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neural synchronization

Yan Chen, Xinyu Liu, Shan Li, Hong Wan
Recent studies indicate that the local field potential (LFP) carries information about an animal's behavior, but issues regarding whether there are any relationships between the LFP functional networks and behavior tasks as well as whether it is possible to employ LFP network features to decode the behavioral outcome in a single trial remain unresolved. In this study, we developed a network-based method to decode the behavioral outcomes in pigeons by using the functional connectivity strength values among LFPs recorded from the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL)...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Aviv D Mizrahi-Kliger, Alexander Kaplan, Zvi Israel, Hagai Bergman
Slow oscillations of neuronal activity alternating between firing and silence are a hallmark of slow-wave sleep (SWS). These oscillations reflect the default activity present in all mammalian species, and are ubiquitous to anesthesia, brain slice preparations, and neuronal cultures. In all these cases, neuronal firing is highly synchronous within local circuits, suggesting that oscillation-synchronization coupling may be a governing principle of sleep physiology regardless of anatomical connectivity. To investigate whether this principle applies to overall brain organization, we recorded the activity of individual neurons from basal ganglia (BG) structures and the thalamocortical (TC) network over 70 full nights of natural sleep in two vervet monkeys...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yin Sheng, Zhigang Zeng
This paper discusses impulsive synchronization of stochastic reaction-diffusion neural networks with Dirichlet boundary conditions and hybrid time delays. By virtue of inequality techniques, theories of stochastic analysis, linear matrix inequalities, and the contradiction method, sufficient criteria are proposed to ensure exponential synchronization of the addressed stochastic reaction-diffusion neural networks with mixed time delays via a designed impulsive controller. Compared with some recent studies, the neural network models herein are more general, some restrictions are relaxed, and the obtained conditions enhance and generalize some published ones...
March 29, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Hui Sun, Lizhu Luo, Xinru Yuan, Lu Zhang, Yini He, Shuqiao Yao, Jiaojian Wang, Jing Xiao
BACKGROUND: Cognitive vulnerability to depression (CVD) is a high risk for depressive disorder. Recent studies focus on individuals with CVD to determine the neural basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) neuropathology. However, whether CVD showed specific or similar brain functional activity and connectivity patterns, compared to MDD, remain largely unknown. METHODS: Here, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in subjects with CVD, healthy controls (HC) and MDD, regional homogeneity (ReHo) and resting-state functional connectivity (R-FC) analyses were conducted to assess local synchronization and changes in functional connectivity patterns...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Vanessa Era, Matteo Candidi, Marco Gandolfo, Lucia Maria Sacheli, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
Creating real-life dynamic contexts to study interactive behaviors is a fundamental challenge for the social neuroscience of interpersonal relations. Real synchronic interpersonal motor interactions involve online, inter-individual mutual adaptation (the ability to adapt one's movements to those of another in order to achieve a shared goal). In order to study the contribution of the left anterior Intra Parietal Sulcus (aIPS) (i.e. a region supporting motor functions) to mutual adaptation, here, we combined a behavioral grasping task where pairs of participants synchronized their actions when performing mutually adaptive imitative and complementary movements, with the inhibition of activity in the aIPS via non-invasive brain stimulation...
April 5, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Yangpan Ou, Feng Liu, Jindong Chen, Pan Pan, Renrong Wu, Qinji Su, Zhikun Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo
BACKGROUND: Abnormal neural activity has been observed in patients with somatization disorder (SD), especially in brain regions of the default-mode network (DMN). In this study, a coherence-based regional homogeneity (Cohe-ReHo) approach was used to detect abnormal regional synchronization in patients with SD, which might be used to differentiate the patients from the controls. METHODS: We recruited 25 patients with SD and 28 healthy controls. The imaging data of the participants were analyzed using the Cohe-ReHo approach...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Chien-Chih Wang, Kent Loong Tan, Chun-Ting Chen, Yu-Hsiang Lin, S Sathiya Keerthi, Dhruv Mahajan, S Sundararajan, Chih-Jen Lin
Deep learning involves a difficult nonconvex optimization problem with a large number of weights between any two adjacent layers of a deep structure. To handle large data sets or complicated networks, distributed training is needed, but the calculation of function, gradient, and Hessian is expensive. In particular, the communication and the synchronization cost may become a bottleneck. In this letter, we focus on situations where the model is distributedly stored and propose a novel distributed Newton method for training deep neural networks...
