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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627297/neuropharmacological-effects-of-essential-oil-from-the-leaves-of-croton-conduplicatus-kunth-and-possible-mechanisms-of-action-involved
#1
Raimundo Gonçalves de Oliveira Júnior, Christiane Adrielly Alves Ferraz, Juliane Cabral Silva, Roxana Braga de Andrade Teles, Mariana Gama E Silva, Tâmara Coimbra Diniz, Uiliane Soares Dos Santos, Ana Valéria Vieira de Souza, Carlos Eduardo Pereira Nunes, Marcos José Salvador, Vitor Prates Lorenzo, Lucindo José Quintans Junior, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Croton conduplicatus Kunth (Euphorbiaceae) is a Brazilian aromatic medicinal plant, widely known as "quebra-faca". In folk medicine, its leaves and stem-barks are used as a natural analgesic for the treatment of headaches. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we describe for the first time the neuropharmacological potential of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Croton conduplicatus (EO) in experimental models of pain, anxiety and insomnia...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604384/allopregnanolone-effects-on-transmission-in-the-brain-stem-solitary-tract-nucleus-nts
#2
Sojin Kim, Sung-Moon Kim, Bermseok Oh, Jihoon Tak, Eunhee Yang, Young-Ho Jin
During pregnancy, the progesterone metabolite, allopregnanolone (ALLO), becomes elevated and has been associated with altered levels within the CNS and resulting changes in GABAA receptor function. Pregnant animals poorly compensate reflexes for decrease in blood pressure during hemorrhage. Previous works suggested that ALLO decreases baroreflex responses by central actions, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we tested ALLO actions on visceral afferent synaptic transmission at second order neurons within medial portions of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) using hindbrain slices from non-pregnant female rats...
March 28, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593508/gabaergic-control-of-nigrostriatal-and-mesolimbic-dopamine-in-the-rat-brain
#3
Susanne Nikolaus, Hans-Jörg Wittsack, Markus Beu, Christina Antke, Maria A De Souza Silva, Frijthof Wickrath, Anja Müller-Lutz, Joseph P Huston, Gerald Antoch, Hans-Wilhelm Müller, Hubertus Hautzel
Purpose: The present study assessed the effects of the GABAA receptor (R) agonist muscimol (MUS), and the GABAA R antagonist bicuculline (BIC) on neocortical and subcortical radioligand binding to dopamine D2/3 Rs in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors in the rat. Methods: D2/3 R binding was measured with small animal SPECT in baseline and after challenge with either 1 mg/kg MUS or 1 mg/kg BIC, using [123 I]IBZM as radioligand. Motor/exploratory behaviors were assessed for 30 min in an open field prior to radioligand administration...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590745/high-frequency-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-activates-motor-cortex-pyramidal-tract-neurons-by-a-process-involving-local-glutamate-gaba-and-dopamine-receptors-in-hemi-parkinsonian-rats
#4
Chi-Fen Chuang, Chen-Wei Wu, Ying Weng, Pei-San Hu, Shin-Rung Yeh, Yen-Chung Chang
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is widely used to treat advanced Parkinson’s disease. Here, we investigated how DBS applied on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) influenced the neural activity in the motor cortex. Rats, which had the midbrain dopaminergic neurons partially depleted unilaterally, called the hemi-Parkinsonian rats, were used as a study model. c-Fos expression in the neurons was used as an indicator of neural activity. Application of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) upon the STN was used to mimic the DBS treatment...
March 29, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572072/effects-of-isopentyl-ferulate-on-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-and-a-possible-gabaergic-anxiolytic-like-trait-in-swiss-mice
#5
Keylla da Conceição Machado, George Layson da Silva Oliveira, Md Torequl Islam, Antonia Amanda Cardoso de Almeida, Damião Pergentino de Sousa, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo Cavalcante, Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas
This study aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic-like effect and the possible neuronal mechanism of action of isopentyl ferulate (IF). For this purpose, we used the marble burying test in Swiss albino mice. The biomarkers involved in oxidative stress were measured in the hippocampus homogenate of the test animals. In addition, the toxicity and antioxidant capacities were tested in Artemia salina and rat erythrocytes, respectively. The results suggest that, an acute administration of the IF at doses of 25, 50, 75 and 150 mg/kg (intraperitoneal, i...
