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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158390/additive-effects-of-climate-and-fisheries-drive-ongoing-declines-in-multiple-albatross-species
#1
Deborah Pardo, Jaume Forcada, Andrew G Wood, Geoff N Tuck, Louise Ireland, Roger Pradel, John P Croxall, Richard A Phillips
Environmental and anthropogenic factors often drive population declines in top predators, but how their influences may combine remains unclear. Albatrosses are particularly threatened. They breed in fast-changing environments, and their extensive foraging ranges expose them to incidental mortality (bycatch) in multiple fisheries. The albatross community at South Georgia includes globally important populations of three species that have declined by 40-60% over the last 35 years. We used three steps to deeply understand the drivers of such dramatic changes: (i) describe fundamental demographic rates using multievent models, (ii) determine demographic drivers of population growth using matrix models, and (iii) identify environmental and anthropogenic drivers using ANOVAs...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158140/consequences-of-an-uncertain-mass-mortality-regime-triggered-by-climate-variability-on-giant-clam-population-management-in-the-pacific-ocean
#2
Simon Van Wynsberge, Serge Andréfouët, Nabila Gaertner-Mazouni, Georges Remoissenet
Despite actions to manage sustainably tropical Pacific Ocean reef fisheries, managers have faced failures and frustrations because of unpredicted mass mortality events triggered by climate variability. The consequences of these events on the long-term population dynamics of living resources need to be better understood for better management decisions. Here, we use a giant clam (Tridacna maxima) spatially explicit population model to compare the efficiency of several management strategies under various scenarios of natural mortality, including mass mortality due to climatic anomalies...
November 17, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156088/climate-mediated-changes-in-marine-ecosystem-regulation-during-el-ni%C3%A3-o
#3
Martin Lindegren, David M Checkley, J Anthony Koslow, Ralf Goericke, Mark D Ohman
The degree to which ecosystems are regulated through bottom-up, top-down or direct physical processes represents a long-standing issue in ecology, with important consequences for resource management and conservation. In marine ecosystems, the role of bottom-up and top-down forcing has been shown to vary over spatio-temporal scales, often linked to highly variable and heterogeneously distributed environmental conditions. Ecosystem dynamics in the Northeast Pacific have been suggested to be predominately bottom-up regulated...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155576/chronic-arsenic-exposure-increases-a%C3%AE-1-42-production-and-rage-expression-in-rat-brain
#4
Sandra Aurora Niño, Guadalupe Martel-Gallegos, Adriana Castro-Zavala, Benita Ortega-Berlanga, Juan Manuel Delgado, Hector Hernandez-Mendoza, E Romero-Guzman, Judith Rios-Lugo, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, María Esther Jiménez-Capdeville, Sergio Zarazua
Chronic arsenic exposure during development is associated with alterations of chemical transmission and demyelination, which result in cognitive deficits and peripheral neuropathies. At cellular level, arsenic toxicity involves increased generation of reactive species that induce severe cellular alterations such as DNA fragmentation, apoptosis and lipid peroxidation. It has been proposed that arsenic-associated neurodegeneration could evolve to Alzheimer disease in later life.1,2 In this study, the effects of chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (3 ppm by drinking water) in Wistar rats on the production and elimination of Amyloid-β (Aβ) were evaluated...
