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Gabaa antagonist

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904150/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-diazepam-induced-loss-of-inhibitory-synapses-mediated-by-plc%C3%AE-ca-2-calcineurin-signalling-downstream-of-gabaa-receptors
#1
Martin W Nicholson, Aaron Sweeney, Eva Pekle, Sabina Alam, Afia B Ali, Michael Duchen, Jasmina N Jovanovic
Benzodiazepines facilitate the inhibitory actions of GABA by binding to γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA Rs), GABA-gated chloride/bicarbonate channels, which are the key mediators of transmission at inhibitory synapses in the brain. This activity underpins potent anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and hypnotic effects of benzodiazepines in patients. However, extended benzodiazepine treatments lead to development of tolerance, a process which, despite its important therapeutic implications, remains poorly characterised...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899026/dominant-neuropeptide-co-transmission-in-kisspeptin-gaba-regulation-of-gnrh-neuron-firing-driving-ovulation
#2
Richard Piet, Bruna Kalil, Tim McLennan, Robert Porteous, Katja Czieselsky, Allan E Herbison
A population of kisspeptin-GABA co-expressing neurons located in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V) is believed to activate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to generate the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge triggering ovulation. Selective optogenetic activation of RP3V kisspeptin (RP3VKISS ) neurons in female mice for >30s and ≥10Hz in either a continuous or bursting mode was found to reliably generate a delayed and long-lasting activation of GnRH neuron firing in brain slices...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897823/preoptic-area-cooling-increases-the-sympathetic-outflow-to-brown-adipose-tissue-bat-and-bat-thermogenesis
#3
Mazher Mohammed, Christopher J Madden, Kim J Burchiel, Shaun F Morrison
Modest cold exposures are likely to activate autonomic thermogenic mechanisms due to activation of cutaneous thermal afferents, whereas central thermosensitive neurons set the background tone on which this afferent input is effective. In addition, more prolonged or severe cold exposures that overwhelm cold defense mechanisms would directly activate thermosensitive neurons within the central nervous system. Here, we examined the involvement of the canonical brown adipose tissue (BAT) sympathoexcitatory efferent pathway in the response to direct local cooling of the preoptic area (POA) in urethane-chloralose anesthetized rats...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891214/attaining-in-vivo-selectivity-of-positive-modulation-of-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-2-gaba-a-receptors-in-rats-a-hard-task
#4
Bojan Batinić, Tamara Stanković, Michael Rajesh Stephen, Revathi Kodali, Veera V Tiruveedhula, Guanguan Li, Petra Scholze, Bojan D Marković, Aleksandar Lj Obradović, Margot Ernst, James M Cook, Miroslav M Savić
It is unclear whether GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs) that contain the α3-subunit are substantially involved in the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines (BDZs). In the present study, we tested YT-III-31, a newer BDZ ligand with functional preference for α3βγ2 GABAA Rs, in two paradigms of unconditioned anxiety, the open field and elevated plus maze in rats. The effective dose of YT-III-31 (2 mg/kg) displayed a clear anxiolytic-like profile, unhampered by sedative action, in both tests. At a higher dose (10 mg/kg), YT-III-31 induced ataxia in the rotarod and sedation in spontaneous locomotor activity test...
June 8, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863270/electrophysiological-effects-of-melatonin-on-rat-trigeminal-ganglion-neurons-that-participate-in-nociception-in-vitro
#5
F Huang, X-Y Guan, Y Yan, W-G Fan, Y-Y You, H-W He, B Cheng
OBJECTIVE: Melatonin (MT) is a hormone mainly produced by the pineal gland. It may be involved in the regulation of nociception, the mechanisms of which remain unclear. In the present study, electrophysiological effects of MT on neurons were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cultured neurons were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats trigeminal ganglia (TG). The neuron was voltage clamped using the whole cell patch clamp technique. We recorded resting membrane potential, action potential threshold and number, action potential duration and GABA-activated inward currents in the presence of 0...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859979/effects-of-low-doses-of-ketamine-on-pyramidal-neurons-in-rat-prefrontal-cortex
#6
Guofang Shen, Feng Han, Wei-Xing Shi
Indirect evidence suggests that low doses of ketamine disinhibit (excite) pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In this study, we directly examined the effect of ketamine on PFC pyramidal neurons using simultaneous single-cell and local-field-potential (LFP) recording in chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats. In all animals studied, PFC LFPs showed oscillations (0.3-1.5 Hz) between the active UP state and the relatively quiescent DOWN state, and pyramidal neurons fired preferentially during the UP state...
