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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238293/the-impact-of-anesthetic-state-on-spike-sorting-success-in-the-cortex-a-comparison-of-ketamine-and-urethane-anesthesia
#1
K Jannis Hildebrandt, Maneesh Sahani, Jennifer F Linden
Spike sorting is an essential first step in most analyses of extracellular in vivo electrophysiological recordings. Here we show that spike-sorting success depends critically on characteristics of coordinated population activity that can differ between anesthetic states. In tetrode recordings from mouse auditory cortex, spike sorting was significantly less successful under ketamine/medetomidine (ket/med) than urethane anesthesia. Surprisingly, this difficulty with sorting under ket/med anesthesia did not appear to result from either greater millisecond-scale burstiness of neural activity or increased coordination of activity among neighboring neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233654/trophic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-the-key-role-of-processing-protease-for-neuregulin-1-and-bdnf-precursors
#2
Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota Morikawa
Gamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumin-positive interneurons are major research targets and have the potential to control the specific oscillatory rhythm and behavior originating from neural coordination...
December 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227961/global-exponential-stability-and-lag-synchronization-for-delayed-memristive-fuzzy-cohen-grossberg-bam-neural-networks-with-impulses
#3
Wengui Yang, Wenwu Yu, Jinde Cao, Fuad E Alsaadi, Tasawar Hayat
This paper investigates the stability and lag synchronization for memristor-based fuzzy Cohen-Grossberg bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with mixed delays (asynchronous time delays and continuously distributed delays) and impulses. By applying the inequality analysis technique, homeomorphism theory and some suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, some new sufficient conditions for the uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point are established. Furthermore, we obtain several sufficient criteria concerning globally exponential lag synchronization for the proposed system based on the framework of Filippov solution, differential inclusion theory and control theory...
November 23, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220325/direction-modulation-of-muscle-synergies-in-a-hand-reaching-task
#4
Sharon Israely, Gerry Leisman, Chay Machluf, Tal Shnitzer, Eli Carmeli
Functional tasks of the upper extremity can be executed by a variety of muscular patterns, independent of the direction, speed and load of the task. This large number of degrees of freedom imposes a significant control burden on the CNS. Previous studies suggested that the human cortex synchronizes a discrete number of neural functional units within the brainstem and spinal cord, i.e. muscle synergies, by linearly combining them to execute a great repertoire of movements. Further exploring this control mechanism, we aim to study whether a single set of muscle synergies might be generalized to express movements in different directions...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217685/scale-free-amplitude-modulation-of-neuronal-oscillations-tracks-comprehension-of-accelerated-speech
#5
Ana Filipa Teixeira Borges, Anne-Lise Giraud, Huibert D Mansvelder, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen
Speech comprehension is preserved up to a three-fold acceleration but rapidly deteriorates at higher speeds. Current models posit that perceptual resilience to accelerated speech is limited by the brain's ability to parse speech into syllabic units using delta/theta oscillations. Here, we ask whether the involvement of neuronal oscillations in processing accelerated speech also relates to their scale-free amplitude modulation as indexed by the strength of long-range temporal correlations (LRTC). We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) while 24 human subjects (12 females) listened to radio news uttered at different comprehensible rates, at a mostly unintelligible rate, and at this same speed interleaved with silence gaps...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213104/musical-imagery-involves-wernicke-s-area-in-bilateral-and-anti-correlated-network-interactions-in-musicians
#6
Yizhen Zhang, Gang Chen, Haiguang Wen, Kun-Han Lu, Zhongming Liu
Musical imagery is the human experience of imagining music without actually hearing it. The neural basis of this mental ability is unclear, especially for musicians capable of engaging in accurate and vivid musical imagery. Here, we created a visualization of an 8-minute symphony as a silent movie and used it as real-time cue for musicians to continuously imagine the music for repeated and synchronized sessions during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The activations and networks evoked by musical imagery were compared with those elicited by the subjects directly listening to the same music...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209149/electroencephalographic-evaluation-of-acoustic-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-and-refractory-tinnitus
#7
Luz María Alonso-Valerdi, David I Ibarra-Zarate, Francisco J Tavira-Sánchez, Ricardo A Ramírez-Mendoza, Manuel Recuero
Background: To date, a large number of acoustic therapies have been applied to treat tinnitus. The effect that produces those auditory stimuli is, however, not well understood yet. Furthermore, the conventional clinical protocol is based on a trial-error procedure, and there is not a formal and adequate treatment follow-up. At present, the only way to evaluate acoustic therapies is by means of subjective methods such as analog visual scale and ad-hoc questionnaires. Methods: This protocol seeks to establish an objective methodology to treat tinnitus with acoustic therapies based on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity evaluation...
