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Glycaemic control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328262/haemodialysis-nutritional-disorders-and-hypoglycaemia-in-critical-care
#1
Jeiel Carlos Lamonica Crespo, Vanessa Rossato Gomes, Ricardo Luís Barbosa, Katia Grillo Padilha, Silvia Regina Secoli
This study aimed to determine hypoglycemia incidence and associated factors in critically ill patients. It looked at a retrospective cohort with 106 critically ill adult patients with 48 hours of glycaemic control and 72 hours of follow up. The dependent variable, hypoglycaemia (≤70 mg/dl), was assessed with respect to independent variables: age, diet, insulin, catecholamines, haemodialysis, nursing workload and the Simplified Acute Physiology Score. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression at 5% significance level...
March 9, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327140/efficacy-and-safety-of-canagliflozin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-based-on-history-of-cardiovascular-disease-or-cardiovascular-risk-factors-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-pooled-data
#2
Michael J Davies, Katherine Merton, Ujjwala Vijapurkar, Jacqueline Yee, Rong Qiu
BACKGROUND: Treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and a history of cardiovascular (CV) disease or CV risk factors may present clinical challenges due to the presence of comorbid conditions and the use of concomitant medications. The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, canagliflozin, has been shown to improve glycaemic control and reduce body weight and blood pressure (BP) with a favourable tolerability profile in a broad range of patients with T2DM. This post hoc analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in patients with T2DM based on CV disease history or CV risk factors...
March 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324867/blood-glucose-levels-and-glycaemic-burden-in-76-341-patients-attending-primary-care-bittersweet-findings-from-a-9-year-cohort-study
#3
Melinda J Carrington, Neale Cohen, Joshua F Wiley
AIMS: Diabetes care is principally applied in the primary care setting whereby we examined trends in glycaemic levels and goals and estimated avoidable glycaemic burden. METHODS: We retrieved glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) results and glucose-lowering prescription records from a patient-based medical database during 2005-2013. There were 275,480 available HbA1C measurements from 76,341 individuals managed by 960 general practitioners from 321 clinics across Australia...
February 27, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322429/treatment-challenges-in-type-1-diabetes-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#4
Lucie Favre, François Pralong, Michel Suter, François R Jornayvaz
Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. The obesity epidemic does not spare patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but there is no consensus regarding the role of surgery in the management of obese T1DM patients. Published data consistently report significant weight loss after surgery in obese T1DM patients, but long-term glycaemic control remains difficult to achieve. Here we present our experience with a challenging patient and a review of the literature. Our patient successfully underwent a roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) when she was 28 years old...
March 21, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320484/nutritional-intervention-preconception-and-during-pregnancy-to-maintain-healthy-glucose-metabolism-and-offspring-health-nipper-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Keith M Godfrey, Wayne Cutfield, Shiao-Yng Chan, Philip N Baker, Yap-Seng Chong
BACKGROUND: Improved maternal nutrition and glycaemic control before and during pregnancy are thought to benefit the health of the mother, with consequent benefits for infant body composition and later obesity risk. Maternal insulin resistance and glycaemia around conception and in early pregnancy may be key determinants of maternal physiology and placental function, affecting fetal nutrient supply and maternal-feto-placental communications throughout gestation, with implications for later postnatal health...
March 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318015/plasma-levels-of-masp-1-masp-3-and-map44-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-influence-of-glycaemic-control-body-composition-and-polymorphisms-in-the-masp1-gene
#6
Sara Skov Krogh, Charlotte Brinck Holt, Rudi Steffensen, Kristian Løkke Funck, Pernille Høyem, Esben Laugesen, Per Løgstrup Poulsen, Steffen Thiel, Troels Krarup Hansen
Mounting evidence indicates that adverse activation of the complement system plays a role in the development of diabetic vascular complications. Plasma levels of the complement proteins mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and its associated serine proteases (MASP-1 and MASP-2) are elevated in diabetes. We hypothesised that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MASP1 gene may contribute to altered plasma levels of the belonging gene products; MASP-1, MASP-3 and mannan-binding lectin-associated protein of 44 kDa (MAp44) in patients with type 2 diabetes...
March 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315575/systematic-review-on-the-cost-effectiveness-of-self-management-education-programme-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
REVIEW
J X Lian, S M McGhee, J Chau, Carlos K H Wong, Cindy L K Lam, William C W Wong
OBJECTIVES: A review of cost-effectiveness studies on self-management education programmes for Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Cochrane, PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched for papers published from January 2003 through September 2015. Further hand searching using the reference lists of included papers was carried out. RESULTS: In total, 777 papers were identified and 12 papers were finally included. We found eight programmes whose effectiveness analyses were based on randomised controlled trials and whose costs were comprehensively estimated from the stated perspective...