April 13, 2018: Neural Computation
Roberto Henzi, Montserrat Guerra, Karin Vío, César González, Cristian Herrera, Pat McAllister, Conrad Johanson, Esteban M Rodríguez
Fetal onset hydrocephalus and abnormal neurogenesis are two inseparable phenomena turned on by a cell junction pathology first affecting neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and later the multiciliated ependyma. The neurological impairment of children born with hydrocephalus is not reverted by derivative surgery. NSPCs and neurosphere (NE) grafting into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of hydrocephalic fetuses thus appears as a promising therapeutic procedure. There is little information about the cell lineages actually forming the NE as they grow throughout their days in vitro (DIV)...
April 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Andreas Daffertshofer, Robert Ton, Bastian Pietras, Morten L Kringelbach, Gustavo Deco
Modeling and interpreting (partial) synchronous neural activity can be a challenge. We illustrate this by deriving the phase dynamics of two seminal neural mass models: the Wilson-Cowan firing rate model and the voltage-based Freeman model. We established that the phase dynamics of these models differed qualitatively due to an attractive coupling in the first and a repulsive coupling in the latter. Using empirical structural connectivity matrices, we determined that the two dynamics cover the functional connectivity observed in resting state activity...
April 3, 2018: NeuroImage
Atsushi Takazawa, Naosuke Kamei, Nobuo Adachi, Mitsuo Ochi
Old astrocyte specifically induced substance (OASIS) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transducer specifically expressed in astrocytes and osteoblasts. OASIS regulates the differentiation of neural precursor cells into astrocytes in the central nervous system. This study aimed to elucidate the involvement of ER stress responses stimulated via OASIS in astrogliosis following spinal cord injury. In a mouse model of spinal cord contusion injury, OASIS mRNA and protein expression were evaluated at days 7 and 14...
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Dave Neale, Kaili Clackson, Stanimira Georgieva, Hatice Dedetas, Melissa Scarpate, Sam Wass, Victoria Leong
Play during early life is a ubiquitous activity, and an individual's propensity for play is positively related to cognitive development and emotional well-being. Play behavior (which may be solitary or shared with a social partner) is diverse and multi-faceted. A challenge for current research is to converge on a common definition and measurement system for play - whether examined at a behavioral, cognitive or neurological level. Combining these different approaches in a multimodal analysis could yield significant advances in understanding the neurocognitive mechanisms of play, and provide the basis for developing biologically grounded play models...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jonathan W Lovelace, Iryna M Ethell, Devin K Binder, Khaleel A Razak
Identification of comparable biomarkers in humans and validated animal models will facilitate pre-clinical to clinical therapeutic pipelines to treat neurodevelopmental disorders. Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a leading known genetic cause of intellectual disability with symptoms that include increased anxiety, social and sensory processing deficits. Recent EEG studies in humans with FXS have identified neural oscillation deficits that include enhanced resting state gamma power and reduced inter-trial coherence of sound evoked gamma oscillations...
March 29, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Nihaad Paraouty, Arkadiusz Stasiak, Christian Lorenzi, Leo Varnet, Ian M Winter
Frequency modulation (FM) is a common acoustic feature of natural sounds, known to play a role in robust sound-source recognition. Auditory neurons show precise stimulus-synchronized discharge patterns that may be used for the representation of low-rate FM. However, it remains unclear whether this representation is based on 1) synchronization to slow temporal-envelope (ENV) cues resulting from cochlear filtering, or 2) phase locking to faster temporal-fine-structure (TFS) cues. To investigate the plausibility of those encoding schemes, single-units of the ventral cochlear nucleus of guinea pigs of either sex were recorded in response to sine-FM tones centered at the unit's best frequency (BF)...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Shuqing Gong, Shaofu Yang, Zhenyuan Guo, Tingwen Huang
The paper is concerned with the synchronization problem of inertial memristive neural networks with time-varying delay. First, by choosing a proper variable substitution, inertial memristive neural networks described by second-order differential equations can be transformed into first-order differential equations. Then, a novel controller with a linear diffusive term and discontinuous sign term is designed. By using the controller, the sufficient conditions for assuring the global exponential synchronization of the derive and response neural networks are derived based on Lyapunov stability theory and some inequality techniques...
