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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026183/developmental-emergence-of-sparse-coding-a-dynamic-systems-approach
#1
Vahid Rahmati, Knut Kirmse, Knut Holthoff, Lars Schwabe, Stefan J Kiebel
During neocortical development, network activity undergoes a dramatic transition from largely synchronized, so-called cluster activity, to a relatively sparse pattern around the time of eye-opening in rodents. Biophysical mechanisms underlying this sparsification phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here, we present a dynamic systems modeling study of a developing neural network that provides the first mechanistic insights into sparsification. We find that the rest state of immature networks is strongly affected by the dynamics of a transient, unstable state hidden in their firing activities, allowing these networks to either be silent or generate large cluster activity...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023287/effects-of-illusory-kinesthesia-by-tendon-vibratory-stimulation-on-the-postoperative-neural-activities-of-distal-radius-fracture-patients
#2
Ryota Imai, Michihiro Osumi, Tomoya Ishigaki, Takayuki Kodama, Sotaro Shimada, Shu Morioka
Activation of motor-related regions with illusory kinesthesia had been suspected to contribute toward pain alleviation. We used electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the sensorimotor cortex activation during illusory kinesthesia by vibratory tendon stimulation in patients who were in pain. We investigated the relationship between the sensorimotor cortex and postoperative pain to clarify the analgesia mechanism. Patients who had undergone distal radius fracture surgery were studied. A hand massager provided the vibration stimulus for the illusory kinesthesia on the extensor digitorum muscle at the nonaffected hand's wrist joint on 7 consecutive days starting 1 day after surgery...
October 11, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019036/neural-networks-underlying-trait-aggression-depend-on-maoa-gene-alleles
#3
Martin Klasen, Dhana Wolf, Patrick D Eisner, Ute Habel, Jonathan Repple, Ingo Vernaleken, Thorben Schlüter, Thomas Eggermann, Klaus Zerres, Florian D Zepf, Klaus Mathiak
Low expressing alleles of the MAOA gene (MAOA-L) have been associated with an increased risk for developing an aggressive personality. This suggests an MAOA-L-specific neurobiological vulnerability associated with trait aggression. The neural networks underlying this vulnerability are unknown. The present study investigated genotype-specific associations between resting state brain networks and trait aggression (Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire) in 82 healthy Caucasian males. Genotype influences on aggression-related networks were studied for intrinsic and seed-based brain connectivity...
October 10, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018338/altered-distant-synchronization-of-background-network-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-during-an-executive-function-task
#4
Pengyun Wang, Rui Li, Jing Yu, Zirui Huang, Zhixiong Yan, Ke Zhao, Juan Li
Few studies to date have investigated the background network in the cognitive state relying on executive function in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. Using the index of degree of centrality (DC), we explored distant synchronization of background network in MCI during a hybrid delayed-match-to-sample task (DMST), which mainly relies on the working memory component of executive function. We observed significant interactions between group and cognitive state in the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the ventral subregion of precuneus...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016657/early-and-late-components-of-eeg-delay-activity-correlate-differently-with-scene-working-memory-performance
#5
Timothy M Ellmore, Kenneth Ng, Chelsea P Reichert
Sustained and elevated activity during the working memory delay period has long been considered the primary neural correlate for maintaining information over short time intervals. This idea has recently been reinterpreted in light of findings generated from multiple neural recording modalities and levels of analysis. To further investigate the sustained or transient nature of activity, the temporal-spectral evolution (TSE) of delay period activity was examined in humans with high density EEG during performance of a Sternberg working memory paradigm with a relatively long six second delay and with novel scenes as stimuli...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988860/theta-phase-synchronization-is-the-glue-that-binds-human-associative-memory
#6
Andrew Clouter, Kimron L Shapiro, Simon Hanslmayr
Episodic memories are information-rich, often multisensory events that rely on binding different elements [1]. The elements that will constitute a memory episode are processed in specialized but distinct brain modules. The binding of these elements is most likely mediated by fast-acting long-term potentiation (LTP), which relies on the precise timing of neural activity [2]. Theta oscillations in the hippocampus orchestrate such timing as demonstrated by animal studies in vitro [3, 4] and in vivo [5, 6], suggesting a causal role of theta activity for the formation of complex memory episodes, but direct evidence from humans is missing...
October 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987980/some-new-results-on-stability-and-synchronization-for-delayed-inertial-neural-networks-based-on-non-reduced-order-method
#7
Xuanying Li, Xiaotong Li, Cheng Hu
In this paper, without transforming the second order inertial neural networks into the first order differential systems by some variable substitutions, asymptotic stability and synchronization for a class of delayed inertial neural networks are investigated. Firstly, a new Lyapunov functional is constructed to directly propose the asymptotic stability of the inertial neural networks, and some new stability criteria are derived by means of Barbalat Lemma. Additionally, by designing a new feedback control strategy, the asymptotic synchronization of the addressed inertial networks is studied and some effective conditions are obtained...