2017: BMC Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202390/abnormal-functional-connectivity-of-high-frequency-rhythms-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-schizophrenia
#8
Tetsuya Takahashi, Takashi Goto, Sou Nobukawa, Yuji Tanaka, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Masato Higashima, Yuji Wada
OBJECTIVE: The "dysconnection hypothesis" has been proposed as a core neural basis for schizophrenia. Although growing neuroimaging-based evidence suggests atypical functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia, the results are inconsistent and the effects of antipsychotic treatment remain elusive. METHODS: We performed resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) in 21 drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia (14 patients were re-evaluated after administration of antipsychotic treatment) and 31 age-matched healthy control subjects...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202131/multifunctional-system-for-observing-measuring-and-analyzing-stimulation-evoked-neurochemical-signaling
#9
Christopher J Kimble, Joshua B Boesche, Diane R Eaker, Kenneth R Kressin, James K Trevathan, Seungleal Paek, Anders J Asp, Malcolm B McIntosh, J Luis Lujan
The ability to measure neurotransmitter activity using implanted electrochemical sensors offers researchers a potent technique for analyzing neural activity across specific neural circuitry. We have developed a wirelessly controlled device, WINCS Harmoni, to observe and measure neurotransmitter dynamics at up to four separate sensors, with high temporal and spatial resolution. WINCS Harmoni also incorporates a versatile neurostimulator that can be synchronized with electrochemical recording. The WINCS Harmoni platform is thus optimally suited for probing the neurochemical effects of neurostimulation, and may in turn enable the development of personalized therapies for multiple brain disorders...
May 2017: IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197736/abnormal-cortical-neural-synchrony-during-working-memory-in-schizophrenia
#10
Seung Suk Kang, Angus W MacDonald, Matthew V Chafee, Chang-Hwan Im, Edward M Bernat, Nicholas D Davenport, Scott R Sponheim
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the origins of working memory (WM) impairment in schizophrenia we investigated cortical oscillatory activity in people with schizophrenia (PSZ) while they performed a WM task requiring encoding, maintenance, and retrieval/manipulation processes of spatial information. METHODS: We examined time-frequency synchronous energy of cortical source signals that were derived from magnetoencephalography (MEG) localized to cortical regions using WM-related hemodynamic responses and individualized structural head-models...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191756/functional-connectivity-between-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-orbitofrontal-cortex-during-value-based-decision-making
#11
Zahra Fatahi, Abbas Haghparast, Abbas Khani, Mojtaba Kermani
There is a growing body of evidence showing that the anterior cingulate (ACC) and the orbitofrontal (OFC) cortex are both essential for reinforcement-guided decision making. Focusing on functional connectivity approach through coherence, we studied whether communication between the ACC and OFC through neural synchronization is a necessary stage for performing value-based decision making. We used a T-maze task with a differential reward (Large vs. small reward) and cost (long vs. short waiting time) and simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFP) from the ACC and OFC...
November 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189671/neural-breathing-pattern-and-patient-ventilator-interaction-during-neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-and-conventional-ventilation-in-newborns
#12
Pradeep V Mally, Jennifer Beck, Christer Sinderby, Martha Caprio, Sean M Bailey
OBJECTIVE: To compare neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and conventional ventilation on patient-ventilator interaction and neural breathing patterns, with a focus on central apnea in preterm infants. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cross-over study of intubated and ventilated newborns. Data were collected while infants were successively ventilated with three different ventilator conditions (30 min each period): 1) synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) combined with pressure support at the clinically prescribed, SIMV with baseline settings (SIMVBL), 2) neurally adjusted ventilatory assist, 3) same as SIMVBL, but with an adjustment of the inspiratory time of the mandatory breaths (SIMV with adjusted settings [SIMVADJ]) using feedback from the electrical activity of the diaphragm)...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186887/imu-based-gait-recognition-using-convolutional-neural-networks-and-multi-sensor-fusion
#13
Omid Dehzangi, Mojtaba Taherisadr, Raghvendar ChangalVala
The wide spread usage of wearable sensors such as in smart watches has provided continuous access to valuable user generated data such as human motion that could be used to identify an individual based on his/her motion patterns such as, gait. Several methods have been suggested to extract various heuristic and high-level features from gait motion data to identify discriminative gait signatures and distinguish the target individual from others. However, the manual and hand crafted feature extraction is error prone and subjective...