March 20, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565038/gabaergic-inhibitory-neurons-as-therapeutic-targets-for-cognitive-impairment-in-schizophrenia
#6
REVIEW
Meng-Yi Xu, Albert H C Wong
Schizophrenia is considered primarily as a cognitive disorder. However, functional outcomes in schizophrenia are limited by the lack of effective pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for cognitive impairment. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) interneurons are the main inhibitory neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), and they play a critical role in a variety of pathophysiological processes including modulation of cortical and hippocampal neural circuitry and activity, cognitive function-related neural oscillations (eg, gamma oscillations) and information integration and processing...
March 22, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559921/nitric-oxide-orchestrates-a-power-law-modulation-of-sympathetic-firing-behaviors-in-neonatal-rat-spinal-cords
#7
Chun-Kuei Su, Yi-Yin Chen, Chiu-Ming Ho
Nitric oxide (NO) is a diffusible gas and has multifarious effects on both pre- and postsynaptic events. As a consequence of complex excitatory and inhibitory integrations, NO effects on neuronal activities are heterogeneous. Using in vitro preparations of neonatal rats that retain the splanchnic sympathetic nerves and the thoracic spinal cord as an experimental model, we report here that either enhancement or attenuation of NO production in the neonatal rat spinal cords could increase, decrease, or not change the spontaneous firing behaviors recorded from splanchnic sympathetic single fibers...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559911/vortioxetine-treatment-reverses-subchronic-pcp-treatment-induced-cognitive-impairments-a-potential-role-for-serotonin-receptor-mediated-regulation-of-gaba-neurotransmission
#8
Alan L Pehrson, Christian S Pedersen, Kirstine Sloth Tølbøl, Connie Sanchez
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with cognitive impairments that may contribute to poor functional outcomes. Clinical data suggests that the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine attenuates some cognitive impairments in MDD patients, but the mechanistic basis for these improvements is unclear. One theory suggests that vortioxetine improves cognition by suppressing γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission, thereby increasing glutamatergic activation. Vortioxetine's effects on cognition, GABA and glutamate neurotransmission have been supported in separate experiments, but no empirical work has directly connected vortioxetine's cognitive effects to those on GABA and glutamate neurotransmission...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559893/gaba-and-gap-junctions-in-the-development-of-synchronized-activity-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-networks
#9
Meeri Eeva-Liisa Mäkinen, Laura Ylä-Outinen, Susanna Narkilahti
The electrical activity of the brain arises from single neurons communicating with each other. However, how single neurons interact during early development to give rise to neural network activity remains poorly understood. We studied the emergence of synchronous neural activity in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neural networks simultaneously on a single-neuron level and network level. The contribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and gap junctions to the development of synchronous activity in hPSC-derived neural networks was studied with GABA agonist and antagonist and by blocking gap junctional communication, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559416/music-therapy-inhibits-morphine-seeking-behavior-via-gaba-receptor-and-attenuates-anxiety-like-behavior-induced-by-extinction-from-chronic-morphine-use
#10
Ki Jin Kim, Sang Nam Lee, Bong Hyo Lee
RATIONALE: Morphine is a representative pain killer. However, repeated use tends to induce addiction. Music therapy has been gaining interest as a useful type of therapy for neuropsychiatric diseases. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined whether Korean traditional music (KT) could suppress morphine-seeking behavior and anxiety-like behavior induced by extinction from chronic morphine use and additionally investigated a possible neuronal mechanism. MATERIAL & METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to intravenously self-administer morphine hydrochloride (1...
