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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805365/removal-of-cells-from-body-fluids-by-magnetic-separation-in-batch-and-continuous-mode-influence-of-bead-size-concentration-and-contact-time
#1
Nils Bohmer, Nino Demarmels, Elena Tsolaki, Lukas Gerken, Kerda Keevend, Sergio Bertazzo, Marco Lattuada, Inge K Herrmann
The magnetic separation of pathogenic compounds from body fluids is an appealing therapeutic concept. Recently, removal of a diverse array of pathogens has been demonstrated using extracorporeal dialysis-type devices. The contact time between the fluid and the magnetic beads in such devices is limited to a few minutes. This poses challenges, particularly if large compounds, such as bacteria or cells need to be removed. Here, we report on the feasibility to remove cells from body fluids in a continuous dialysis type of setting...
August 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805245/tropical-rainforest-carbon-sink-declines-during-el-ni%C3%A3-o-as-a-result-of-reduced-photosynthesis-and-increased-respiration-rates
#2
Molly A Cavaleri, Adam P Coble, Michael G Ryan, William L Bauerle, Henry W Loescher, Steven F Oberbauer
Changes in tropical forest carbon sink strength during El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events can indicate future behavior under climate change. Previous studies revealed ˜6 Mg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) lower net ecosystem production (NEP) during ENSO year 1998 compared with non-ENSO year 2000 in a Costa Rican tropical rainforest. We explored environmental drivers of this change and examined the contributions of ecosystem respiration (RE) and gross primary production (GPP) to this weakened carbon sink. For 1998-2000, we estimated RE using chamber-based respiration measurements, and we estimated GPP in two ways: using (1) the canopy process model MAESTRA, and (2) combined eddy covariance and chamber respiration data...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797249/wind-conditions-on-migration-influence-the-annual-survival-of-a-neotropical-migrant-the-western-yellow-breasted-chat-icteria-virens-auricollis
#3
Andrew C Huang, Christine A Bishop, René McKibbin, Anna Drake, David J Green
BACKGROUND: Long-distance migratory birds in North America have undergone precipitous declines over the past half-century. Although the trend is clear, for many migrating species underpinning the exact causes poses a challenge to conservation due to the numerous stressors that they encounter. Climate conditions during all phases of their annual cycle can have important consequences for their survival. Here, using 15 years of capture-recapture dataset, we determined the effects of various climate factors during the breeding, wintering, and migrating stages on the annual survival of a western yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens auricollis) population breeding in southwestern Canada...
August 10, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791520/external-ventricular-drain-causes-brain-tissue-damage-an-imaging-study
#4
Fabrizio Ortolano, Marco Carbonara, Antonella Stanco, Vittorio Civelli, Giorgio Carrabba, Tommaso Zoerle, Nino Stocchetti
BACKGROUND: An external ventricular drain (EVD) is used to measure intracranial pressure (ICP) and to drain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The procedure is generally safe, but parenchymal sequelae are reported as a possible side effect, with variable incidence. We investigated the mechanical sequelae of EVD insertion and their clinical significance in acute brain-injured patients, with a special focus on hemorrhagic lesions. METHODS: Mechanical sequelae of EVD insertion were detected in patients by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performed for clinical purposes...