February 22, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304392/metrics-for-glycaemic-control-from-hba1c-to-continuous-glucose-monitoring
#8
REVIEW
Boris P Kovatchev
As intensive treatment to lower levels of HbA1c characteristically results in an increased risk of hypoglycaemia, patients with diabetes mellitus face a life-long optimization problem to reduce average levels of glycaemia and postprandial hyperglycaemia while simultaneously avoiding hypoglycaemia. This optimization can only be achieved in the context of lowering glucose variability. In this Review, I discuss topics that are related to the assessment, quantification and optimal control of glucose fluctuations in diabetes mellitus...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304008/contraception-in-women-with-diabetes
#9
Bharti Kalra, Sanjay Kalra
This brief article covers the diabetes related aspects of contraception in women. It classifies various methods of contraception and describes how presence of diabetes influences their use. The article lists the high risk conditions in diabetes which may discourage use of combined hormonal contraceptives. It discusses the relation of glycaemic control and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP), and calls for universal provision of contraceptive services to all women with diabetes.
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303626/lixisenatide-as-add-on-treatment-among-patients-with-different-%C3%AE-cell-function-levels-as-assessed-by-homa-%C3%AE-index
#10
Riccardo C Bonadonna, Lawrence Blonde, Mikhail Antsiferov, Rachele Berria, Pierre Gourdy, Mensud Hatunic, Viswanathan Mohan, Michael Horowitz
BACKGROUND: The effect of lixisenatide - a prandial once-daily glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist - on glycaemic control in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes (T2DM), stratified by baseline β-cell function was assessed. METHODS: The 24-week GetGoal-M, -P and -S trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of lixisenatide in combination with oral antidiabetic agents. This post hoc analysis used data from patients receiving lixisenatide in these trials, divided into matched cohorts by propensity scoring and stratified according to baseline homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) index levels (high HOMA-β: > median HOMA-β [28...
March 17, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303003/effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-and-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-on-glycaemic-control-and-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-function-in-db-db-mice
#11
Vivien Chavanelle, Nathalie Boisseau, Yolanda F Otero, Lydie Combaret, Dominique Dardevet, Christophe Montaurier, Geoffrey Delcros, Sébastien L Peltier, Pascal Sirvent
Physical activity is known as an effective strategy for prevention and treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. The aim of this work was to compare the effects of a traditional Moderate Intensity Continuous Training (MICT) with a High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on glucose metabolism and mitochondrial function in diabetic mice. Diabetic db/db male mice (N = 25) aged 6 weeks were subdivided into MICT, HIIT or control (CON) group. Animals in the training groups ran on a treadmill 5 days/week during 10 weeks...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299380/conditional-islet-hypovascularisation-does-not-preclude-beta-cell-expansion-during-pregnancy-in-mice
#12
Willem Staels, Yves Heremans, Gunter Leuckx, Naomi Van Gassen, Ciro Salinno, Sofie De Groef, Martine Cools, Eli Keshet, Yuval Dor, Harry Heimberg, Nico De Leu
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Endothelial-endocrine cell interactions and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A signalling are deemed essential for maternal islet vascularisation, glucose control and beta cell expansion during mouse pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess whether pregnancy-associated beta cell expansion was affected under conditions of islet hypovascularisation. METHODS: Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT1), a VEGF-A decoy receptor, was conditionally overexpressed in maternal mouse beta cells from 1...
March 16, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299348/beneficial-effects-of-yogasanas-and-pranayama-in-limiting-the-cognitive-decline-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
Santhakumari Rajani, Rajagopalan Archana, Yogananda Reddy Indla, P Rajesh
BACKGROUND: Out of many complications that were observed in type 2 diabetes, cognitive impairment is the most neglected. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to assess the cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes and to observe the role of yogasanas and pranayama in ameliorating the cognitive decline. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty eight type 2 diabetic subjects were recruited in the study, 34 of them did specific yogasanas and pranayama (test group) for six months and the remaining age and sex matched 34 subjects were recruited as (control group) who were not on any specific exercise regimen...
2017: Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296055/efficacy-and-safety-of-saxagliptin-compared-with-acarbose-in-chinese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-uncontrolled-on-metformin-monotherapy-results-of-a-phase-iv-open-label-randomized-controlled-study-the-smart-study
#14
Jin Du, Li Liang, Hui Fang, Fengmei Xu, Wei Li, Liya Shen, Xueying Wang, Chun Xu, Fang Bian, Yiming Mu
AIM: To investigate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of saxagliptin compared with acarbose in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SMART was a 24-week, multicentre, randomized, parallel-group, open-label Phase IV study conducted at 35 sites in China (24/09/2014-29/09/2015). The primary outcome was change from baseline in HbA1c at Week 24. Secondary efficacy outcomes assessed at Week 24 included the proportion of patients achieving HbA1c<7...
