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German J Osmak, Boris V Titov, Natalia A Matveeva, Vitalina V Bashinskaya, Roman M Shakhnovich, Tatiana S Sukhinina, Nino G Kukava, Mikhail Ya Ruda, Olga O Favorova
Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI) as its most severe clinical complication remain the leading causes of mortality in the majority of countries. Despite the progress in the treatment of MI, quite often the patients, after the first-time MI, develop subsequently a variety of adverse cardiovascular events. In this retrospective study we evaluated the contribution of allelic variations in 9p21.3 locus and in 21 atherogenesis-related genes to the development of hard cardiac events in a cohort of patients of Russian ethnicity after the first acute MI during long-term follow-up (7-10 years)...
January 10, 2018: Gene
C A Poveda-Coronel, D Riaño-Jiménez, J R Cure
Colombian tropical dry forest is considered the most endangered tropical biome due to anthropic activities. Desierto de la Tatacoa (DsT) is an example of high disturbed tropical dry forest which still maintains a high biodiversity. The objective of the study was to record the diversity and phenology of wild bees in this place by monthly sampling between December 2014 and December 2016 in a 9-km2 area. During the study, there was a prolonged El Niño-Southern Oscillation period. Bees were collected by entomological nets, malaise traps, eugenol scent trapping, and nest traps...
January 12, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Gabriela T Niño de Guzmán, Cathleen J Hapeman, Patricia D Millner, Laura L McConnell, Dana Jackson, David Kindig, Alba Torrents
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a highly effective industrial degreasing agent and known carcinogen. It was frequently buried improperly in landfills and has subsequently become one of the most common groundwater and soil contaminants in the USA. A common strategy to remediate TCE-contaminated sites and to prevent movement of the TCE plumes into waterways is to construct biowalls which consist of biomaterials and amendments to enhance biodegradation. This approach was chosen to contain a TCE plume emanating from a closed landfill in Maryland...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
T E Arnold, W F Kenney, J H Curtis, T S Bianchi, M Brenner
We carried out geochemical analyses on a sediment core from Lake Harris, Florida (USA) to identify sources of organic matter to the sediment throughout the Holocene, and relate changes in those sources to shifts in past climate and environmental conditions. We hypothesized that the sources of organic matter changed in response to regional hydrologic shifts following de-glaciation, and to human population expansion in the state during the 20th century. Hydroclimate shifts in Florida were related to: 1) a steady rise in relative sea level and the fresh water table that began in the early Holocene, 2) wetland formation and expansion ca...
2018: PloS One
Bruna Clara De Simone, Gloria Mazzone, Nino Russo, Emilia Sicilia, Marirosa Toscano
Bis(borondifluoride)-8-imidazodipyrromethene (BOIMPY) based molecules show interesting photophysical properties. We have undertaken a computational study at DFT and TDDFT levels of theory with the aim of verifying if the non-fluorescent BOIMPYs meet those properties necessary to be proposed as potential photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In particular, we have computed the absorption wavelengths, the singlet-triplet energy gaps and the spin-orbit matrix elements. The effect of halogen atom substitution (Br, I), in different amounts and positions in the BOIMPY skeleton, on the photophysical properties, has been elucidated...
January 10, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Swadhin K Behera, J V Ratnam
The El Niño/Southern Oscillation has been traditionally linked to the extremes in the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) affecting more than a billion people in the region. This trans-oceanic influence is seen to be moderated by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) phenomenon in recent decades. In the presence of a positive IOD (pIOD), the otherwise subdued ISMR in an El Niño year remains close to normal even in the face of record breaking El Niños. While this general influence of pIOD on ISMR is understood, the influence of negative IOD (nIOD) on ISMR is not yet recognized...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jenny Pirillo, Gloria Mazzone, Nino Russo
Density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were carried out for recently reported BODIPY-based photosensitizers (PSs) that can be activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) to generate 1O2 specifically in target tissues. In order to assess the applicability of the compounds as activatable PSs (a-PSs) in photodynamic therapy (PDT), we investigated absorption wavelengths, singlet-triplet energy gaps and spin-orbit matrix elements for the radiationless transition, Sn→Tm. A TD-DFT qualitative analysis indicated that only a Br-substituted BODIPY derivative with chromanol ring of -tocopherol linked by methylene can work as an a-PS...
