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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733679/increased-overall-cortical-connectivity-with-syndrome-specific-local-decreases-suggested-by-atypical-sleep-eeg-synchronization-in-williams-syndrome
#1
Ferenc Gombos, Róbert Bódizs, Ilona Kovács
Williams syndrome (7q11.23 microdeletion) is characterized by specific alterations in neurocognitive architecture and functioning, as well as disordered sleep. Here we analyze the region, sleep state and frequency-specific EEG synchronization of whole night sleep recordings of 21 Williams syndrome and 21 typically developing age- and gender-matched subjects by calculating weighted phase lag indexes. We found broadband increases in inter- and intrahemispheric neural connectivity for both NREM and REM sleep EEG of Williams syndrome subjects...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729826/sleep-dependent-oscillatory-synchronization-a-role-in-fear-memory-consolidation
#2
Michael S Totty, Logan A Chesney, Phillip A Geist, Subimal Datta
Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation through the facilitation of neuronal plasticity; however, how sleep accomplishes this remains to be completely understood. It has previously been demonstrated that neural oscillations are an intrinsic mechanism by which the brain precisely controls neural ensembles. Inter-regional synchronization of these oscillations is also known to facilitate long-range communication and long-term potentiation (LTP). In the present study, we investigated how the characteristic rhythms found in local field potentials (LFPs) during non-REM and REM sleep play a role in emotional memory consolidation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728081/brain-state-dependent-recruitment-of-high-frequency-oscillations-in-the-human-hippocampus
#3
Pablo Billeke, Tomas Ossandon, Marcelo Stockle, Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti, Philippe Kahane, Jean-Philippe Lachaux, Pablo Fuentealba
Ripples are high-frequency bouts of coordinated hippocampal activity believed to be crucial for information transfer and memory formation. We used intracortical macroelectrodes to record neural activity in the human hippocampus of awake subjects undergoing surgical treatment for refractory epilepsy and distinguished two populations of ripple episodes based on their frequency spectrum. The phase-coupling of one population, slow ripples (90-110 Hz), to cortical delta oscillations was differentially modulated by cognitive task; whereas the second population, fast ripples (130-170 Hz), was not seemingly correlated to local neural activity...
June 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724985/increased-neural-noise-and-impaired-brain-synchronization-in-fibromyalgia-patients-during-cognitive-interference
#4
A J González-Villar, N Samartin-Veiga, M Arias, M T Carrillo-de-la-Peña
Fibromyalgia (FM) and other chronic pain syndromes are associated with cognitive dysfunction and attentional deficits, but the neural basis of such alterations is poorly understood. Dyscognition may be related to high levels of neural noise, understood as increased random electrical fluctuations that impair neural communication; however, this hypothesis has not yet been tested in any chronic pain condition. Here we compared electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in 18 FM patients -with high self-reported levels of cognitive dysfunction- and 22 controls during a cognitive control task...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716962/gamma-oscillations-in-the-rat-ventral-striatum-originate-in-the-piriform-cortex
#5
James E Carmichael, Jimmie M Gmaz, Matthijs A A van der Meer
Local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from the human and rodent ventral striatum (vStr) exhibit prominent, behaviorally relevant gamma-band oscillations. These oscillations are related to local spiking activity and transiently synchronize with anatomically related areas, suggesting a possible role in organizing vStr activity. However, the origin of vStr gamma is unknown. We recorded vStr gamma oscillations across a 1.4mm(2) grid spanned by 64 recording electrodes as male rats rested and foraged for rewards, revealing a highly consistent power gradient originating in the adjacent piriform cortex...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714719/temporal-ventriloquism-effect-in-european-starlings-evidence-for-two-parallel-processing-pathways
#6
Gesa Feenders, Yoko Kato, Katharina M Borzeszkowski, Georg M Klump
The brain constantly has to interpret stimuli from a range of modalities originating from the same or different objects to create unambiguous percepts. The mechanisms of such multisensory processing have been intensely studied with respect to the time window of integration or the effect of spatial separation. However, the neural mechanisms remain elusive with respect to the role of alerting effects and multisensory integration. We addressed this issue by choosing a test paradigm where we could manipulate potentially alerting stimuli and simultaneously activating stimuli independently: We measured the temporal ventriloquism effect in European starlings by using the temporal order judgment paradigm with subjects judging the temporal order of the lighting of 2 spatially separated lights...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713259/transcallosal-inhibition-during-motor-imagery-analysis-of-a-neural-mass-model
#7
Anna L Mangia, Mauro Ursino, Maurizio Lannocca, Angelo Cappello
