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neural synchronization

N Matsuda, A Odawara, H Kato, N Okuyama, R Yokoi, I Suzuki
Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons are promising for use in toxicity evaluations in nonclinical studies. The multi-electrode array (MEA) assay is used in such evaluation systems because it can measure the electrophysiological function of a neural network noninvasively and with high throughput. Synchronized burst firing (SBF) is the main analytic parameter of pharmacological effects in MEA data, but an accurate method for detecting SBFs has not been established. In this study, we present a 4-step method that accurately detects a target SBF confirmed by the researcher's interpretation of a raster plot...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Maciej Jedynak, Antonio J Pons, Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo
At the mesoscopic scale, the brain can be understood as a collection of interacting neuronal oscillators, but the extent to which its sustained activity is due to coupling among brain areas is still unclear. Here we address this issue in a simplified situation by examining the effect of coupling between two cortical columns described via Jansen-Rit neural mass models. Our results show that coupling between the two neuronal populations gives rise to stochastic initiations of sustained collective activity, which can be interpreted as epileptic events...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Vladimir Rancic, Bijal Rawal, Bogdan Panaitescu, Araya Ruangkittisakul, Klaus Ballanyi
The brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) controling behaviors like arousal, sleep, breathing, pain or opioid withdrawal is an established model for spontaneous action potential synchronization. Such synchronous 'spiking' might produce an extracellular field potential (FP) which is a crucial tool for neural network analyses. We found using ≥10 μm tip diameter suction electrodes in newborn rat brainstem slices that the LC generates at ∼1 Hz a robust rhythmic FP (rFP). During distinct rFP phases, LC neurons discharge with a jitter of ±33 ms single spikes that summate to a ∼200 ms-lasting population burst...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Amrit Misra, Xianda Long, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini D Sharan, Karen A Moxon
OBJECTIVE: To gain understanding of the neuronal mechanisms underlying regional seizure spread, the impact of regional synchrony between seizure focus and downstream networks on neuronal activity during the transition to seizure in those downstream networks was assessed. METHODS: Seven patients undergoing diagnostic intracranial electroencephalographic studies for surgical resection of epileptogenic regions were implanted with subdural clinical electrodes into the cortex (site of seizure initiation) and mesial temporal lobe (MTL) structures (downstream) as well as microwires into MTL...
February 14, 2018: Epilepsia
M Florencia Assaneo, David Poeppel
The relation between perception and action remains a fundamental question for neuroscience. In the context of speech, existing data suggest an interaction between auditory and speech-motor cortices, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely characterized. We fill a basic gap in our understanding of the sensorimotor processing of speech by examining the synchronization between auditory and speech-motor regions over different speech rates, a fundamental parameter delimiting successful perception. First, using magnetoencephalography, we measure synchronization between auditory and speech-motor regions while participants listen to syllables at various rates...
February 2018: Science Advances
Claudio Babiloni, Claudio Del Percio, Roberta Lizio, Giuseppe Noce, Susanna Lopez, Andrea Soricelli, Raffaele Ferri, Maria Teresa Pascarelli, Valentina Catania, Flavio Nobili, Dario Arnaldi, Francesco Famà, Dag Aarsland, Francesco Orzi, Carla Buttinelli, Franco Giubilei, Marco Onofrj, Fabrizio Stocchi, Laura Vacca, Paola Stirpe, Peter Fuhr, Ute Gschwandtner, Gerhard Ransmayr, Heinrich Garn, Lucia Fraioli, Michela Pievani, Giovanni B Frisoni, Fabrizia D'Antonio, Carlo De Lena, Bahar Güntekin, Lutfu Hanoğlu, Erol Başar, Görsev Yener, Derya Durusu Emek-Savaş, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, Raffaella Franciotti, John Paul Taylor, Maria Francesca De Pandis, Laura Bonanni
The present study tested the hypothesis that cortical sources of resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms reveal different abnormalities in cortical neural synchronization in groups of patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (ADMCI) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLBMCI) as compared to cognitively normal elderly (Nold) subjects. Clinical and rsEEG data in 30 ADMCI, 23 DLBMCI, and 30 Nold subjects were available in an international archive. Age, gender, and education were carefully matched in the three groups...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ruoyu Wei, Jinde Cao, Ahmed Alsaedi