November 20, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150603/bacterially-derived-synthetic-mimetics-of-mammalian-oligomannose-prime-antibody-responses-that-neutralize-hiv-infectivity
#5
Ralph Pantophlet, Nino Trattnig, Sasha Murrell, Naiomi Lu, Dennis Chau, Caitlin Rempel, Ian A Wilson, Paul Kosma
Oligomannose-type glycans are among the major targets on the gp120 component of the HIV envelope protein (Env) for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). However, attempts to elicit oligomannose-specific nAbs by immunizing with natural or synthetic oligomannose have so far not been successful, possibly due to B cell tolerance checkpoints. Here we design and synthesize oligomannose mimetics, based on the unique chemical structure of a recently identified bacterial lipooligosaccharide, to appear foreign to the immune system...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145446/large-scale-climatic-effects-on-traditional-hawaiian-fishpond-aquaculture
#6
Daniel McCoy, Margaret A McManus, Keliʻiahonui Kotubetey, Angela Hiʻilei Kawelo, Charles Young, Brandon D'Andrea, Kathleen C Ruttenberg, Rosanna ʻAnolani Alegado
Aquaculture accounts for almost one-half of global fish consumption. Understanding the regional impact of climate fluctuations on aquaculture production thus is critical for the sustainability of this crucial food resource. The objective of this work was to understand the role of climate fluctuations and climate change in subtropical coastal estuarine environments within the context of aquaculture practices in He'eia Fishpond, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study of climate effects on traditional aquaculture systems in the Hawaiian Islands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142265/publisher-correction-tropical-explosive-volcanic-eruptions-can-trigger-el-ni%C3%A3-o-by-cooling-tropical-africa
#7
Myriam Khodri, Takeshi Izumo, Jérôme Vialard, Serge Janicot, Christophe Cassou, Matthieu Lengaigne, Juliette Mignot, Guillaume Gastineau, Eric Guilyardi, Nicolas Lebas, Alan Robock, Michael J McPhaden
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this article.
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142229/impact-of-deforestation-and-climate-on-the-amazon-basin-s-above-ground-biomass-during-1993-2012
#8
Jean-François Exbrayat, Yi Y Liu, Mathew Williams
Since the 1960s, large-scale deforestation in the Amazon Basin has contributed to rising global CO2 concentrations and to climate change. Recent advances in satellite observations enable estimates of gross losses of above-ground biomass (AGB) stocks due to deforestation. However, because of simultaneous regrowth, the net contribution of deforestation emissions to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations is poorly quantified. Climate change may also reduce the potential for forest regeneration in previously disturbed regions...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136532/spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-rainfall-and-drought-characteristics-across-the-pearl-river-basin
#9
Shulin Deng, Tan Chen, Ni Yang, Lean Qu, Manchun Li, Dong Chen
Understanding rainfall trends as well as drought characteristics plays a key role in watershed development and management. In this study, the spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall and drought based on temperature and precipitation data observed in 48 meteorological stations from 1959 to 2012 across the Pearl River Basin in China were analyzed. The possible influence of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and El Nino Modoki (ENSO_M) events on seasonal drought based on the Standardized Precipitation-evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) were also investigated...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134754/a-decrease-in-the-abundance-and-strategic-sophistication-of-cleaner-fish-after-environmental-perturbations
#10
Zegni Triki, Sharon Wismer, Elena Levorato, Redouan Bshary
Coral reef ecosystems are declining worldwide and under foreseeable threat due to climate change, resulting in significant changes in reef communities. It is unknown, however, how such community changes impact interspecific interactions. Recent extreme weather events affecting the Great Barrier Reef, that is, consecutive cyclones and the 2016 El Niño event, allowed us to explore potential consequences in the mutualistic interactions involving cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaner"). After the perturbations, cleaner densities were reduced by 80%, disproportionally compared to the variety of reef fish clients from which cleaners remove ectoparasites...
November 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132717/effects-of-the-enso-on-rainfall-erosivity-in-the-fujian-province-of-southeast-china
#11
Shifa Chen, Xuan Zha
Rainfall erosivity is one important factor that controls soil erosion. The interannual variability of rainfall erosivity in southeast China connected to the ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation). Rainfall erosivity across southeast China was assessed using daily rainfall data from 60 meteorological stations during the period from 1980 to 2013. We determined that models of erosivity based on daily rainfall can accurately predict annual rainfall erosivity. This paper presents a study of the effects of Niño3.4 SST (Sea Surface Temperatures) anomalies, the SOI (Southern Oscillation Index) and the MEI (Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index) on rainfall erosivity in the southeast of China...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128032/acute-effects-of-ambient-air-pollution-on-lower-respiratory-infections-in-hanoi-children-an-eight-year-time-series-study
#12
Nguyen Thi Trang Nhung, Christian Schindler, Tran Minh Dien, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Laura Perez, Nino Künzli
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory diseases are the most frequent causes of hospital admission in children worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Daily levels of air pollution are associated with lower respiratory diseases, as documented in many time-series studies. However, investigations in low-and-middle-income countries, such as Vietnam, remain sparse. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the short-term association of ambient air pollution with daily counts of hospital admissions due to pneumonia, bronchitis and asthma among children aged 0-17 in Hanoi, Vietnam...