The EEG rhythmic activities of the somato-sensory cortex reveal event-related desynchronization (ERD) or event-related synchronization (ERS) in beta band (14-30 Hz) as subjects perform certain tasks or react to specific stimuli. Data reported for imagination of movement support the hypothesis that activation of one sensorimotor area (SMA) can be accompanied by deactivation of the other. In order to improve our understanding of beta ERD/ERS generation, two neural mass models (NMM) of a cortical column taken from Wendling et al...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701533/treadmill-versus-overground-walking-different-response-to-physical-interaction
#8
Julieth Ochoa, Dagmar Sternad, Neville Hogan
Rehabilitation of human motor function is an issue of growing significance and human-interactive robots offer promising potential to meet the need. For the lower-extremity, however, robot-aided therapy has proven challenging. To inform effective approaches to robotic gait therapy, it is important to better understand unimpaired locomotor control: its sensitivity to different mechanical contexts and its response to perturbations. The present study evaluated the behavior of 14 healthy subjects who walked on a motorized treadmill and overground while wearing an exoskeletal ankle robot...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693821/synchronizing-midi-and-wireless-eeg-measurements-during-natural-piano-performance
#9
Anna Zamm, Caroline Palmer, Anna-Katharina R Bauer, Martin G Bleichner, Alexander P Demos, Stefan Debener
Although music performance has been widely studied in the behavioural sciences, less work has addressed the underlying neural mechanisms, perhaps due to technical difficulties in acquiring high-quality neural data during tasks requiring natural motion. The advent of wireless electroencephalography (EEG) presents a solution to this problem by allowing for neural measurement with minimal motion artefacts. In the current study, we provide the first validation of a mobile wireless EEG system for capturing the neural dynamics associated with piano performance...
July 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690439/grasshopper-dcmd-an-undergraduate-electrophysiology-lab-for-investigating-single-unit-responses-to-behaviorally-relevant-stimuli
#10
Dieu My T Nguyen, Mark Roper, Stanislav Mircic, Robert M Olberg, Gregory J Gage
Avoiding capture from a fast-approaching predator is an important survival skill shared by many animals. Investigating the neural circuits that give rise to this escape behavior can provide a tractable demonstration of systems-level neuroscience research for undergraduate laboratories. In this paper, we describe three related hands-on exercises using the grasshopper and affordable technology to bring neurophysiology, neuroethology, and neural computation to life and enhance student understanding and interest...
2017: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686908/a-longitudinal-study-investigating-neural-processing-of-speech-envelope-modulation-rates-in-children-with-a-family-risk-for-dyslexia
#11
Astrid De Vos, Sophie Vanvooren, Jolijn Vanderauwera, Pol Ghesquière, Jan Wouters
Recent evidence suggests that a fundamental deficit in the synchronization of neural oscillations to temporal information in speech may underlie phonological processing problems in dyslexia. Since previous studies were performed cross-sectionally in school-aged children or adults, developmental aspects of neural auditory processing in relation to reading acquisition and dyslexia remain to be investigated. The present longitudinal study followed 68 children during development from pre-reader (5 years old) to beginning reader (7 years old) and more advanced reader (9 years old)...
May 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679843/restricted-vision-increases-sensorimotor-cortex-involvement-in-human-walking
#12
Anderson S Oliveira, Bryan R Schlink, William David Hairston, Peter Konig, Daniel Perry Ferris
This study aimed to determine if there are electrocortical evidence of augmented participation of sensory brain areas on walking modulation during walking with eyes closed. Healthy subjects (n=10) walked on a treadmill at 1 m/s while alternating 5 minutes walking with the eyes open or closed while we recorded ground reaction forces (GRF) and high-density scalp electroencephalography (EEG). We applied independent component analysis to parse EEG signals into maximally independent component (IC) processes and then computed equivalent current dipoles for each IC...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673481/cs-specific-modifications-of-auditory-evoked-potentials-in-the-behaviorally-conditioned-rat
#13
Matthew I Leon, Alexandre A Miasnikov, Ernest J Wright, Norman M Weinberger
The current report provides a detailed analysis of the changes in the first two components of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) that accompany associative learning. AEPs were recorded from the primary auditory cortex before and after training sessions. Experimental subjects underwent one (n = 5) or two (n = 7) days of conditioning in which a tone, serving as a conditioned stimulus (CS), was paired with mild foot shock. Control subjects received one (n = 5) or two (n = 7) days of exposure to the same stimuli delivered randomly...
June 30, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665045/extraction-of-dynamic-functional-connectivity-from-brain-grey-matter-and-white-matter-for-mci-classification
#14
Xiaobo Chen, Han Zhang, Lichi Zhang, Celina Shen, Seong-Whan Lee, Dinggang Shen
Brain functional connectivity (FC) extracted from resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) has become a popular approach for diagnosing various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Current studies mainly construct the FC networks between grey matter (GM) regions of the brain based on temporal co-variations of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, which reflects the synchronized neural activities. However, it was rarely investigated whether the FC detected within the white matter (WM) could provide useful information for diagnosis...