March 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543349/corticosterone-and-serotonin-similarly-influence-gabaergic-and-purinergic-pathways-to-affect-cortical-inhibitory-networks
#11
Caitlin A Wotton, Elizabeth F Quon, Ashley C Palmer, Lane K Bekar
Both serotonin (5HT) and stress exert changes in cortical inhibitory tone to shape activity of cortical networks. As astrocytes are also known to affect inhibition through established purinergic pathways, we assessed the role of GABA and purinergic pathways in rapid corticosterone (CORT) and 5HT effects on cortical inhibition. We used a paired-pulse paradigm (P1 & P2) in acutely isolated mouse brain slices to evaluate changes in cortical evoked inhibition. Normally, 5HT decreases amplitude of the first pulse P1, while increasing the amplitude of P2 (increase frequency transmission)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534974/single-unit-activity-in-the-in-vitro-entorhinal-cortex-during-carbachol-induced-field-oscillations
#12
Li-Yuan Chen, Maxime Lévesque, Mauro Cataldi, Massimo Avoli
The muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol (CCh) can induce activity in the theta range (4 - 15 Hz) in the entorhinal cortex (EC), but the underlying network mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the interplay between interneurons and principal cells in the EC during CCh-induced theta-like field oscillations in an in vitro brain slice preparation using tetrodes. Field oscillations at 10.1 Hz (IQR = 9.5 - 10.9 Hz) occurred during bath application of CCh (100 μM; n = 32 experiments) and were associated with single-unit (n = 189) firing...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529524/estradiol-and-luteinizing-hormone-regulate-recognition-memory-following-subchronic-phencyclidine-evidence-for-hippocampal-gaba-action
#13
Alexander J Riordan, Ari W Schaler, Jenny Fried, Tracie A Paine, Janice E Thornton
The cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are poorly understood and difficult to treat. Estrogens may mitigate these symptoms via unknown mechanisms. To examine these mechanisms, we tested whether increasing estradiol (E) or decreasing luteinizing hormone (LH) could mitigate short-term episodic memory loss in a phencyclidine (PCP) model of schizophrenia. We then assessed whether changes in cortical or hippocampal GABA may underlie these effects. Female rats were ovariectomized and injected subchronically with PCP...
February 27, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518821/cerebellar-%C3%AE-6-subunit-containing-gaba-a-receptors-a-novel-therapeutic-target-for-disrupted-prepulse-inhibition-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#14
Lih-Chu Chiou, Hsin-Jung Lee, Margot Ernst, Wei-Jan Huang, Jui-Feng Chou, Hon-Lie Chen, Akihiro Mouri, Liang-Chieh Chen, Marco Treven, Takayoshi Mamiya, Pi-Chuan Fan, Daniel E Knutson, Chris Witzigmann, James Cook, Werner Sieghart, Toshitaka Nabeshima
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathophysiological role of α6 subunit-containing GABAA receptors (α6GABAA Rs), which are mainly expressed in cerebellar granule cells, remains unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that hispidulin, a flavonoid isolated from a local herb that remitted a patient's intractable motor tics, attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in mice as a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of cerebellar α6GABAA Rs. Here, using hispidulin and a selective α6GABAA R PAM, the pyrazoloquinolinone Compound 6, we revealed an unprecedented role of cerebellar α6GABAA Rs in disrupted prepulse inhibition (PPI), which reflects sensorimotor gating deficits manifested in several neuropsychiatric disorders...
March 8, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516301/convergent-mechanisms-underlying-rapid-antidepressant-action
#15
REVIEW
Panos Zanos, Scott M Thompson, Ronald S Duman, Carlos A Zarate, Todd D Gould
Traditional pharmacological treatments for depression have a delayed therapeutic onset, ranging from several weeks to months, and there is a high percentage of individuals who never respond to treatment. In contrast, ketamine produces rapid-onset antidepressant, anti-suicidal, and anti-anhedonic actions following a single administration to patients with depression. Proposed mechanisms of the antidepressant action of ketamine include N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) modulation, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneuron disinhibition, and direct actions of its hydroxynorketamine (HNK) metabolites...