September 20, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987975/synchronization-stability-of-memristor-based-complex-valued-neural-networks-with-time-delays
#8
Dan Liu, Song Zhu, Er Ye
This paper focuses on the dynamical property of a class of memristor-based complex-valued neural networks (MCVNNs) with time delays. By constructing the appropriate Lyapunov functional and utilizing the inequality technique, sufficient conditions are proposed to guarantee exponential synchronization of the coupled systems based on drive-response concept. The proposed results are very easy to verify, and they also extend some previous related works on memristor-based real-valued neural networks. Meanwhile, the obtained sufficient conditions of this paper may be conducive to qualitative analysis of some complex-valued nonlinear delayed systems...
September 14, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983915/hypothesis-buttressed-rings-assemble-clamp-and-release-snarepins-for-synaptic-transmission
#9
James E Rothman, Shyam S Krishnakumar, Kirill Grushin, Frederic Pincet
Neural networks are optimized to detect temporal coincidence on the millisecond time scale. Here we offer a synthetic hypothesis based on recent structural insights into SNAREs and the C2 domain proteins to explain how synaptic transmission can keep this pace. We suggest that an outer ring of up to six curved Munc13 "MUN" domains transiently anchored to the plasma membrane via its flanking C2 domains surrounds a stable inner ring comprised of synaptotagmin C2 domains to serve as a work-bench on which SNAREpins are templated...
October 6, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983326/inter-trial-coherence-of-medial-frontal-theta-oscillations-linked-to-differential-feedback-processing-in-youth-and-young-adults-with-autism
#10
Stefon van Noordt, Jia Wu, Archana Venkataraman, Michael J Larson, Mikle South, Michael J Crowley
BACKGROUND: Impairment in prediction and appreciation for choice outcomes could contribute to several core symptoms of ASD. We examined electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations in 27 youth and young adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 22 IQ-matched neurotypical controls while they performed a chance-based reward prediction task. METHOD: We re-analyzed our previously published ERP data (Larson et al., 2011) and examined theta band oscillations (4-8 Hz) at frontal midline sites, within a timing window that overlaps with the feedback-related negativity (FRN)...
May 2017: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979189/uncorrelated-neural-firing-in-mouse-visual-cortex-during-spontaneous-retinal-waves
#11
Matthew T Colonnese, Jing Shen, Yasunobu Murata
Synchronous firing among the elements of forming circuits is critical for stabilization of synapses. Understanding the nature of these local network interactions during development can inform models of circuit formation. Within cortex, spontaneous activity changes throughout development. Unlike the adult, early spontaneous activity occurs in discontinuous population bursts separated by long silent periods, suggesting a high degree of local synchrony. However, whether the micro-patterning of activity within early bursts is unique to this early age and specifically tuned for early development is poorly understood, particularly within the column...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975373/the-impact-of-thyroid-hormone-in-seasonal-breeding-has-a-restricted-transcriptional-signature
#12
Didier Lomet, Juliette Cognié, Didier Chesneau, Emeric Dubois, David Hazlerigg, Hugues Dardente
Thyroid hormone (TH) directs seasonal breeding through reciprocal regulation of TH deiodinase (Dio2/Dio3) gene expression in tanycytes in the ependymal zone of the medio-basal hypothalamus (MBH). Thyrotropin secretion by the pars tuberalis (PT) is a major photoperiod-dependent upstream regulator of Dio2/Dio3 gene expression. Long days enhance thyrotropin production, which increases Dio2 expression and suppresses Dio3 expression, thereby heightening TH signaling in the MBH. Short days appear to exert the converse effect...
October 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970101/modulation-of-hyperpolarization-activated-cation-current-ih-by-volatile-anesthetic-sevoflurane-in-the-mouse-striatum-during-postnatal-development
#13
Yusuke Sugasawa, Masataka Fukuda, Nozomi Ando, Ritsuko Inoue, Sakura Nakauchi, Masami Miura, Kinya Nishimura
Volatile anesthetics have been reported to inhibit hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide gated channels underlying the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) that contributes to generation of synchronized oscillatory neural rhythms. Meanwhile, the developmental change of Ih has been speculated to play a pivotal role during maturation. In this study, we examined the effect of the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane, which is widely used in pediatric surgery, on Ih and on functional Ih activation kinetics of cholinergic interneurons in developing striatum...