June 30, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663051/electroencephalographic-theta-oscillatory-dynamics-reveal-attentional-bias-to-angry-faces
#15
Liuting Diao, Senqing Qi, Mengsi Xu, Lingxia Fan, Dong Yang
Although previous studies have reported the temporal neural dynamics (e.g., N2pc component) of threat-detection orientation for face-processing (e.g., the "anger superiority effect"), little is known about the neural oscillatory features of this phenomenon. Here, we extracted the event-related potentials and event-related oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic data when participants performed a visual search task consisting of realistic angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions. We observed a shorter response time and a larger N2pc for angry faces than for happy faces, suggesting the existence of preferential processing for angry faces...
June 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661136/insertable-no-co-microsensors-recording-gaseous-vasomodulators-reflecting-differential-neuronal-activation-level-with-respect-to-seizure-focus
#16
Yejin Ha, Youngmi Lee, Minah Suh
Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are important signaling molecules shaping vasomodulation. This paper reports simultaneous in vivo monitoring of NO, CO and dendritic summation of action potential at three different cortical regions: seizure focus and two additional places, vertically and horizontally separated by 1.2 mm from the seizure focus, during epileptic seizure induced by 4-aminopyrindine injection. An amperometric dual microsensor having a high spatiotemporal resolution monitored fast and dynamic changes of NO and CO, and neural changes were recorded with a glass pipette electrode for local field potential (LFP)...
June 29, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660418/basal-forebrain-activation-enhances-between-trial-reliability-of-low-frequency-local-field-potentials-lfp-and-spiking-activity-in-tree-shrew-primary-visual-cortex-v1
#17
Paolo De Luna, Julia Veit, Gregor Rainer
Brain state has profound effects on neural processing and stimulus encoding in sensory cortices. While the synchronized state is dominated by low-frequency local field potential (LFP) activity, low-frequency LFP power is suppressed in the desynchronized state, where a concurrent enhancement in gamma power is observed. Recently, it has been shown that cortical desynchronization co-occurs with enhanced between-trial reliability of spiking activity in sensory neurons, but it is currently unclear whether this effect is also evident in LFP signals...
June 28, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659842/functional-synchronization-the-emergence-of-coordinated-activity-in-human-systems
#18
Andrzej Nowak, Robin R Vallacher, Michal Zochowski, Agnieszka Rychwalska
The topical landscape of psychology is highly compartmentalized, with distinct phenomena explained and investigated with recourse to theories and methods that have little in common. Our aim in this article is to identify a basic set of principles that underlie otherwise diverse aspects of human experience at all levels of psychological reality, from neural processes to group dynamics. The core idea is that neural, behavioral, mental, and social structures emerge through the synchronization of lower-level elements (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656980/neurovascular-egfl7-regulates-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-subventricular-zone-and-thereby-affects-olfactory-perception
#19
Frank Bicker, Verica Vasic, Guilherme Horta, Felipe Ortega, Hendrik Nolte, Atria Kavyanifar, Stefanie Keller, Nevenka Dudvarski Stankovic, Patrick N Harter, Rui Benedito, Beat Lutz, Tobias Bäuerle, Jens Hartwig, Jan Baumgart, Marcus Krüger, Konstantin Radyushkin, Lavinia Alberi, Benedikt Berninger, Mirko H H Schmidt
Adult neural stem cells reside in a specialized niche in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Throughout life they give rise to adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB), thus contributing to neural plasticity and pattern discrimination. Here, we show that the neurovascular protein EGFL7 is secreted by endothelial cells and neural stem cells (NSCs) of the SVZ to shape the vascular stem-cell niche. Loss of EGFL7 causes an accumulation of activated NSCs, which display enhanced activity and re-entry into the cell cycle...
June 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655419/neural-representations-of-concurrent-sounds-with-overlapping-spectra-in-rat-inferior-colliculus-comparisons-between-temporal-fine-structure-and-envelope
#20
Lu Luo, Qian Wang, Liang Li
Perceptual segregation of multiple sounds, which overlap in both time and spectra, into individual auditory streams is critical for hearing in natural environments. Some cues such as interaural time disparities (ITDs) play an important role in the segregation, especially when sounds are separated in space. In this study, we investigated the neural representation of two uncorrelated narrowband noises that shared the identical spectrum in the rat inferior colliculus (IC) using frequency-following-response (FFR) recordings, when the ITD for each noise stimulus was manipulated...
June 17, 2017: Hearing Research
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