March 7, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515437/polymethoxyflavones-from-nicotiana-plumbaginifolia-solanaceae-exert-antinociceptive-and-neuropharmacological-effects-in-mice
#16
Md Shafiullah Shajib, Ridwan B Rashid, Long C Ming, Shanta Islam, Md Moklesur R Sarker, Lutfun Nahar, Satyajit D Sarker, Bidyut K Datta, Mohammad A Rashid
Polymethoxylavones (PMFs) are known to exhibit significant anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Nicotiana plumbaginifolia , an annual Bangladeshi herb, is rich in polymethoxyflavones that possess significant analgesic and anxiolytic activities. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of polyoxygenated flavonoids namely- 3,3',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy-4',5'-methylenedioxyflavone ( 1 ), 3,3',4',5',5,6,7,8-octamethoxyflavone (exoticin) ( 2 ), 6,7,4',5'-dimethylenedioxy-3,5,3'-trimethoxyflavone ( 3 ), and 3,3',4',5,5',8-hexamethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone ( 4 ), isolated and identified from N...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499247/multidimensional-chemobehavior-analysis-of-flavonoids-and-neuroactive-compounds-in-zebrafish
#17
Sean M Bugel, Robert L Tanguay
The comparative analysis of complex behavioral phenotypes is valuable as a reductionist tool for both drug discovery and defining chemical bioactivity. Flavonoids are a diverse class of chemicals that elicit robust neuroactive and hormonal actions, though bioactivity information is limited for many, particularly for neurobehavioral endpoints. Here, we used a zebrafish larval chemomotor response (LCR) bioassay to comparatively evaluate a suite of 24 flavonoids, and in addition a panel of 30 model neuroactive compounds representing diverse modes of action (e...
February 27, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487540/neurally-released-gaba-acts-via-gaba-c-receptors-to-modulate-ca-2-transients-evoked-by-trains-of-synaptic-inputs-but-not-responses-evoked-by-single-stimuli-in-myenteric-neurons-of-mouse-ileum
#18
Katerina Koussoulas, Mathusi Swaminathan, Candice Fung, Joel C Bornstein, Jaime P P Foong
γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) and its receptors, GABAA,B,C , are expressed in several locations along the gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless, a role for GABA in enteric synaptic transmission remains elusive. In this study, we characterized the expression and function of GABA in the myenteric plexus of the mouse ileum. About 8% of all myenteric neurons were found to be GABA-immunoreactive (GABA+) including some Calretinin+ and some neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS+) neurons. We used Wnt1-Cre;R26R-GCaMP3 mice, which express a genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicator in all enteric neurons and glia...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477596/nicotine-facilitates-synaptic-depression-in-layer-v-pyramidal-neurons-of-the-mouse-insular-cortex
#19
Hiroki Toyoda
The insular cortex is known to play a pivotal role in addiction to nicotine. Long-term depression (LTD) in the central nervous system is a major form of synaptic plasticity which is involved in learning and memory and in various pathological conditions such as nicotine addiction. Until now, effects of nicotine on LTD were mainly examined in the hippocampus and striatum, and there is no report showing the effects of nicotine on LTD in the insular cortex. In the present study, I show for the first time that nicotine facilitates LTD which is induced by combination of presynaptic stimulation with postsynaptic depolarization (paired training) in layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse insular cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings...
February 22, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468757/anxiolytic-and-antidepressant-activities-of-pelargonium-roseum-essential-oil-on-swiss-albino-mice-possible-involvement-of-serotonergic-transmission
#20
Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini Tabari, Akbar Hajizadeh Moghaddam, Filippo Maggi, Giovanni Benelli
The anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of the Reunion Geranium (Pelargonium roseum Willd) essential oil (EO) were evaluated in male Swiss albino mice by intraperitoneal administration of 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg bw using elevated plus maze (EPM), open-field test (OFT), and forced swimming test (FST). Moreover, we evaluated whether the 5-HT1A and GABAA -benzodiazepine receptor systems are involved in the anxiolytic effects through the coadministration of WAY-100635 (a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist) and flumazenil (an antagonist of benzodiazepine)...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
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