January 4, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Sherif Ashraf Fahmy, Fortuna Ponte, Mohamed K Abd El-Rahman, Nino Russo, Emilia Sicilia, Tamer Shoeib
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Terry P Hughes, Kristen D Anderson, Sean R Connolly, Scott F Heron, James T Kerry, Janice M Lough, Andrew H Baird, Julia K Baum, Michael L Berumen, Tom C Bridge, Danielle C Claar, C Mark Eakin, James P Gilmour, Nicholas A J Graham, Hugo Harrison, Jean-Paul A Hobbs, Andrew S Hoey, Mia Hoogenboom, Ryan J Lowe, Malcolm T McCulloch, John M Pandolfi, Morgan Pratchett, Verena Schoepf, Gergely Torda, Shaun K Wilson
Tropical reef systems are transitioning to a new era in which the interval between recurrent bouts of coral bleaching is too short for a full recovery of mature assemblages. We analyzed bleaching records at 100 globally distributed reef locations from 1980 to 2016. The median return time between pairs of severe bleaching events has diminished steadily since 1980 and is now only 6 years. As global warming has progressed, tropical sea surface temperatures are warmer now during current La Niña conditions than they were during El Niño events three decades ago...
January 5, 2018: Science
Irene L Gorosito, Richard J Douglass
Small-mammal population densities can be regulated by bottom-up (food availability) and top-down (predation) forces. In 1993, an El Niño Southern Oscillation event was followed by a cluster of human hantavirus with pulmonary syndrome in the southwestern United States. An upward trophic cascade hypothesis was proposed as an explanation for the outbreak: Increased plant productivity as a consequence of El Niño precipitations led to an unusual increase in distribution and abundance of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus; reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus)...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Bedartha Goswami, Niklas Boers, Aljoscha Rheinwalt, Norbert Marwan, Jobst Heitzig, Sebastian F M Breitenbach, Jürgen Kurths
Identifying abrupt transitions is a key question in various disciplines. Existing transition detection methods, however, do not rigorously account for time series uncertainties, often neglecting them altogether or assuming them to be independent and qualitatively similar. Here, we introduce a novel approach suited to handle uncertainties by representing the time series as a time-ordered sequence of probability density functions. We show how to detect abrupt transitions in such a sequence using the community structure of networks representing probabilities of recurrence...
January 3, 2018: Nature Communications
Johannes Hellwagner, Nino Wili, Luis Fábregas Ibáñez, Johannes J Wittmann, Beat H Meier, Matthias Ernst
Dipolar recoupling techniques that use isolated rotor-synchronized π pulses are commonly used in solid-state NMR spectroscopy to gain insight into the structure of biological molecules. These sequences excel through their simplicity, stability towards radio-frequency (rf) inhomogeneity, and low rf requirements. For a theoretical understanding of such sequences, we present a Floquet treatment based on an interaction-frame transformation including the chemical-shift offset dependence. This approach is applied to the homonuclear dipolar-recoupling sequence Radio-Frequency Driven Recoupling (RFDR) and the heteronuclear recoupling sequence Rotational Echo Double Resonance (REDOR)...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Anthony Batte, Godfrey E Siu, Brenda Tibingana, Anne Chimoyi, Lucy Chimoyi, Nino Paichadze, Kennedy Otwombe
There is limited epidemiological data on childhood injuries in developing countries. This study assessed the incidence, patterns and risk factors for injuries among children aged 0-5 years in Wakiso District, Uganda. To determine differences, chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used. Risk factors were assessed using Poisson regression. Overall, information from 359 children of mean age 32 months (SD: 18.4) was collected. Annual incidence of injuries was 69.8 per 1000 children/year (95% CI 58.8-80.8)...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
Ekaterine Pestvenidze, Nino Lomia, Nino Berdzuli, Lia Umikashvili, Tamar Antelava, Babill Stray-Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Every year around 50 million unintended pregnancies worldwide are terminated by induced abortion. Even in countries, where it is legalized and performed in a safe environment, abortion carries some risk of complications for women. Findings of researchers on the factors that influence the sequelae of abortion are controversial and inconsistent. This study evaluates the effects of gestational age and the method of surgical abortion (i.e., dilatation and curettage and vacuum aspiration) on the most common abortion complications: postabortion hemorrhage and fever...
December 28, 2017: BMC Women's Health
Anilawan Smitthimedhin, Matthew Whitehead, Mahya Bigdeli, Nino Gustavo, Perez Geovanny, Otero Hansel
We aim to determine average volumes of the upper airway, adenoids and tonsils in preterm and term infants and assess for the differences according to weight, sex and ethnicity. The volumes of the upper airways, tonsils and adenoids were measured from brain MR images in 96 (49 preterm and 47 term) infants and compared using a two-tailed t-test (significant at p<0.05). The average volumes are reported for both groups. Term infants showed larger naso- and oropharyngeal volumes (independent of weight, sex, and ethnicity)...