May 31, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859204/neuroprotective-effect-of-zolpidem-against-glutamate-induced-toxicity-is-mediated-via-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-and-inhibited-by-pk11195
#7
Maja Jazvinšćak Jembrek, Vedrana Radovanović, Josipa Vlainić, Lidija Vuković, Nikolina Hanžić
Excitotoxicity is a pathological process in which neuronal dysfunction and death are induced by excessive glutamate stimulation, the major fast excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. Excitotoxicity-induced neurodegeneration is a contributing factor in ischemia-induced brain damage, traumatic brain injury, and various neurodegenerative diseases. It is triggered by calcium overload due to prolonged over-activation of ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Enhanced Ca2+ release results in neuronal vulnerability through several intertwined mechanisms, including activation of proteolytic enzymes, increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dysfunction and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways...
May 30, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800636/effects-of-ampa-receptor-antagonist-nbqx-and-extrasynaptic-gaba-a-agonist-thip-on-social-behavior-of-adolescent-and-adult-rats
#8
Carol A Dannenhoffer, Elena I Varlinskaya, Linda Patia Spear
Adolescence is characterized by high significance of social interactions, along with a propensity to exhibit social facilitating effects of ethanol while being less sensitive than adults to the inhibition of social behavior that emerges at higher doses of ethanol. Among the neural characteristics of adolescence are generally enhanced levels of glutamatergic (especially NMDA receptor) activity relative to adults, whereas the GABA system is still developmentally immature. Activation of NMDA receptors likely plays a role in modulation of social behavior in adolescent animals as well as in socially facilitating and suppressing effects of ethanol...
May 22, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797957/-the-sodium-salicylate-affects-the-expression-of-nmda-receptor-and-gabaa-receptor-subunits-in-spiral-ganglion-neurons-of-the-cochlea-through-da-receptor
#9
X Huang, H Y Chen, T J Wei, D X Qin, P Q Liu, W H Ye, J P Su
Objective: To investigate mRNA expression of dopamine receptor subtypes in the rat cochlear spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) following exposure to the sodium salicylate. In addition, we observed the effect of sodium salicylate on N methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunit NR1 and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)a receptor subunit GABRα2 mRNA under the circumstance of DR activation or blocking. Moreover, we also focused on the the interaction between receptors mediated by SS. Method: Immunofluorescence techniques were applied to detect DR (DR1 and DR2) expression in cultured rat SGN...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792150/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-2-3-disubstituted-benzofuran-analogues-of-gaba-as-neurotropic-agents
#10
Arturo Coaviche-Yoval, Hector Luna, Ricardo Tovar-Miranda, Marvin Antonio Soriano-Ursua, Jose G Trujillo-Ferrara
BACKGROUND: Benzofurans are heterocyclic compounds with neurotropic activity. Some have been developed for the treatment of acute and degenerative neuronal injuries. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in silico binding of some promising benzofurans on the GABA receptors, and the in vivo neurotropic activity of benzofuran analogues (BZF 6-10) of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on a seizure model. METHODS: The ligands with the best physicochemical attributes were docked on two GABA receptors (the alpha-1 subunit of GABAA-R and GBR1 subunit of GABAB-R)...
May 23, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782207/the-benzodiazepine-anesthetic-midazolam-prevents-hyperglycemia-induced-microvascular-leakage-in-the-retinas-of-diabetic-mice
#11
Yeon-Ju Lee, Minsoo Kim, Jee-Yeon Lee, Se-Hui Jung, Hye-Yoon Jeon, Seung Ah Lee, Seongsik Kang, Eun-Taek Han, Won Sun Park, Seok-Ho Hong, Young-Myeong Kim, Kwon-Soo Ha
We investigated the beneficial effects of midazolam against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced vascular leakage and its molecular mechanism of action in human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and the retinas of diabetic mice. Midazolam inhibited VEGF-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ , generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and transglutaminase activation in HRECs; these effects were reversed by the GABA, type A (GABAA ) receptor antagonist flumazenil but not by the translocator protein antagonist PK11195...