March 14, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295934/insulin-degludec-lower-day-to-day-and-within-day-variability-in-pharmacodynamic-response-compared-to-insulin-glargine-u300-in-type-1-diabetes
#15
Tim Heise, Marianne Nørskov, Leszek Nosek, Kadriye Kaplan, Susanne Famulla, Hanne L Haahr
AIM: To compare day-to-day and within-day variability in glucose-lowering effect between insulin degludec (IDeg) and insulin glargine 300 U/mL (IGlar-U300) in type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this double-blind, crossover study, patients were randomly assigned to 0.4 U/kg of IDeg or IGlar-U300 once-daily for two treatment periods lasting 12 days each. Pharmacodynamic parameters were assessed at steady state from glucose infusion rate profiles of three 24h euglycaemic glucose clamps (Days 6, 9 and 12) during each treatment period...
March 14, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294172/effects-of-vitamin-c-supplementation-on-glycaemic-control-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#16
REVIEW
A W Ashor, A D Werner, J Lara, N D Willis, J C Mathers, M Siervo
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have observed contrasting results on the effects of vitamin C on circulating biomarkers of glycaemic and insulin regulation. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs testing the effect of vitamin C administration on glucose, HbA1c and insulin concentrations. Four databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane Library) were used to retrieve RCTs published from inception until April 2016 and testing the effects of vitamin C in adult participants. The screening of 2008 articles yielded 22 eligible studies (937 participants)...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293303/characteristics-of-glucose-metabolism-indexes-and-continuous-glucose-monitoring-system-cgms-in-patients-with-insulinoma
#17
Weijun Gu, Yixin Liu, Hongyan Liu, Guoqing Yang, Qinghua Guo, Jin Du, Nan Jin, Li Zang, Zhaohui Lv, Jianming Ba, Yiming Mu, Jingtao Dou
AIMS: Analyze the clinical applicability of glucose metabolism indexes and continuous glucose monitoring data on the qualitative diagnosis of insulinoma. METHODS: Involve 22 patients with insulinoma (insulinoma group), 11 patients with hypoglycemia (hypoglycemia group) and 31 people with normal glucose tolerance (control group). HbA1c, fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin (FINS) and C-peptide (FCP) was tested. Using CGMS to monitor the blood glucose for three consecutive days and selecting the monitoring data of 24 h thereof, figuring out, with the aid of EasyGV Version 9...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292300/clinical-outcomes-and-glycaemic-responses-to-different-aerobic-exercise-training-intensities-in-type-ii-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Aimee Grace, Erick Chan, Francesco Giallauria, Petra L Graham, Neil A Smart
AIMS: To establish if aerobic exercise training is associated with beneficial effects on clinical outcomes and glycaemic profile in people with type II diabetes. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to identify studies through a search of MEDLINE (1985 to Sept 1, 2016, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry (1966 to Sept 1, 2016), CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Science Citation Index. The search strategy included a mix of MeSH and free text terms for related key concepts...
March 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289780/multifaceted-interaction-of-bone-muscle-lifestyle-interventions-and-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-disease-role-of-osteocalcin
#19
REVIEW
I Levinger, T C Brennan-Speranza, A Zulli, L Parker, X Lin, J R Lewis, B B Yeap
Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) may play a role in glucose homeostasis and cardiometabolic health. This review examines the epidemiological and interventional evidence associating osteocalcin (OC) and ucOC with metabolic risk and cardiovascular disease. The complexity in assessing such correlations, due to the observational nature of human studies, is discussed. Several studies have reported that higher levels of ucOC and OC are correlated with lower fat mass and HbA1c. In addition, improved measures of glycaemic control via pharmacological and non-pharmacological (e...
March 13, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285608/sex-differences-in-adolescents-glycaemic-and-insulinaemic-responses-to-high-and-low-glycaemic-index-breakfasts-a-randomised-control-trial
#20
Simon B Cooper, Karah J Dring, John G Morris, Ben E W Cousins, Maria L Nute, Mary E Nevill
During puberty young people undergo significant hormonal changes which affect metabolism and, subsequently, health. Evidence suggests there is a period of transient pubertal insulin resistance, with this effect greater in girls than boys. However, the response to everyday high and low glycaemic index (GI) meals remains unknown. Following ethical approval, forty adolescents consumed a high GI or low GI breakfast, in a randomised cross-over design. Capillary blood samples were taken during a 2-h postprandial period, examining the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses...
March 13, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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