December 16, 2017: Clinical Imaging
Jianpeng Xiao, Tao Liu, Hualiang Lin, Guanghu Zhu, Weilin Zeng, Xing Li, Bing Zhang, Tie Song, Aiping Deng, Meng Zhang, Haojie Zhong, Shao Lin, Shannon Rutherford, Xiaojing Meng, Yonghui Zhang, Wenjun Ma
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the periodicity of dengue and the relationship between weather variables, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and dengue incidence in Guangdong Province, China. METHODS: Guangdong monthly dengue incidence and weather data and El Niño index information for 1988 to 2015 were collected. Wavelet analysis was used to investigate the periodicity of dengue, and the coherence and time-lag phases between dengue and weather variables and ENSO. The Generalized Additive Model (GAM) approach was further employed to explore the dose-response relationship of those variables on dengue...
December 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Benjamin Vega-Westhoff, Ryan L Sriver
Understanding how the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) may change with climate is a major challenge, given the internal variability of the system and relatively short observational record. Here we analyze the effect of coupled internal variability on changes in ENSO under anthropogenic global warming using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). We present results from a ~5000 year control run with constant pre-industrial conditions and a 50-member climate change ensemble experiment, consisting of historical hindcasts (1850-2005) and future projections to 2100 following representative concentration pathway 8...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Malena Maroli, María Victoria Vadell, Paula Padula, Isabel E Gómez Villafañe
We captured 3 hantavirus rodent hosts in Otamendi Natural Reserve, Argentina, during 2007-2012. Hantavirus antibodies were found only in Akodon azarae grass mice, mainly in males and old animals. Higher abundance of this species was associated with warm and rainy weather and high water levels, which peaked after a strong El Niño event.
January 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Nino Iakobachvili, Peter J Peters
For many decades, human infectious diseases have been studied in immortalized cell lines, isolated primary cells from blood and a range of animal hosts. This research has been of fundamental importance in advancing our understanding of host and pathogen responses but remains limited by the absence of multicellular context and inherent differences in animal immune systems that result in altered immune responses. Recent developments in stem cell biology have led to the in vitro growth of organoids that faithfully recapitulate a variety of human tissues including lung, intestine and brain amongst many others...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lan Qie, Simon L Lewis, Martin J P Sullivan, Gabriela Lopez-Gonzalez, Georgia C Pickavance, Terry Sunderland, Peter Ashton, Wannes Hubau, Kamariah Abu Salim, Shin-Ichiro Aiba, Lindsay F Banin, Nicholas Berry, Francis Q Brearley, David F R P Burslem, Martin Dančák, Stuart J Davies, Gabriella Fredriksson, Keith C Hamer, Radim Hédl, Lip Khoon Kho, Kanehiro Kitayama, Haruni Krisnawati, Stanislav Lhota, Yadvinder Malhi, Colin Maycock, Faizah Metali, Edi Mirmanto, Laszlo Nagy, Reuben Nilus, Robert Ong, Colin A Pendry, Axel Dalberg Poulsen, Richard B Primack, Ervan Rutishauser, Ismayadi Samsoedin, Bernaulus Saragih, Plinio Sist, J W Ferry Slik, Rahayu Sukmaria Sukri, Martin Svátek, Sylvester Tan, Aiyen Tjoa, Mark van Nieuwstadt, Ronald R E Vernimmen, Ishak Yassir, Petra Susan Kidd, Muhammad Fitriadi, Nur Khalish Hafizhah Ideris, Rafizah Mat Serudin, Layla Syaznie Abdullah Lim, Muhammad Shahruney Saparudin, Oliver L Phillips
Less than half of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions remain in the atmosphere. While carbon balance models imply large carbon uptake in tropical forests, direct on-the-ground observations are still lacking in Southeast Asia. Here, using long-term plot monitoring records of up to half a century, we find that intact forests in Borneo gained 0.43 Mg C ha-1 per year (95% CI 0.14-0.72, mean period 1988-2010) above-ground live biomass. These results closely match those from African and Amazonian plot networks, suggesting that the world's remaining intact tropical forests are now en masse out-of-equilibrium...
December 19, 2017: Nature Communications
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