May 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781560/conditioned-reward-of-opioids-but-not-psychostimulants-is-impaired-in-gaba-a-receptor-%C3%AE-subunit-knockout-mice
#12
Milo S Siivonen, Elena de Miguel, Juho Aaltio, Aino K Manner, Mikko Vahermo, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Anni-Maija Linden, Teemu Aitta-Aho, Esa R Korpi
Extrasynaptic δ subunit-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (δ-GABAA Rs) are emerging as targets for a number of neuropsychopharmacological drugs, including the direct GABA-site agonist gaboxadol and neuroactive steroids. Among other regions, these δ-GABAA Rs are functionally expressed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the cell body region of mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system important for motivated behaviors, and in the target region, the nucleus accumbens. Gaboxadol and neurosteroids induce VTA DA neuron plasticity ex vivo, by inhibiting the VTA GABA neurons, and aversive place conditioning, which are absent in the δ-GABAA R knockout mice (δ-KO)...
May 21, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775659/%C3%AE-2-receptors-in-the-lateral-parabrachial-nucleus-generates-the-pressor-response-of-the-cardiovascular-chemoreflex-effects-of-gaba-a-receptor
#13
Nafiseh Mirzaei Damabi, Gholam Reza Namvar, Fahimeh Yeganeh, Masoumeh Hatam
The lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) is a pontine area involved in cardiovascular chemoreflex. This study was performed to find the effects of reversible synaptic blockade of the LPBN on the chemoreflex responses, and to find the roles of GABAA receptor and α2 -adenoreceptor (α2 -AR) in chemoreflex. It also aimed to seek possible interaction between GABA and noradrenergic systems of the LPBN in urethane-anesthetized male rats. Cardiovascular chemoreflex was activated by intravenous injection of potassium cyanide (KCN, 80 μg/kg)...
May 15, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766792/gabaa-receptors-various-stoichiometrics-of-subunit-arrangement-in-%C3%AE-1%C3%AE-3-and-%C3%AE-1%C3%AE-3%C3%AE%C2%B5-receptors
#14
Ahmad Tarmizi Che Has, Mary Chebib
GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are members of the Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel (LGIC) superfamily, which includes nicotinic acetylcholine, glycine, and serotonin (5HT3) receptors [1,2,3,4]. LGICs typically mediate fast synaptic transmission via the movement of ions through channels gated by neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine for nicotinic receptors and GABA for GABAARs [5]. The term Cys-loop receptors originates from the presence of a conserved disulphide bond (or bridge) which holds together two cysteine amino acids of the loop that forms from the structure of polypeptides in the extracellular domain of the receptor's subunit [6]...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763637/neurosteroid-pregnenolone-sulfate-alone-and-as-augmentation-of-lurasidone-or-tandospirone-rescues-phencyclidine-induced-deficits-in-cognitive-function-and-social-interaction
#15
L Rajagopal, D Soni, H Y Meltzer
BACKGROUND: Pregnenolone sulfate (PregS), an endogenous neurosteroid, which negatively and positively modulates gamma amino butyric acid subunit A (GABAA ) and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (R) respectively, among other potential neuroplastic changes on synaptic processes, has shown some beneficial effects on treating cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) and negative symptoms. Lurasidone (Lur), an atypical antipsychotic drug (AAPD), and tandospirone (Tan), a 5-HT1A  R partial agonist, have also been reported to improve cognitive or negative symptoms, or both, in some schizophrenia patients...
May 23, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758302/plasminogen-binding-inhibitors-demonstrate-unwanted-activities-on-gaba-a-and-glycine-receptors-in-human-ipsc-derived-neurons
#16
Lisbeth Kristensson, Anders Lundin, David Gustafsson, Jan Fryklund, Tomas Fex, Delsing Louise, Erik Ryberg
Plasminogen binding inhibitors (PBIs) reduce the risk of bleeding in hemorrhagic conditions. However, generic PBIs are also associated with an increased risk of seizures, an adverse effect linked to unwanted activities towards inhibitory neuronal receptors. Development of novel PBIs serve to remove compounds with such properties, but progress is limited by a lack of higher throughput methods with human translatability. Herein we apply human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derived neurons in combination with dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) technology to demonstrate robust and reproducible modulation of both GABAA and glycine receptors...