January 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127580/sigma-1-receptor-agonists-induce-oxidative-stress-in-mitochondria-and-enhance-complex-i-activity-in-physiological-condition-but-protect-against-pathological-oxidative-stress
#13
Nino Goguadze, Elene Zhuravliova, Didier Morin, Davit Mikeladze, Tangui Maurice
The sigma1 receptor (σ1R) is a chaperone protein residing at mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAMs), where it modulates Ca(2+) exchange between the ER and mitochondria by interacting with inositol-1,4,5 trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs). The σ1R is highly expressed in the central nervous system and its activation stimulates neuromodulation and neuroprotection, for instance in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models in vitro and in vivo. σ1R effects on mitochondria pathophysiology and the downstream signaling are still not fully understood...
November 10, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126888/single-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-produces-progressive-pathology-with-ongoing-contralateral-white-matter-damage-one-year-after-injury
#14
Francesca Pischiutta, Edoardo Micotti, Jennifer R Hay, Ines Marongiu, Eliana Sammali, Daniele Tolomeo, Gloria Vegliante, Nino Stocchetti, Gianluigi Forloni, Maria-Grazia De Simoni, William Stewart, Elisa R Zanier
There is increasing recognition that traumatic brain injury (TBI) may initiate long-term neurodegenerative processes, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy. However, insight into the mechanisms transforming an initial biomechanical injury into a neurodegenerative process remain elusive, partly as a consequence of the paucity of informative pre-clinical models. This study shows the functional, whole brain imaging and neuropathological consequences at up to one year survival from single severe TBI by controlled cortical impact in mice...
November 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126697/use-of-automated-learning-techniques-for-predicting-mandibular-morphology-in-skeletal-class-i-ii-and-iii
#15
Tania Camila Niño-Sandoval, Sonia V Guevara Pérez, Fabio A González, Robinson Andrés Jaque, Clementina Infante-Contreras
BACKGROUND: The prediction of the mandibular bone morphology in facial reconstruction for forensic purposes is usually performed considering a straight profile corresponding to skeletal class I, with application of linear and parametric analysis which limit the search for relationships between mandibular and craniomaxillary variables. OBJECTIVE: To predict the mandibular morphology through craniomaxillary variables on lateral radiographs in patients with skeletal class I, II and III, using automated learning techniques, such as Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Regression...
October 12, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126632/an-estimate-of-the-percentage-of-non-predatory-dead-variability-in-coastal-zooplankton-of-the-southern-humboldt-current-system
#16
M C Krautz, E Hernández-Miranda, R Veas, P Bocaz, P Riquelme, R A Quiñones
Non-predatory dead variability in zooplankton remains poorly quantified worldwide. Here, we make the first estimation of the percentage of dead organisms in coastal zooplankton communities in the Humboldt Current System (HCS) under in situ conditions. The study was conducted in four coastal sites of the southern HCS (between 36 and 37°S) over a period of one year. Percentages of dead organisms were based on the classification as live or dead of 158,220 holoplankton and 17,591 meroplankton individuals using neutral red staining technique...
