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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232839/agarwood-essential-oil-displays-sedative-hypnotic-effects-through-the-gabaergic-system
#1
Shuai Wang, Canhong Wang, Deqian Peng, Xinmin Liu, Chongming Wu, Peng Guo, Jianhe Wei
Although agarwood has been used as a tranquilizer in Asian countries for hundreds of years, the underlying pharmacological basis is still unclear. This study investigated the sedative-hypnotic effect of agarwood essential oil (AEO) using locomotor activity and pentobarbital-induced sleeping assays in mice. Single (1-day) and multiple (7- and 14-days) administrations of 60 mg/kg AEO generated significant sedative effect on inhibiting locomotor activity and hypnotic effect on pentobarbital-induced sleeping in mice...
December 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225040/differential-neuromodulatory-role-of-endocannabinoids-in-the-rodent-trigeminal-sensory-ganglion-and-cerebral-cortex-relevant-to-pain-processing
#2
Francesca Eroli, Inge C M Loonen, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Else A Tolner, Andrea Nistri
Endocannabinoids are suggested to control pain, even though their clinical use is not fully validated and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. To clarify the targets of endocannabinoid actions, we studied how activation of the endocannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) affects neuronal responses in two in vitro preparations of rodents, namely the trigeminal sensory ganglion (TG) in culture and a coronal slice of the cerebral cortex. On TG small-medium size neurons, we tested whether submicromolar concentrations of the endogenous CB1R agonist anandamide (AEA) modulated inhibitory GABAA receptors and excitatory ATP-gated P2X3 receptors...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225001/dorsal-hippocampal-cannabinergic-and-gabaergic-systems-modulate-memory-consolidation-in-passive-avoidance-task
#3
Mohammad Nasehi, Parisa Gerami, Fatemeh Khakpai, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
In the present research, we examined the possible interaction between the hippocampal CB2 and GABAA receptors on modulation of memory consolidation. In this research, step-down passive avoidance task was used to evaluate memory consolidation in adult male NMRI mice. The results showed that post-training intra-CA1 administration of muscimol (0.05 and 0.1μg/mouse) impaired memory consolidation as evidenced by a decrease in step-down latency on the test day, which was suggestive of drug-produced amnesia. However co-administration of different doses of muscimol (0...
December 7, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223397/-borneol-suppresses-conditioned-fear-recall-and-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-mice
#4
Bo Cao, Huan-Yu Ni, Jun Li, Ying Zhou, Xin-Lan Bian, Yan Tao, Cheng-Yun Cai, Cheng Qin, Hai-Yin Wu, Lei Chang, Chun-Xia Luo, Dong-Ya Zhu
Fear- and anxiety-related psychiatric disorders have been one of the major chronic diseases afflicting patients for decades, and new compounds for treating such disorders remain to be developed. (+)-Borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene found in several species of Artemisia and Dipterocarpaceae, is widely used for anxiety, pain and anesthesia in Chinese medicine. Meanwhile, it can potentiate GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) activity directly in recombinant GABAA receptors. The present study was to investigate the effects of (+)-Borneol on both contextual and cued fear recall...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222949/a-switch-from-gaba-inhibition-to-excitation-of-vasopressin-neurons-exacerbates-the-development-angiotensin-ii-dependent-hypertension
#5
Aaron K Korpal, Su Young Han, Daryl O Schwenke, Colin H Brown
Hypothalamic magnocellular neurons secrete vasopressin into the systemic circulation to maintain blood pressure by increasing renal water reabsorption and by vasoconstriction. When blood pressure rises, baroreflex activation normally inhibits vasopressin neurons via activation of GABAergic inputs. However, plasma vasopressin levels are paradoxically elevated in several models of hypertension and in some patients with essential hypertension, despite increased blood pressure. We have previously shown that vasopressin neuron activity is increased early in the development of moderate angiotensin II-dependent hypertension via blunted baroreflex inhibition of vasopressin neurons...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209205/potentiation-of-morphine-induced-antinociception-by-propranolol-the-involvement-of-dopamine-and-gaba-systems
#6
Elham A Afify, Najlaa M Andijani
Tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine is a major clinical problem which can be managed by co-administration of another drug. This study investigated the ability of propranolol to potentiate the antinociceptive action of morphine and the possible mechanisms underlying this effect. Antinociception was assessed in three nociceptive tests (thermal, hot plate), (visceral, acetic acid), and (inflammatory, formalin test) in mice and quantified by measuring the percent maximum possible effect, the percent inhibition of acetic acid-evoked writhing response, and the area under the curve values of number of flinches for treated mice, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204799/dorsomedial-prefrontal-cortex-5-ht6-receptors-regulate-anxiety-like-behavior
#7
Fei Geng, Jia Tian, Jian-Lin Wu, Yun Luo, Wen-Jun Zou, Chao Peng, Gui-Feng Lu
The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) plays a very important role in decision-related and anxiety-related information processing. It has enriched 5-HT6 receptors; however, the precise role of dmPFC 5-HT6 receptors in anxiety remains to be fully investigated. In this study, we injected dmPFC with the 5-HT6 receptor agonist EMD 386088 and antagonist SB 271046 using stereotactic technology. 5-HT6 receptor activation in mice increased time spent in the center area on the open-field test, increased exploration of the open arms on the elevated plus maze test, and increased ratio on the social interaction test...