May 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743978/clarified-a%C3%A3-a%C3%A3-euterpe-oleracea-juice-as-an-anticonvulsant-agent-in-vitro-mechanistic-study-of-gabaergic-targets
#17
Gabriela P F Arrifano, Mathieu P Lichtenstein, José Rogério Souza-Monteiro, Marcelo Farina, Hervé Rogez, José Carlos Tavares Carvalho, Cristina Suñol, Maria Elena Crespo-López
Seizures affect about 50 million people around the world. Approximately 30% of seizures are refractory to the current pharmacological arsenal, so, the pursuit of new therapeutic alternatives is essential. Clarified Euterpe oleracea (EO) juice showed anticonvulsant properties similar to diazepam in an in vivo model with pentylenetetrazol, a GABAA receptor blocker. This study investigated the effects of EO on the main GABAergic targets for anticonvulsant drugs, analyzing the effect on the GABA receptor's benzodiazepine and picrotoxinin binding sites and the GABA uptake...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720564/evidence-that-sedative-effects-of-benzodiazepines-involve-unexpected-gaba-a-receptor-subtypes-quantitative-observation-studies-in-rhesus-monkeys
#18
Angela N Duke, Zhiqiang Meng, Donna M Platt, John R Atack, Gerard R Dawson, David S Reynolds, V V N Phani Babu Tiruveedhula, Guanguan Li, Michael Rajesh Stephen, Werner Sieghart, James M Cook, James K Rowlett
Using non-human primates, we introduced a new set of behavioral categories for observable sedative effects based on pediatric anesthesiology classifications. We examined the effects of alprazolam and diazepam (non-selective benzodiazepines), zolpidem (preferential binding to α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptors), HZ-166 (8-ethynyl-6-(2'-pyridine)-4H-2,5,10b-triaza-benzo[e]azulene-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; functionally selective for α2 and α3 subunit-containing GABAA receptors), MRK-696 (7-cyclobutyl-6-(2-methyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-2-ylmethoxy)-3-(2-flurophenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo(4,3-b)pyridazine; no selectivity but partial intrinsic activity), and TPA023B (6,2'-difluro-5'-(3-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)imidazo(1,2-b((1,2,4)triazin-7-yl)(1,1'-biphenyl)-2-carbonitrile; selectivity for α2, α3, α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors) using quantitative behavioral observation techniques in rhesus monkeys...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704480/protective-effect-and-mechanism-of-injection-of-glutamate-into-cerebellum-fastigial-nucleus-on-chronic-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-rats
#19
Ling-Ling Zhen, Bei Miao, Ying-Ying Chen, Zhen Su, Man-Qiu Xu, Sujuan Fei, Jianfu Zhang
AIMS: We investigated the effects of chemical stimulation of cerebellum fastigial nucleus (FN) on the chronic visceral hypersensitivity (CVH) and its possible mechanism in rats. MAIN METHODS: We stimulated the FN by microinjecting glutamate into the FN, in order to explore whether the cerebellum fastigial nucleus played a role on CVH in rat. The model of CVH was established by colorectal distension (CRD) in neonatal rats. Abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores, pain threshold, and amplitude of electromyography (EMG) were used to assess the hyperalgesia...
April 25, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700637/lateral-preoptic-and-ventral-pallidal-roles-in-locomotion-and-other-movements
#20
Suriya Subramanian, Rhett A Reichard, Hunter S Stevenson, Zachary M Schwartz, Kenneth P Parsley, Daniel S Zahm
The lateral preoptic area (LPO) and ventral pallidum (VP) are structurally and functionally distinct territories in the subcommissural basal forebrain. It was recently shown that unilateral infusion of the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline, into the LPO strongly invigorates exploratory locomotion, whereas bicuculline infused unilaterally into the VP has a negligible locomotor effect, but when infused bilaterally, produces vigorous, abnormal pivoting and gnawing movements and compulsive ingestion. This study was done to further characterize these responses...
April 26, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
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