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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634306/representations-of-time-varying-cochlear-implant-stimulation-in-auditory-cortex-of-awake-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#1
Luke A Johnson, Charles C Della Santina, Xiaoqin Wang
Electrical stimulation of the auditory periphery organ by cochlear implant (CI) generates highly synchronized inputs to the auditory system. It has long been thought such inputs would lead to highly synchronized neural firing along the ascending auditory pathway. However, neurophysiological studies with hearing animals have shown that the central auditory system progressively converts temporal representations of time-varying sounds to firing rate-based representations. It is not clear whether this coding principle also applies to highly synchronized CI inputs...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633970/unified-neural-field-theory-of-brain-dynamics-underlying-oscillations-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-generalized-epilepsies
#2
E J Müller, S J van Albada, J W Kim, P A Robinson
The mechanisms underlying pathologically synchronized neural oscillations in Parkinson's disease (PD) and generalized epilepsies are explored in parallel via a physiologically-based neural field model of the corticothalamic-basal ganglia (CTBG) system. The basal ganglia (BG) are approximated as a single effective population and their roles in the modulation of oscillatory dynamics of the corticothalamic (CT) system and vice versa are analyzed. In addition to normal EEG rhythms, enhanced activity around 4 Hz and 20 Hz exists in the model, consistent with the characteristic frequencies observed in PD...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628797/attenuated-error-related-potentials-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-with-executive-dysfunctions
#3
Caroline Seer, Max Joop, Florian Lange, Christian Lange, Reinhard Dengler, Susanne Petri, Bruno Kopp
OBJECTIVE: Executive dysfunctions affect up to 50% of the patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Executive dysfunctions have been identified as negative prognostic factor and can affect quality of life in patients and their caregivers. Assessment of executive dysfunction may be impeded by the patients' motor impairments. Event-related potentials (ERP) have been proposed as a tool to overcome these assessment difficulties. The error(-related) negativity (Ne/ERN) is an ERP which can be recorded with minimal motor requirements for the patient...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624585/contributions-of-the-lateral-habenula-to-circadian-timekeeping
#4
REVIEW
Beatriz Baño-Otálora, Hugh D Piggins
Over the past 20years, substantive research has firmly implicated the lateral habenula in myriad neural processes including addiction, depression, and sleep. More recently, evidence has emerged suggesting that the lateral habenula is a component of the brain's intrinsic daily or circadian timekeeping system. This system centers on the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus that is synchronized to the external world through environmental light information received directly from the eye...
June 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621693/abnormalities-of-cortical-neural-synchronization-mechanisms-in-subjects-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-due-to-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases-an-eeg-study
#5
Claudio Babiloni, Claudio Del Percio, Roberta Lizio, Giuseppe Noce, Susanna Cordone, Susanna Lopez, Andrea Soricelli, Raffaele Ferri, Maria Teresa Pascarelli, Flavio Nobili, Dario Arnaldi, Francesco Famà, Dag Aarsland, Francesco Orzi, Carla Buttinelli, Franco Giubilei, Marco Onofrj, Fabrizio Stocchi, Paola Stirpe, Peter Fuhr, Ute Gschwandtner, Gerhard Ransmayr, Georg Caravias, Heinrich Garn, Fabiola Sorpresi, Michela Pievani, Fabrizia D'Antonio, Carlo De Lena, Bahar Güntekin, Lutfu Hanoğlu, Erol Başar, Görsev Yener, Derya Durusu Emek-Savaş, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, Raffaella Franciotti, Giovanni B Frisoni, Laura Bonanni, Maria Francesca De Pandis
The aim of this retrospective and exploratory study was that the cortical sources of resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms might reveal different abnormalities in cortical neural synchronization in groups of patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (ADMCI) and Parkinson's disease (PDMCI) as compared to healthy subjects. Clinical and rsEEG data of 75 ADMCI, 75 PDMCI, and 75 cognitively normal elderly (Nold) subjects were available in an international archive...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619653/on-optimal-spatial-filtering-for-the-detection-of-phase-coupling-in-multivariate-neural-recordings
#6
G Waterstraat, G Curio, V V Nikulin
INTRODUCTION: Neuronal oscillations synchronize processing in the brain over large spatiotemporal scales and thereby facilitate integration of individual functional modules. Up to now, the relation between the phases of neuronal oscillations and behavior or perception has mainly been analyzed in sensor space of multivariate EEG/MEG recordings. However, sensor-space analysis distorts the topographies of the underlying neuronal sources and suffers from low signal-to-noise ratio. Instead, we propose an optimized source reconstruction approach (Phase Coupling Optimization, PCO)...