September 29, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969381/distinct-spatiotemporal-patterns-of-neuronal-functional-connectivity-in-primary-progressive-aphasia-variants
#14
Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Leighton B Hinkley, Alexander J Beagle, Danielle Mizuiri, Susanne M Honma, Ariane E Welch, Isabel Hubbard, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Zachary A Miller, Coleman Garrett, Alice La, Adam L Boxer, John F Houde, Bruce L Miller, Keith A Vossel, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Srikantan S Nagarajan
Primary progressive aphasia is a syndrome characterized by progressive loss of language abilities with three main phenotypic clinical presentations, including logopenic, non-fluent/agrammatic, and semantic variants. Previous imaging studies have shown unique anatomic impacts within language networks in each variant. However, direct measures of spontaneous neuronal activity and functional integrity of these impacted neural networks in primary progressive aphasia are lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of resting state neuronal synchronizations in primary progressive aphasia syndromes...
October 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966579/medial-septum-modulates-cellular-response-induced-in-hippocampus-on-microinjection-of-cholinergic-agonists-into-hypothalamic-lateral-supramammillary-nucleus
#15
Mohammed Z Ariffin, Chian-Ming Low, Sanjay Khanna
Cholinergic mechanisms in supramammillary nucleus (SuM), especially the lateral SuM (lSuM) modulates septo-hippocampal neural activity. The lSuM, as compared to the contiguous medial SuM (mSuM) has relatively dense projections to hippocampus and cingulate cortex (Cg). In the present study, we have investigated whether the effects of cholinergic activation of SuM on hippocampal and cortical neural activities involve a cooperative interaction with the medial septum (MS). Microinjection of the broad-spectrum cholinergic agonist, carbachol, or the cholinergic-nicotinic receptor agonist, nicotine, into the lSuM and the mSuM in urethane anesthetized rat evoked a similar pattern of hippocampal theta rhythm...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959710/bilateral-control-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-and-robotics-based-telerehabilitation
#16
Naji Alibeji, Brad E Dicianno, Nitin Sharma
Currently a telerehabilitation system includes a therapist and a patient where the therapist interacts with the patient, typically via a verbal and visual communication, for assessment and supervision of rehabilitation interventions. This mechanism often fails to provide physical assistance, which is a modus operandi during physical therapy or occupational therapy. Incorporating an actuation modality such as functional electrical stimulation (FES) or a robot at the patient's end that can be controlled by a therapist remotely, to provide therapy or to assess and measure rehabilitation outcomes can significantly transform current telerehabilitation technology...
February 2017: International journal of intelligent robotics and applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959192/brainstem-influence-on-thalamocortical-oscillations-during-anesthesia-emergence
#17
Christopher M Scheib
Theories of mechanisms that impair or prevent consciousness during anesthesia that are related to thalamocortical oscillations have been proposed. Many methods of EEG analysis have been proposed as measures of anesthetic effects but only a few have potential to provide measures of those anesthetic effects that are directly related to thalamocortical oscillations. Some of these methods will be explained and demonstrated with examples chosen to provide evidence for or against two of the proposed mechanisms. The first of the two mechanisms to be addressed is the "traveling peak" (Ching et al...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958864/brain-encoding-of-saltatory-velocity-through-a-pulsed-pneumotactile-array-in-the-lower-face
#18
Rebecca Custead, Hyuntaek Oh, Yingying Wang, Steven Barlow
Processing dynamic tactile inputs is a primary function of the somatosensory system. Spatial velocity encoding mechanisms by the nervous system are important for skilled movement production and may play a role in recovery of sensorimotor function following neurological insult. Little is known about tactile velocity encoding in mechanosensory trigeminal networks required for speech, suck, mastication, and facial gesture. High resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural substrates of velocity encoding in the human orofacial somatosensory system during unilateral saltatory pneumotactile stimulation of perioral and buccal hairy skin in 20 neurotypical adults...
September 25, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954867/a-crucial-test-of-the-population-separation-model-of-auditory-stream-segregation-in-macaque-primary-auditory-cortex
#19
Yonatan I Fishman, Mimi Kim, Mitchell Steinschneider
An important aspect of auditory scene analysis is auditory stream segregation- the organization of sound sequences into perceptual streams reflecting different sound sources in the environment. Several models have been proposed to account for stream segregation. According to the 'population separation' (PS) model, alternating 'ABAB' tone sequences are perceived as a single stream or as two separate streams when 'A' and 'B' tones activate the same or distinct frequency-tuned neuronal populations in primary auditory cortex (A1), respectively...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950106/fixed-time-synchronization-of-memristor-based-bam-neural-networks-with-time-varying-discrete-delay
#20
Chuan Chen, Lixiang Li, Haipeng Peng, Yixian Yang
This paper is devoted to studying the fixed-time synchronization of memristor-based BAM neural networks (MBAMNNs) with discrete delay. Fixed-time synchronization means that synchronization can be achieved in a fixed time for any initial values of the considered systems. In the light of the double-layer structure of MBAMNNs, we design two similar feedback controllers. Based on Lyapunov stability theories, several criteria are established to guarantee that the drive and response MBAMNNs can realize synchronization in a fixed time...
September 11, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
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