December 4, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195839/the-ventromedial-hypothalamic-nucleus-plays-an-important-role-in-anxiolytic-like-effect-of-neuropeptide-s
#8
Jin Hong Jiang, Ya Li Peng, Pei Jiang Zhang, Hong Xiang Xue, Zhen He, Xue Ya Liang, M Chang
Neuropeptide S (NPS), the endogenous neuropeptide ligand of NPSR, has been reported to regulate anxiety-related behavior involved in multiple brain regions, including amygdale, locus coeruleus and Barrington's nucleus. However, little research has been conducted on the anxiolytic-like behaviors of NPS on the hypothalamus, which was an important area in defensive behavior. Here, we investigated a role of hypothalamus in anxiolytic-like behaviors of NPS. We found that NPSR protein of mouse distributed mainly in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)...
November 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169227/korean-red-ginseng-excitation-of-paraventricular-nucleus-neurons-via-non-nmda-glutamate-receptor-activation-in-mice
#9
Yiming Shen, Janardhan P Bhattarai, Soo Joung Park, Gyu Seung Lee, Pan Dong Ryu, Seong Kyu Han
It has been reported that Korean red ginseng (KRG) as a valuable and important traditional medicine has various effects on central nervous system suggesting its complicated actions. Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons of hypothalamus play a critical role for stress responses and hormone secretions. Although many studies have reported the action mechanisms of KRG on various cell and systems, the direct membrane effects of KRG on the PVN neurons which are involved in stress response are still poorly understood...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168593/respiratory-regulation-by-steroids-in-newborn-rats-a-sex-specific-balance-between-allopregnanolone-and-progesterone-receptors
#10
Vincent Joseph, NagaPraveena Uppari, Hayet Kouchi, Celia De Bruyn, Ryma Boukari, Aida Bairam
We tested the hypothesis that the effects of progesterone on apnoea frequency in newborn rats are the result of a balance between its neuroactive metabolite allopregnanolone (GABAa receptor modulator) and progesterone receptors. We used male and female rats between 10 and 12 days of age and recorded respiratory and metabolic parameters (whole-body plethysmography), and assessed the frequency and duration of apnoeas under normoxia. We tested the effects of a single injection of progesterone (4 mg kg(-1) , i...
November 23, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167116/medullary-raphe-nuclei-activate-the-lumbosacral-defecation-center-through-the-descending-serotonergic-pathway-to-regulate-colorectal-motility-in-rats
#11
Hiroyuki Nakamori, Kiyotada Naitou, Yuuki Horii, Hiroki Shimaoka, Kazuhiro Horii, Hiroki Sakai, Akihiro Yamada, Hidemasa Furue, Takahiko Shiina, Yasutake Shimizu
Colorectal motility is regulated by two defecation centers located in the brain and spinal cord. In previous studies, we have shown that administration of serotonin into the lumbosacral spinal cord causes enhancement of colorectal motility. Since spinal serotonin is derived from neurons of the medullary raphe nuclei including the raphe magnus, raphe obscurus and raphe pallidus, we examined whether stimulation of the medullary raphe nuclei enhances colorectal motility via the lumbosacral defecation center. Colorectal pressure was recorded with a balloon in vivo in anesthetized rats...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143219/glutamatergic-gabaergic-and-endocannabinoid-neurotransmissions-within-the-dorsal-hippocampus-modulate-the-cardiac-baroreflex-function-in-rats
#12
Nilson Carlos Ferreira-Junior, Davi Campos Lagatta, Leonardo Barbosa Moraes Resstel
The dorsal hippocampus (DH) is involved in the modulation of the cardiac baroreflex function. There is a wide expression of the NMDA and AMPA/Kainate receptors within the DH. Glutamate administration into the DH triggers both tachycardia and pressor responses. Moreover, GABAergic interneurons and endocannabinoid system play an important role in modulation of the activity of glutamatergic neurons within the DH. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate the involvement of the glutamatergic, GABAergic, and endocannabinoid neurotransmissions within the DH in cardiac baroreflex function in rats...
November 15, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143124/the-effect-of-inhibition-on-stimulus-specific-adaptation-in-the-inferior-colliculus
#13
Yaneri A Ayala, Manuel S Malmierca
The inferior colliculus is a center of convergence for inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs that may be activated simultaneously by sound stimulation. Stimulus repetition may generate response habituation by changing the efficacy of neuron's synaptic inputs. Specialized IC neurons reduce their response to repetitive tones, but restore their firing when a different and infrequent tone occurs, a phenomenon known as stimulus specific adaptation. Here, using the microiontophoresis technique, we determined the role of GABAA-, GABAB-, and glycinergic receptors in stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA)...