August 8, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791146/synchronous-population-dynamics-in-california-butterflies-explained-by-climatic-forcing
#5
Nicholas A Pardikes, Joshua G Harrison, Arthur M Shapiro, Matthew L Forister
A long-standing challenge for population biology has been to understand why some species are characterized by populations that fluctuate in size independently, while populations of other species fluctuate synchronously across space. The effects of climatic variation and dispersal have been invoked to explain synchronous population dynamics, however an understanding of the relative influence of these drivers in natural populations is lacking. Here we compare support for dispersal- versus climate-driven models of interspecific variation in synchrony using 27 years of observations of 65 butterfly species at 10 sites spanning 2750 m of elevation in Northern California...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790967/rethinking-neuroprotection-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-toward-bedside-neuroprotection
#6
REVIEW
Tommaso Zoerle, Marco Carbonara, Elisa R Zanier, Fabrizio Ortolano, Giulio Bertani, Sandra Magnoni, Nino Stocchetti
Neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important goal pursued strenuously in the last 30 years. The acute cerebral injury triggers a cascade of biochemical events that may worsen the integrity, function, and connectivity of the brain cells and decrease the chance of functional recovery. A number of molecules acting against this deleterious cascade have been tested in the experimental setting, often with preliminary encouraging results. Unfortunately, clinical trials using those candidate neuroprotectants molecules have consistently produced disappointing results, highlighting the necessity of improving the research standards...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782185/identification-of-hepatitis-c-virus-2k-1b-intergenotypic-recombinants-in-georgia
#7
Mamuka Zakalashvili, Jaba Zarkua, Michael Weizenegger, Jan Bartel, Monika Raabe, Lela Zangurashvili, Nino Kankia, Nino Jashiashvili, Maka Lomidze, Tengiz Telia, Vakhtang Kerashvili, Maia Zhamutashvili, Nikoloz Abramishvili, Charlotte Hedskog, Krishna Chodavarapu, Diana M Brainard, John G McHutchison, Hongmei Mo, Evguenia Svarovskaia, Robert G Gish, Irakli Rtskhiladze, David Metreveli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the hepatitis C virus intergenotype recombinant strain RF1_2k/1b in Georgia, confirm viral recombination by full genome sequencing, and determine a genetic relationship to previously described recombinant hepatitis C viruses. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 1421 Georgian patients with chronic hepatitis C. Genotyping was performed with the INNO-LiPA VERSANT HCV Genotype 2.0 Assay. RESULTS: Virus isolates were assigned to nonspecific hepatitis C genotypes 2a/2c (n=387) as performed by sequencing of core and NS5B genes...
August 7, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777801/freshwater-exchanges-and-surface-salinity-in-the-colombian-basin-caribbean-sea
#8
Emilio Beier, Gladys Bernal, Mauricio Ruiz-Ochoa, Eric Desmond Barton
Despite the heavy regional rainfall and considerable discharge of many rivers into the Colombian Basin, there have been few detailed studies about the dilution of Caribbean Surface Water and the variability of salinity in the southwestern Caribbean. An analysis of the precipitation, evaporation and runoff in relation to the climate variability demonstrates that although the salt balance in the Colombian Basin overall is in equilibrium, the area south of 12°N is an important dilution sub-basin. In the southwest of the basin, in the region of the Panama-Colombia Gyre, Caribbean Sea Water is diluted by precipitation and runoff year round, while in the northeast, off La Guajira, its salinity increases from December to May by upwelling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775194/development-of-a-prioritisation-tool-for-the-updating-of-clinical-guideline-questions-the-uppriority-tool-protocol
#9
Laura Martínez García, Hector Pardo-Hernandez, Ena Niño de Guzman, Cecilia Superchi, Monica Ballesteros, Emma McFarlane, Katrina Penman, Margarita Posso, Marta Roqué I Figuls, Andrea Juliana Sanabria, Anna Selva, Robin Wm Vernooij, Pablo Alonso-Coello
INTRODUCTION: Due to a continuous emergence of new evidence, clinical guidelines (CGs) require regular surveillance of evidence to maintain their trustworthiness. The updating of CGs is resource intensive and time consuming; therefore, updating may include a prioritisation process to efficiently ensure recommendations remain up to date. The objective of our project is to develop a pragmatic tool to prioritise clinical questions for updating within a CG. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To develop the tool, we will use the results and conclusions of a systematic review of methodological research on prioritisation processes for updating and will adopt a methodological approach we have successfully implemented in a previous experience...
August 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769546/the-development-of-the-mind-a-three-month-old-infant
#10
Simone Setterberg
Infant mental development occurs in interplay with a caregiver. The infant establishes an inner world, a psyche, by using his or her caregiver as transitional mental space for the development of a sense of self. This mental progress occurs simultaneously with motor elaboration, pre-conditioned by neurophysiological maturation. The bodily holding function of the caregiver, through initial skin-to-skin contact, enables the infant to develop a sense of bodily self. The pivotal role of the body as a first place of ego development is illustrated by the vignette of Nino, a 3-month-old infant whose caregiver is unable to provide the necessary physical contact, and therefore insufficiently containing the young infant...