This paper investigates the finite-time synchronization and fixed-time synchronization problems of inertial memristive neural networks with time-varying delays. By utilizing the Filippov discontinuous theory and Lyapunov stability theory, several sufficient conditions are derived to ensure finite-time synchronization of inertial memristive neural networks. Then, for the purpose of making the setting time independent of initial condition, we consider the fixed-time synchronization. A novel criterion guaranteeing the fixed-time synchronization of inertial memristive neural networks is derived...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Adil Deniz Duru, Moataz Assem
Neural efficiency is proposed as one of the neural mechanisms underlying elite athletic performances. Previous sports studies examined neural efficiency using tasks that involve motor functions. In this study we investigate the extent of neural efficiency beyond motor tasks by using a mental subtraction task. A group of elite karate athletes are compared to a matched group of non-athletes. Electroencephalogram is used to measure cognitive dynamics during resting and increased mental workload periods. Mainly posterior alpha band power of the karate players was found to be higher than control subjects under both tasks...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Sarah Tune, Malte Wöstmann, Jonas Obleser
In recent years, hemispheric lateralization of alpha power has emerged as a neural mechanism thought to underpin spatial attention across sensory modalities. Yet, how healthy aging, beginning in middle adulthood, impacts the modulation of lateralized alpha power supporting auditory attention remains poorly understood. In the current electroencephalography (EEG) study, middle-aged and older adults (N = 29; ~40-70 years) performed a dichotic listening task that simulates a challenging, multi-talker scenario. We examined the extent to which the modulation of 8-12 Hz alpha power would serve as neural marker of listening success across age...
February 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jiejie Chen, Boshan Chen, Zhigang Zeng
This paper investigates O(t-α)-synchronization and adaptive Mittag-Leffler synchronization for the fractional-order memristive neural networks with delays and discontinuous neuron activations. Firstly, based on the framework of Filippov solution and differential inclusion theory, using a Razumikhin-type method, some sufficient conditions ensuring the global O(t-α)-synchronization of considered networks are established via a linear-type discontinuous control. Next, a new fractional differential inequality is established and two new discontinuous adaptive controller is designed to achieve Mittag-Leffler synchronization between the drive system and the response systems using this inequality...
January 31, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Hua Xue, Kelong Lu, Ning Hao
This study aimed to investigate which type of group (e.g., consisting of less-creative or highly-creative individuals) would perform better in solving creativity problems, and explore the underlying inter-brain neural correlates between team members. A preliminary test (an alternative-uses task) was performed to rank individuals' level of creativity, and divide participants into three types of dyads: high-high (two highly-creative individuals), low-low (two less-creative individuals), and high-low (one highly-creative and one less-creative individual)...
February 7, 2018: NeuroImage
Ziqian Liu
This paper presents a new theoretical design of nonlinear optimal control on achieving chaotic synchronization for coupled stochastic neural networks. To obtain an optimal control law, the proposed approach is developed rigorously by using Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation, Lyapunov technique, and inverse optimality, and hence guarantees that the chaotic drive network synchronizes with the chaotic response network influenced by uncertain noise signals. Furthermore, the paper provides four numerical examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach...
February 7, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Josephine Cruzat, Gustavo Deco, Adrià Tauste Campo, Alessandro Principe, Albert Costa, Morten L Kringelbach, Rodrigo Rocamora
Cognitive processing requires the ability to flexibly integrate and process information across large brain networks. How do brain networks dynamically reorganize to allow broad communication between many different brain regions in order to integrate information? We record neural activity from 12 epileptic patients using intracranial EEG while performing three cognitive tasks. We assess how the functional connectivity between different brain areas changes to facilitate communication across them. At the topological level, this facilitation is characterized by measures of integration and segregation...