November 15, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129792/the-hypoxia-mimetic-protocatechuic-acid-ethyl-ester-inhibits-synaptic-signaling-and-plasticity-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#14
Sinead M Lanigan, John J O'Connor
During hypoxia a number of physiological changes occur within neurons including the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). The activity of these proteins is regulated by O2, Fe(2+), 2-OG and ascorbate-dependant hydroxylases which contain prolyl-4-hydroxylase domains (PHDs). PHD inhibitors have been widely used and have been shown to have a preconditioning and protective effect against a later and more severe hypoxic insult. In this study we have investigated the neuroprotective effects of the PHD inhibitor, protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (ethyl 3,4, dihydroxybenzoate: EDHB) as well as its effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity in the rat hippocampus using electrophysiological techniques...
November 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126776/effects-of-acupuncture-on-the-anxiety-like-behavior-induced-by-withdrawal-from-chronic-morphine-use
#15
Dong Hyeon Kim, Nam Jun Kim, Rong Jie Zhao, Da Hye Kim, Chae Ha Yang, Hee Young Kim, Young S Gwak, Eun Young Jang, Jae Soo Kim, Yun Kyu Lee, Hyun Jong Lee, Sung Chul Lim, Bong Hyo Lee
OBJECTIVES: In the previous studies, it has been demonstrated that acupuncture treatment was effective on the suppression of withdrawal signs as well as self-administration behavior induced by morphine. Based on, the present study has investigated whether acupuncture could attenuate the anxiety-like behavior induced by withdrawal from chronic morphine treatment. MATERIALS & METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 270-300g were treated saline or morphine hydrochloride (10mg/kg, s...
November 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115488/repeated-inhalation-of-sevoflurane-inhibits-the-information-transmission-of-purkinje-cells-and-delays-motor-development-via-the-gabaa-receptor-%C3%AE%C2%B5-subunit-in-neonatal-mice
#16
Hong Fang, Ze-Hua Wang, Ying-Jiang Bu, Zhi-Jun Yuan, Guo-Qiang Wang, Yan Guo, Xiao-Yun Cheng, Wen-Jie Qiu
General anesthesia is widely used in pediatric surgery, although the influence of general anesthesia on cerebellar information transmission and motor function is unclear. In the present study, neonatal mice received repeated inhalation of sevoflurane, and electrophysiological alterations in Purkinje cells (PCs) and the development of motor functions were detected. In addition, γ‑aminobutyric acidA receptor ε (GABAA‑R ε) subunit knockout mice were used to investigate the mechanism of action of sevoflurane on cerebellar function...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114105/neuregulin-3-signaling-mediates-nicotine-dependent-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-and-cognition
#17
Luyi Zhou, Miranda L Fisher, Robert D Cole, Thomas J Gould, Vinay Parikh, Pavel I Ortinski, Jill R Turner
Neuregulin 3 (NRG3) and ErbB4 have been linked to nicotine addiction; however, the neuronal mechanisms and behavioral consequences of NRG3-ErbB4 sensitivity to nicotine remain elusive. Recent literature suggests that relapse to smoking is due to a lack of impulsive control, which is thought to be due to altered functioning within the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Therefore, we examined circuitry changes within this structure following nicotine application. We report that nicotine controls synaptic plasticity in the OFC through NRG3/ErbB4-dependent regulation of GABAergic inhibition...
November 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093348/the-role-of-dopaminergic-signaling-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-for-the-expression-of-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-rats
#18
Fumiya Shinohara, Hironori Kamii, Masabumi Minami, Katsuyuki Kaneda
The expression phase of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) represents a cocaine-seeking behavior triggered by contextual cues associated with the rewarding effects of cocaine. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the cocaine CPP expression remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of dopaminergic (DAergic) transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) for the expression of cocaine CPP. An intra-ventral tegmental area (VTA) injection of a cocktail of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B and GABAA receptor agonists (baclofen and muscimol, respectively) immediately before the posttest inhibited the expression of cocaine CPP...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091880/central-and-peripheral-anti-hyperalgesic-effects-of-diosmin-in-a-neuropathic-pain-model-in-rats
#19
Azucena Ibeth Carballo-Villalobos, María Eva González-Trujano, Francisco Pellicer, Noé Alvarado-Vásquez, Francisco Javier López-Muñoz
Flavonoids are natural compounds showing anti-hyperalgesic activity in models of pain. Diosmin is a compound poorly studied in the treatment of neuropathic pain. This study evaluates the anti-hyperalgesic actions of diosmin and possible mechanisms of action involved by using a neuropathic pain model in rats. Experimental neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in male Wistar rats, then aesthesiometric index and plantar tests were assessed to evaluate mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, respectively, in order to explore the analgesic effects of acute and sub-chronic treatment with diosmin...
October 26, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089046/the-novel-isoxazoline-ectoparasiticide-lotilaner-credelio%C3%A2-a-non-competitive-antagonist-specific-to-invertebrates-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-gated-chloride-channels-gabacls
#20
Lucien Rufener, Vanessa Danelli, Daniel Bertrand, Heinz Sager
BACKGROUND: The isoxazolines are a novel class of parasiticides that are potent inhibitors of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls) and, to a lesser extent, of inhibitory glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls). Lotilaner (Credelio™), a novel representative of this chemical class, is currently evaluated for its excellent ectoparasiticide properties. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the molecular mode of action and pharmacology of lotilaner...
November 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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