring these signals at multiple scales is fundamental in order to decipher how brain circuits operate and might dysfunction in disease. A possible strategy to enlarge the experimentally accessible spatial and temporal scales consists in combining the use of multiple probes with different resolutions and sensing areas. Here, we propose a neural recording system capable of simultaneous and synchronous acquisitions from a new generation of high-resolution CMOS probes (512 microelectrodes, 25 kHz/electrode whole-array sampling frequency) as well as from a custom-designed CMOS-based headstage...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875268/neural-network-interactions-modulate-cry-dependent-photoresponses-in-drosophila
#18
Pallavi Lamba, Lauren E Foley, Patrick Emery
Light is one of the chief environmental cues that reset circadian clocks. In Drosophila , CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) mediates acute photic resetting of circadian clocks by promoting the degradation of TIMELESS (TIM) in a cell-autonomous manner. Thus, even circadian oscillators in peripheral organs can independently perceive light in Drosophila However, there is substantial evidence for non-autonomous mechanisms of circadian photoreception in the brain. We have previously shown that the Morning (M) and Evening (E) oscillators are critical light-sensing neurons that cooperate to shift the phase of circadian behavior in response to light input...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871537/-express-plastic-change-of-prefrontal-cortex-mediates-anxiety-like-behaviors-associated-with-chronic-pain-in-neuropathic-rats
#19
Kangning Sang, Chaofei Bao, Yushi Xin, Shunan Hu, Xian Gao, Yongsheng Wang, Mark Bodner, Yongdi Zhou, Xiaowei Dong
Clinical studies show that anxiety and chronic pain are concomitant. The neural basis for the comorbidity is unclear. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been recognized as a critical area for affective disorders and chronic pain modulation. In this study, we examined the role of the PFC in the pathogenesis of anxiety associated with chronic pain in a rat model of neuropathic pain with spare nerve injury (SNI). The SNI rats showed apparent anxiety-like behaviors in both open field (OF) test and elevated-plus maze (EPM) test 8 weeks after surgery...
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867376/the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-and-the-intergeniculate-leaflet-of-the-flat-faced-fruit-eating-bat-artibeus-planirostris-retinal-projections-and-neurochemical-anatomy
#20
Nelyane N M Santana, Marília A S Barros, Helder H A Medeiros, Melquisedec A D Santana, Lara L Silva, Paulo L A G Morais, Fernando V L Ladd, Jeferson S Cavalcante, Ruthnaldo R M Lima, Judney C Cavalcante, Miriam S M O Costa, Rovena C J G Engelberth, Expedito S Nascimento
In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) are the main components of the circadian timing system. The SCN, classically known as the master circadian clock, generates rhythms and synchronizes them to environmental cues. The IGL is a key structure that modulates SCN activity. Strategies on the use of time by animals can provide important clues about how some species are adapted to competitive process in nature. Few studies have provided information about temporal niche in bats with special attention on the neural substrate underlies circadian rhythms...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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