October 28, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122524/traumatic-brain-injury-integrated-approaches-to-improve-prevention-clinical-care-and-research
#17
REVIEW
Andrew I R Maas, David K Menon, P David Adelson, Nada Andelic, Michael J Bell, Antonio Belli, Peter Bragge, Alexandra Brazinova, András Büki, Randall M Chesnut, Giuseppe Citerio, Mark Coburn, D Jamie Cooper, A Tamara Crowder, Endre Czeiter, Marek Czosnyka, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Jens P Dreier, Ann-Christine Duhaime, Ari Ercole, Thomas A van Essen, Valery L Feigin, Guoyi Gao, Joseph Giacino, Laura E Gonzalez-Lara, Russell L Gruen, Deepak Gupta, Jed A Hartings, Sean Hill, Ji-Yao Jiang, Naomi Ketharanathan, Erwin J O Kompanje, Linda Lanyon, Steven Laureys, Fiona Lecky, Harvey Levin, Hester F Lingsma, Marc Maegele, Marek Majdan, Geoffrey Manley, Jill Marsteller, Luciana Mascia, Charles McFadyen, Stefania Mondello, Virginia Newcombe, Aarno Palotie, Paul M Parizel, Wilco Peul, James Piercy, Suzanne Polinder, Louis Puybasset, Todd E Rasmussen, Rolf Rossaint, Peter Smielewski, Jeannette Söderberg, Simon J Stanworth, Murray B Stein, Nicole von Steinbüchel, William Stewart, Ewout W Steyerberg, Nino Stocchetti, Anneliese Synnot, Braden Te Ao, Olli Tenovuo, Alice Theadom, Dick Tibboel, Walter Videtta, Kevin K W Wang, W Huw Williams, Lindsay Wilson, Kristine Yaffe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117789/nlrp3-polymorphisms-and-response-to-interferon-beta-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#18
Sunny Malhotra, Melissa Sorosina, Jordi Río, Silvia Peroni, Luciana Midaglia, Luisa M Villar, José C Álvarez-Cermeño, Ina Schroeder, Federica Esposito, Ferdinando Clarelli, Uwe K Zettl, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Nino Spataro, Arcadi Navarro, Giancarlo Comi, Xavier Montalban, Filippo Martinelli-Boneschi, Manuel Comabella
We aimed to investigate whether NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) polymorphisms are associated with the response to interferon-beta (IFNβ) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A total of 14 NLRP3 polymorphisms were genotyped in a cohort of 665 relapsing-remitting MS patients recruited across 5 centers and classified into responders and non-responders according to clinical-radiological criteria after 1 year of IFNβ treatment. A meta-analysis failed to demonstrate significant associations between the response to IFNβ and NLRP3 polymorphisms...
November 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106968/effects-of-el-ni%C3%A3-o-and-la-ni%C3%A3-a-southern-oscillation-events-on-the-adrenocortical-responses-to-stress-in-birds-of-the-galapagos-islands
#19
John C Wingfield, Michaela Hau, P Dee Boersma, L Michael Romero, Nigella Hillgarth, Marilyn Ramenofsky, Peter Wrege, Robert Scheibling, J Patrick Kelley, Brian Walker, Martin Wikelski
El Niño Southern Oscillation events (ENSO) and the subsequent opposite weather patterns in the following months and years (La Niña) have major climatic impacts, especially on oceanic habitats, affecting breeding success of both land and sea birds. We assessed corticosterone concentrations from blood samples during standardized protocols of capture, handling and restraint to simulate acute stress from 12 species of Galapagos Island birds during the ENSO year of 1998 and a La Niña year of 1999. Plasma levels of corticosterone were measured in samples collected at capture (to represent non-stressed baseline) and subsequently up to one hour post-capture to give maximum corticosterone following acute stress, and total amount of corticosterone that the individual was exposed to during the test period (integrated corticosterone)...
October 26, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101362/marine-heatwave-causes-unprecedented-regional-mass-bleaching-of-thermally-resistant-corals-in-northwestern-australia
#20
Morane Le Nohaïc, Claire L Ross, Christopher E Cornwall, Steeve Comeau, Ryan Lowe, Malcolm T McCulloch, Verena Schoepf
In 2015/16, a marine heatwave associated with a record El Niño led to the third global mass bleaching event documented to date. This event impacted coral reefs around the world, including in Western Australia (WA), although WA reefs had largely escaped bleaching during previous strong El Niño years. Coral health surveys were conducted during the austral summer of 2016 in four bioregions along the WA coast (~17 degrees of latitude), ranging from tropical to temperate locations. Here we report the first El Niño-related regional-scale mass bleaching event in WA...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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