March 10, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Valeri Tsatsishvili, Iballa Burunat, Fengyu Cong, Petri Toiviainen, Vinoo Alluri, Tapani Ristaniemi
BACKGROUND: There has been growing interest towards naturalistic neuroimaging experiments, which deepen our understanding of how human brain processes and integrates incoming streams of multifaceted sensory information, as commonly occurs in real world. Music is a good example of such complex continuous phenomenon. In a few recent fMRI studies examining neural correlates of music in continuous listening settings, multiple perceptual attributes of music stimulus were represented by a set of high-level features, produced as the linear combination of the acoustic descriptors computationally extracted from the stimulus audio...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Lutz Jäncke, Simon Leipold, Anja Burkhard
Most studies examining the neural underpinnings of music listening have no specific instruction on how to process the presented musical pieces. In this study, we explicitly manipulated the participants' focus of attention while they listened to the musical pieces. We used an ecologically valid experimental setting by presenting the musical stimuli simultaneously with naturalistic film sequences. In one condition, the participants were instructed to focus their attention on the musical piece (attentive listening), whereas in the second condition, the participants directed their attention to the film sequence (passive listening)...
March 28, 2018: Neuroreport
Congli Liu, Tao Xu, Xiaopeng Liu, Yina Huang, Haitao Wang, Bin Luo, Jingwu Sun
Acoustic trauma is being reported to damage the auditory periphery and central system, and the compromised cortical inhibition is involved in auditory disorders, such as hyperacusis and tinnitus. Parvalbumin-containing neurons (PV neurons), a subset of GABAergic neurons, greatly shape and synchronize neural network activities. However, the change of PV neurons following acoustic trauma remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated how auditory cortical PV neurons change following unilateral 1 hour noise exposure (left ear, one octave band noise centered at 16 kHz, 116 dB SPL)...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Nicholas S Bland, Jason B Mattingley, Martin V Sale
Phase synchronization drives connectivity between neural oscillators, providing a flexible mechanism through which information can be effectively and selectively routed between task-relevant cortical areas. The ability to keep track of objects moving between the left and right visual hemifields, for example, requires the integration of information between the two cerebral hemispheres. Both animal and human studies have suggested that coherent (or phase-locked) gamma oscillations (30-80 Hz) might underlie this ability...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Siva Venkadesh, Alexander O Komendantov, Stanislav Listopad, Eric O Scott, Kenneth De Jong, Jeffrey L Krichmar, Giorgio A Ascoli
The diversity of intrinsic dynamics observed in neurons may enhance the computations implemented in the circuit by enriching network-level emergent properties such as synchronization and phase locking. Large-scale spiking network models of entire brain regions offer a platform to test theories of neural computation and cognitive function, providing useful insights on information processing in the nervous system. However, a systematic in-depth investigation requires network simulations to capture the biological intrinsic diversity of individual neurons at a sufficient level of accuracy...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Adam Keane, James A Henderson, Pulin Gong
Recent experimental studies show cortical circuit responses to external stimuli display varied dynamical properties. These include stimulus strength-dependent population response patterns, a shift from synchronous to asynchronous states and a decline in neural variability. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying these response properties and explore how they are mechanistically related, we develop a neural circuit model that incorporates two essential features widely observed in the cerebral cortex. The first feature is a balance between excitatory and inhibitory inputs to individual neurons; the second feature is distance-dependent connectivity...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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