June 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619652/frontal-temporal-and-parietal-systems-synchronize-within-and-across-brains-during-live-eye-to-eye-contact
#7
Joy Hirsch, Xian Zhang, J Adam Noah, Yumie Ono
Human eye-to-eye contact is a primary source of social cues and communication. In spite of the biological significance of this interpersonal interaction, the underlying neural processes are not well-understood. This knowledge gap, in part, reflects limitations of conventional neuroimaging methods, including solitary confinement in the bore of a scanner and minimal tolerance of head movement that constrain investigations of natural, two-person interactions. However, these limitations are substantially resolved by recent technical developments in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a non-invasive spectral absorbance technique that detects changes in blood oxygen levels in the brain by using surface-mounted optical sensors...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611618/potential-mechanisms-and-functions-of-intermittent-neural-synchronization
#8
Sungwoo Ahn, Leonid L Rubchinsky
Neural synchronization is believed to play an important role in different brain functions. Synchrony in cortical and subcortical circuits is frequently variable in time and not perfect. Few long intervals of desynchronized dynamics may be functionally different from many short desynchronized intervals although the average synchrony may be the same. Recent analysis of imperfect synchrony in different neural systems reported one common feature: neural oscillations may go out of synchrony frequently, but primarily for a short time interval...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611611/a-synchronous-motor-imagery-based-neural-physiological-paradigm-for-brain-computer-interface-speller
#9
Lei Cao, Bin Xia, Oladazimi Maysam, Jie Li, Hong Xie, Niels Birbaumer
Brain Computer Interface (BCI) speller is a typical BCI-based application to help paralyzed patients express their thoughts. This paper proposed a novel motor imagery based BCI speller with Oct-o-spell paradigm for word input. Furthermore, an intelligent input method was used for improving the performance of the BCI speller. For the English word spelling experiment, we compared synchronous control with previous asynchronous control under the same experimental condition. There were no significant differences between these two control methods in the classification accuracy, information transmission rate (ITR) or letters per minute (LPM)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610901/neural-dynamics-of-two-players-when-using-nonverbal-cues-to-gauge-intentions-to-cooperate-during-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game
#10
Jaehwan Jahng, Jerald D Kralik, Dong-Uk Hwang, Jaeseung Jeong
Social interaction is a fundamental part of our daily lives; however, exactly how our brains use social cues to determine whether to cooperate without being exploited remains unclear. In this study, we used an electroencephalography (EEG) hyperscanning approach to investigate the effect of face-to-face contact on the brain mechanisms underlying the decision to cooperate or defect in an iterated version of the Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Participants played the game either in face-to-face or face-blocked conditions...
June 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604771/locking-of-correlated-neural-activity-to-ongoing-oscillations
#11
Tobias Kühn, Moritz Helias
Population-wide oscillations are ubiquitously observed in mesoscopic signals of cortical activity. In these network states a global oscillatory cycle modulates the propensity of neurons to fire. Synchronous activation of neurons has been hypothesized to be a separate channel of signal processing information in the brain. A salient question is therefore if and how oscillations interact with spike synchrony and in how far these channels can be considered separate. Experiments indeed showed that correlated spiking co-modulates with the static firing rate and is also tightly locked to the phase of beta-oscillations...
June 12, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600976/master-slave-exponential-synchronization-of-delayed-complex-valued-memristor-based-neural-networks-via-impulsive-control
#12
Xiaofan Li, Jian-An Fang, Huiyuan Li
This paper investigates master-slave exponential synchronization for a class of complex-valued memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delays via discontinuous impulsive control. Firstly, the master and slave complex-valued memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delays are translated to two real-valued memristor-based neural networks. Secondly, an impulsive control law is constructed and utilized to guarantee master-slave exponential synchronization of the neural networks. Thirdly, the master-slave synchronization problems are transformed into the stability problems of the master-slave error system...
May 25, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600255/effects-of-electrical-and-optogenetic-deep-brain-stimulation-on-synchronized-oscillatory-activity-in-parkinsonian-basal-ganglia
#13
Shivakeshavan Ratnadurai-Giridharan, Chung Cheung, Leonid Rubchinsky
Conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) of basal ganglia uses high-frequency regular electrical pulses to treat Parkinsonian motor symptoms and has a series of limitations. Relatively new and not yet clinically tested optogenetic stimulation is an effective experimental stimulation technique to affect pathological network dynamics. We compared the effects of electrical and optogenetic stimulation of the basal ganglia on the pathological parkinsonian rhythmic neural activity. We studied the network response to electrical stimulation and excitatory and inhibitory optogenetic stimulations...