November 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184482/identification-of-candidate-allosteric-modulators-of-the-m1-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-which-may-improve-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-chronic-tinnitus
#14
Tijana Bojić, Vladimir R Perović, Milan Senćanski, Sanja Glišić
Chronic tinnitus is characterized by neuroplastic changes of the auditory cortex. A promising method for therapy of chronic tinnitus is vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) combined with auditory stimulation. The principle of VNS is reversal of pathological neuroplastic changes of the auditory cortex toward physiological neural activity and synchronicity. The VNS mechanism of action in chronic tinnitus patients is prevailingly through the muscarinic neuromodulation of the auditory cortex by the activation of nc. basalis Meynerti...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183980/speaker-gaze-increases-information-coupling-between-infant-and-adult-brains
#15
Victoria Leong, Elizabeth Byrne, Kaili Clackson, Stanimira Georgieva, Sarah Lam, Sam Wass
When infants and adults communicate, they exchange social signals of availability and communicative intention such as eye gaze. Previous research indicates that when communication is successful, close temporal dependencies arise between adult speakers' and listeners' neural activity. However, it is not known whether similar neural contingencies exist within adult-infant dyads. Here, we used dual-electroencephalography to assess whether direct gaze increases neural coupling between adults and infants during screen-based and live interactions...
November 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178557/theta-synchronization-over-occipito-temporal-cortices-during-visual-perception-of-body-parts
#16
Quentin Moreau, Enea Francesco Pavone, Salvatore Maria Aglioti, Matteo Candidi
Categorical clustering in the visual system is thought to have evolved as a function of intrinsic (intra-areal) and extrinsic (inter-areal) connectivity and experience. In the visual system, the Extrastriate Body Area (EBA), an occipito-temporal region, responds to full body and body part images under the organizational principle of their functional/semantic meaning. Although frequency-specific modulations of neural activity associated with perceptive and cognitive functions are increasingly attracting the interest of neurophysiologists and cognitive neuroscientists, perceiving single body-parts with different functional meaning and full body images induces time-frequency modulations over occipito-temporal electrodes are yet to be described...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176853/age-related-changes-in-oscillatory-power-affect-motor-action
#17
Liqing Liu, Nils Rosjat, Svitlana Popovych, Bin A Wang, Azamat Yeldesbay, Tibor I Toth, Shivakumar Viswanathan, Christian B Grefkes, Gereon R Fink, Silvia Daun
With increasing age cognitive performance slows down. This includes cognitive processes essential for motor performance. Additionally, performance of motor tasks becomes less accurate. The objective of the present study was to identify general neural correlates underlying age-related behavioral slowing and the reduction in motor task accuracy. To this end, we continuously recorded EEG activity from 18 younger and 24 older right-handed healthy participants while they were performing a simple finger tapping task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172185/-dynamic-attending-binds-time-and-rhythm-perception
#18
Tsuyoshi Kuroda, Fuminori Ono, Hiroshi Kadota
Relations between time and rhythm perception are discussed in this review of psychophysical research relevant to the multiple-look effect and dynamic-attending theory. Discrimination of two neighboring intervals that are marked by three successive sounds is improved when the presentation of the first (standard, S) interval is repeated before that of the second (comparison, C), as SSSSC. This improvement in sensitivity, called the multiple-look effect, occurs because listeners (1) perceive regular rhythm during the repetition of the standard interval, (2) predict the timing of subsequent sounds, and (3) detect sounds that are deviated from the predicted timing...
November 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172073/intrinsic-sodium-currents-and-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-influence-spontaneous-firing-in-up-and-down-activities
#19
Yihong Wang, Xuying Xu, Rubin Wang
Periodic up and down transitions of membrane potentials are considered to be a significant spontaneous activity. These kinds of oscillations always accompany with some spontaneous firing in up state. Our previous theoretical studies mainly looked at the subthreshold up and down transitions and characteristics of up and down dynamics. In this paper, we focus on suprathreshold spontaneous firing of up and down transitions based on improved network model and its stimulations. The simulated results indicate that fast sodium current is critical to the generation of spontaneous neural firing...
November 8, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170070/dynamic-phase-alignment-of-ongoing-auditory-cortex-oscillations
#20
Anna-Katharina R Bauer, Martin G Bleichner, Manuela Jaeger, Jeremy D Thorne, Stefan Debener
Neural oscillations can synchronize to external rhythmic stimuli, as for example in speech and music. While previous studies have mainly focused on elucidating the fundamental concept of neural entrainment, less is known about the time course of entrainment. In this human electroencephalography (EEG) study, we unravel the temporal evolution of neural entrainment by contrasting short and long periods of rhythmic stimulation. Listeners had to detect short silent gaps that were systematically distributed with respect to the phase of a 3 Hz frequency-modulated tone...
November 20, 2017: NeuroImage
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