February 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768116/on-reproductive-work-in-spain-transnational-adoption-egg-donation-surrogacy
#11
Diana Marre, Beatriz San Román, Diana Guerra
Spain's plummeting fertility since the late twentieth century may seem to reflect a waning desire for children. Nevertheless, reproductive disappointments resulting from gender inequalities cause many Spanish women to postpone motherhood and experience age-related fertility problems. For them, creating a family often becomes possible only through the reproductive labor of other women. Our analysis of transnational adoption, egg donation, and surrogacy in Spain shows how anonymity and altruism play out in these three strategies, with implications for the valuation of women's reproductive work and relationships among reproductive providers, intermediaries, recipients, and the resulting children...
August 2, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763933/short-term-association-between-ambient-air-pollution-and-pneumonia-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-time-series-and-case-crossover-studies
#12
REVIEW
Nguyen Thi Trang Nhung, Heresh Amini, Christian Schindler, Meltem Kutlar Joss, Tran Minh Dien, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Laura Perez, Nino Künzli
Ambient air pollution has been associated with respiratory diseases in children. However, its effects on pediatric pneumonia have not been meta-analyzed. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the short-term association between ambient air pollution and hospitalization of children due to pneumonia. We searched the Web of Science and PubMed for indexed publications up to January 2017. Pollutant-specific excess risk percentage (ER%) and confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using random effect models for particulate matter (PM) with diameter ≤ 10 (PM10) and ≤2...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760788/childhood-hospitalisation-and-related-deaths-in-hanoi-vietnam-a-tertiary-hospital-database-analysis-from-2007-to-2014
#13
Nhung T T Nguyen, Tran Minh Dien, Christian Schindler, Nguyen T B Lien, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Vu T H Lan, Nino Künzli, Laura Perez
OBJECTIVE: To describe hospital admission and emergency visit rates and potential risk factors of prolonged hospitalisation and death among children in Hanoi. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study reviewed 212 216 hospitalisation records of children (aged 0-17) who attended the Vietnam National Children's Hospital in Hanoi between 2007 and 2014. Four indicators were analysed and reported: (1) rate of emergency hospital visits, (2) rate of hospitalisation, (3) length of hospital stay and (4) number of deaths...
July 31, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756471/the-research-agenda-for-trauma-critical-care
#14
REVIEW
Karim Asehnoune, Zsolt Balogh, Giuseppe Citerio, Andre Cap, Timothy Billiar, Nino Stocchetti, Mitchell J Cohen, Paolo Pelosi, Nicola Curry, Christine Gaarder, Russell Gruen, John Holcomb, Beverley J Hunt, Nicole P Juffermans, Mark Maegele, Mark Midwinter, Frederick A Moore, Michael O'Dwyer, Jean-François Pittet, Herbert Schöchl, Martin Schreiber, Philip C Spinella, Simon Stanworth, Robert Winfield, Karim Brohi
In this research agenda on the acute and critical care management of trauma patients, we concentrate on the major factors leading to death, namely haemorrhage and traumatic brain injury (TBI). In haemostasis biology, the results of randomised controlled trials have led to the therapeutic focus moving away from the augmentation of coagulation factors (such as recombinant factor VIIa) and towards fibrinogen supplementation and administration of antifibrinolytics such as tranexamic acid. Novel diagnostic techniques need to be evaluated to determine whether an individualised precision approach is superior to current empirical practice...
July 29, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753089/emerging-criteria-for-the-low-coherence-cannot-classify-category
#15
Anna Maria Speranza, Giampaolo Nicolais, Carola Maggiora Vergano, Nino Dazzi
As suggested by Main et al., to respond to the need for an adaptation of the existing Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) coding system, especially regarding the application to nonnormative samples, this study presents additional criteria that characterize the low-coherence cannot classify (CC) category. Three AAIs were selected from a sample of parents of maltreated children. All transcripts indicated a very low coherence, with no evidence of contradictory insecure discourse strategies. Moreover, global category descriptors were identified, together with specific indices of discourse characteristics and features that highlight the breakdown in reasoning and discourse experienced by the speakers...
July 28, 2017: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746734/spatial-evaluation-of-indonesia-s-2015-fire-affected-area-and-estimated-carbon-emissions-using-sentinel-1
#16
Sandra Lohberger, Matthias Stängel, Elizabeth C Atwood, Florian Siegert
Fires raged once again across Indonesia in the latter half of 2015, creating a state of emergency due to poisonous smoke and haze across Southeast Asia as well as incurring great financial costs to the government. A strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) led to drought in many parts of Indonesia, resulting in elevated fire occurrence comparable with the previous catastrophic event in 1997/98. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data promise to provide improved detection of land use and land cover changes in the tropics as compared to methodologies dependent upon cloud and haze free images...