June 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599518/neural-representation-of-the-self-heard-biosonar-click-in-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#14
James J Finneran, Jason Mulsow, Dorian S Houser, Carolyn E Schlundt
The neural representation of the dolphin broadband biosonar click was investigated by measuring auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to "self-heard" clicks masked with noise bursts having various high-pass cutoff frequencies. Narrowband ABRs were obtained by sequentially subtracting responses obtained with noise having lower high-pass cutoff frequencies from those obtained with noise having higher cutoff frequencies. For comparison to the biosonar data, ABRs were also measured in a passive listening experiment, where external clicks and masking noise were presented to the dolphins and narrowband ABRs were again derived using the subtractive high-pass noise technique...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596820/neural-synchronization-deficits-linked-to-cortical-hyper-excitability-and-auditory-hypersensitivity-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#15
Lauren E Ethridge, Stormi P White, Matthew W Mosconi, Jun Wang, Ernest V Pedapati, Craig A Erickson, Matthew J Byerly, John A Sweeney
BACKGROUND: Studies in the fmr1 KO mouse demonstrate hyper-excitability and increased high-frequency neuronal activity in sensory cortex. These abnormalities may contribute to prominent and distressing sensory hypersensitivities in patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS). The current study investigated functional properties of auditory cortex using a sensory entrainment task in FXS. METHODS: EEG recordings were obtained from 17 adolescents and adults with FXS and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596532/high-throughput-analysis-of-in-vitro-lfp-electrophysiological-signals-a-validated-workflow-software-package
#16
P Tsakanikas, C Sigalas, P Rigas, I Skaliora
Synchronized brain activity in the form of alternating epochs of massive persistent network activity and periods of generalized neural silence, has been extensively studied as a fundamental form of circuit dynamics, important for many cognitive functions including short-term memory, memory consolidation, or attentional modulation. A key element in such studies is the accurate determination of the timing and duration of those network events. The local field potential (LFP) is a particularly attractive method for recording network activity, because it allows for long and stable recordings from multiple sites, allowing researchers to estimate the functional connectivity of local networks...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595006/selective-targeting-of-neurons-with-inorganic-nanoparticles-revealing-the-crucial-role-of-nanoparticle-surface-charge
#17
Silvia Dante, Alessia Petrelli, Enrica Maria Petrini, Roberto Marotta, Alessandro Maccione, Alessandro Alabastri, Alessandra Quarta, Francesco De Donato, Tiziana Ravasenga, Ayyappan Sathya, Roberto Cingolani, Remo Proietti Zaccaria, Luca Berdondini, Andrea Barberis, Teresa Pellegrino
Nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used in biomedical applications but the factors that influence their interactions with living cells need to be elucidated. Here, we reveal the role of NP surface charge in determining their neuronal interactions and electrical responses. We discovered that negatively charged NPs administered at low concentration (10nM) interact with the neuronal membrane and at the synaptic cleft, whereas positively- and neutrally-charged NPs never localize on neurons. This effect is shape and material independent...
June 8, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582671/pinning-synchronization-of-memristor-based-neural-networks-with-time-varying-delays
#18
Zhanyu Yang, Biao Luo, Derong Liu, Yueheng Li
In this paper, the synchronization of memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delays via pinning control is investigated. A novel pinning method is introduced to synchronize two memristor-based neural networks which denote drive system and response system, respectively. The dynamics are studied by theories of differential inclusions and nonsmooth analysis. In addition, some sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee asymptotic synchronization and exponential synchronization of memristor-based neural networks via the presented pinning control...
May 18, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582535/perceived-synchrony-of-frog-multimodal-signal-components-is%C3%A2-influenced-by-content-and-order
#19
Ryan C Taylor, Rachel A Page, Barrett A Klein, Michael J Ryan, Kimberly L Hunter
Multimodal signaling is common in communication systems. Depending on the species, individual signal components may be produced synchronously as a result of physiological constraint (fixed) or each component may be produced independently (fluid) in time. For animals that rely on fixed signals, a basic prediction is that asynchrony between the components should degrade the perception of signal salience, reducing receiver response. Male túngara frogs, Physalaemus pustulosus, produce a fixed multisensory courtship signal by vocalizing with two call components (whines and chucks) and inflating a vocal sac (visual component)...
June 5, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577972/electrical-synapses-in-mammalian-cns-past-eras-present-focus-and-future-directions
#20
REVIEW
James I Nagy, Alberto E Pereda, John E Rash
Gap junctions provide the basis for electrical synapses between neurons. Early studies in well-defined circuits in lower vertebrates laid the foundation for understanding various properties conferred by electrical synaptic transmission. Knowledge surrounding electrical synapses in mammalian systems unfolded first with evidence indicating the presence of gap junctions between neurons in various brain regions, but with little appreciation of their functional roles. Beginning at about the turn of this century, new approaches were applied to scrutinize electrical synapses, revealing the prevalence of neuronal gap junctions, the connexin protein composition of many of those junctions, and the myriad diverse neural systems in which they occur in the mammalian CNS...
June 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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