February 6, 2018: NeuroImage
Jason Z Kim, Jonathan M Soffer, Ari E Kahn, Jean M Vettel, Fabio Pasqualetti, Danielle S Bassett
Networked systems display complex patterns of interactions between components. In physical networks, these interactions often occur along structural connections that link components in a hard-wired connection topology, supporting a variety of system-wide dynamical behaviors such as synchronization. While descriptions of these behaviors are important, they are only a first step towards understanding and harnessing the relationship between network topology and system behavior. Here, we use linear network control theory to derive accurate closed-form expressions that relate the connectivity of a subset of structural connections (those linking driver nodes to non-driver nodes) to the minimum energy required to control networked systems...
2018: Nature Physics
Chien-Hung Yeh, Wenbin Shi
Judiciously classifying phase-A subtypes in cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) is critical for investigating sleep dynamics. Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), one of the representative forms of neural rhythmic interaction, is defined as the amplitude of high-frequency activities modulated by the phase of low-frequency oscillations. To examine PACs under more or less synchronized conditions, we propose a nonlinear approach, named the masking phase-amplitude coupling (MPAC), to quantify physiological interactions between high (α/lowβ) and low (δ) frequency bands...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Arseniy Gladkov, Oleg Grinchuk, Yana Pigareva, Irina Mukhina, Victor Kazantsev, Alexey Pimashkin
The phenomena of synchronization, rhythmogenesis and coherence observed in brain networks are believed to be a dynamic substrate for cognitive functions such as learning and memory. However, researchers are still debating whether the rhythmic activity emerges from the network morphology that developed during neurogenesis or as a result of neuronal dynamics achieved under certain conditions. In the present study, we observed self-organized spiking activity that converged to long, complex and rhythmically repeated superbursts in neural networks formed by mature hippocampal cultures with a high cellular density...
2018: PloS One
Jiarong Li, Haijun Jiang, Cheng Hu, Zhiyong Yu
This paper is devoted to the exponential synchronization, finite time synchronization, and fixed-time synchronization of Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (CGNNs) with discontinuous activations and time-varying delays. Discontinuous feedback controller and Novel adaptive feedback controller are designed to realize global exponential synchronization, finite time synchronization and fixed-time synchronization by adjusting the values of the parameters ω in the controller. Furthermore, the settling time of the fixed-time synchronization derived in this paper is less conservative and more accurate...
January 9, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Javier Diaz, Alejandro Bassi, Alex Coolen, Ennio A Vivaldi, Juan-Carlos Letelier
Traditionally, EEG is understood as originating from the synchronous activation of neuronal populations that generate rhythmic oscillations in specific frequency bands. Recently, new neuronal dynamics regimes have been identified (e.g. neuronal avalanches) characterized by irregular or arrhythmic activity. In addition, it is starting to be acknowledged that broadband properties of EEG spectrum (following a 1/f law) are tightly linked to brain function. Nevertheless, there is still no theoretical framework accommodating the coexistence of these two EEG phenomenologies: rhythmic/narrowband and arrhythmic/broadband...
February 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Peter W Donhauser, Esther Florin, Sylvain Baillet
Magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography (MEG, EEG) are essential techniques for studying distributed signal dynamics in the human brain. In particular, the functional role of neural oscillations remains to be clarified. For that reason, imaging methods need to identify distinct brain regions that concurrently generate oscillatory activity, with adequate separation in space and time. Yet, spatial smearing and inhomogeneous signal-to-noise are challenging factors to source reconstruction from external sensor data...
February 6, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Satoshi Shibuya, Satoshi Unenaka, Takuro Zama, Sotaro Shimada, Yukari Ohki
In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), individuals perceive a fake hand as their own when the hidden real hand and visible fake hand are synchronously stroked. Several RHI studies have reported that visual manipulation of the embodied fake hand inversely affects the perceptual processing of the observer's own hand (e.g., thermal or pain sensitivity). In this study, we examined whether motor manipulation of the fake hand similarly affects the observer's motor system. Our study employed a novel RHI paradigm wherein stroking was interrupted by unexpected movement of the fake hand (i...
February 2, 2018: Neuropsychologia
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