July 26, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746389/a-model-for-simulating-the-active-dispersal-of-juvenile-sea-turtles-with-a-case-study-on-western-pacific-leatherback-turtles
#17
Philippe Gaspar, Maxime Lalire
Oceanic currents are known to broadly shape the dispersal of juvenile sea turtles during their pelagic stage. Accordingly, simple passive drift models are widely used to investigate the distribution at sea of various juvenile sea turtle populations. However, evidence is growing that juveniles do not drift purely passively but also display some swimming activity likely directed towards favorable habitats. We therefore present here a novel Sea Turtle Active Movement Model (STAMM) in which juvenile sea turtles actively disperse under the combined effects of oceanic currents and habitat-driven movements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745768/the-sos-chromotest-applied-for-screening-plant-antigenotoxic-agents-against-ultraviolet-radiation
#18
J L Fuentes, A García Forero, N Quintero Ruiz, C A Prada Medina, N Rey Castellanos, D A Franco Niño, D A Contreras García, Y Córdoba Campo, E E Stashenko
In this work, we investigated the usefulness of the SOS Chromotest for screening plant antigenotoxic agents against ultraviolet radiation (UV). Fifty Colombian plant extracts obtained by supercritical fluid (CO2) extraction, twelve plant extract constituents (apigenin, carvacrol, β-caryophyllene, 1,8-cineole, citral, p-cymene, geraniol, naringenin, pinocembrin, quercetin, squalene, and thymol) and five standard antioxidant and/or photoprotective agents (curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, resveratrol, α-tocopherol, and Trolox®) were evaluated for their genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity against UV using the SOS Chromotest...
July 26, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745515/hydrology-of-the-north-klondike-river-carbon-export-water-balance-and-inter-annual-climate-influences-within-a-sub-alpine-permafrost-catchment
#19
Anthony Lapp, Ian Clark, Andrew Macumber, Tim Patterson
Arctic and sub-arctic watersheds are undergoing significant changes due to recent climate warming and degrading permafrost, engendering enhanced monitoring of arctic rivers. Smaller catchments provide understanding of discharge, solute flux and groundwater recharge at the process level that contributes to an understanding of how larger arctic watersheds are responding to climate change. The North Klondike River, located in west central Yukon, is a sub-alpine permafrost catchment, which maintains an active hydrological monitoring station with a record of >40 years...
July 26, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745146/disorganized-attachment-in-infancy-a-review-of-the-phenomenon-and-its-implications-for-clinicians-and-policy-makers
#20
Pehr Granqvist, L Alan Sroufe, Mary Dozier, Erik Hesse, Miriam Steele, Marinus van Ijzendoorn, Judith Solomon, Carlo Schuengel, Pasco Fearon, Marian Bakermans-Kranenburg, Howard Steele, Jude Cassidy, Elizabeth Carlson, Sheri Madigan, Deborah Jacobvitz, Sarah Foster, Kazuko Behrens, Anne Rifkin-Graboi, Naomi Gribneau, Gottfried Spangler, Mary J Ward, Mary True, Susan Spieker, Sophie Reijman, Samantha Reisz, Anne Tharner, Frances Nkara, Ruth Goldwyn, June Sroufe, David Pederson, Deanne Pederson, Robert Weigand, Daniel Siegel, Nino Dazzi, Kristin Bernard, Peter Fonagy, Everett Waters, Sheree Toth, Dante Cicchetti, Charles H Zeanah, Karlen Lyons-Ruth, Mary Main, Robbie Duschinsky
Disorganized/Disoriented (D) attachment has seen widespread interest from policy makers, practitioners, and clinicians in recent years. However, some of this interest seems to have been based on some false assumptions that (1) attachment measures can be used as definitive assessments of the individual in forensic/child protection settings and that disorganized attachment (2) reliably indicates child maltreatment, (3) is a strong predictor of pathology, and (4) represents a fixed or static "trait" of the child, impervious to development or help...
July 26, 2017: Attachment & Human Development
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