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Glycaemic control

Simran Chahal, Kanchan Vohra, Ashit Syngle
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetes. Autonomic neuropathy is a risk factor for cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Sudomotor dysfunction is well established in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and reflects small fibre neuropathy, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and peripheral sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. However, the relationship between sudomotor dysfunction and PAD remains unexplored...
October 25, 2016: Neurological Sciences
N Wat, R Lm Wong, I Yh Wong
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease with complications that include sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. It is essential to understand the risk factors of diabetic retinopathy before effective prevention can be implemented. The aim of this review was to examine the association between diabetic retinopathy and systemic risk factors. METHODS: A PubMed literature search was performed up to May 2016 to identify articles reporting associations between diabetic retinopathy and systemic risk factors; only publications written in English were included...
October 24, 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Subethini Roopan, Erik Roj Larsen
OBJECTIVE: Depression may be difficult to treat and with comorbid diabetes mellitus (DM) it is an even bigger challenge. This article aims to evaluate antidepressants most suitable for patients with depression and comorbid DM. Design and methods Initially we searched for randomised, controlled double-blind trials of treatment with antidepressants in depressed with DM but there were only a few studies and many of them were small trials. Thus, we decided to include studies that were not only randomised-controlled trials...
October 25, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero, Luis Garcia-Ortiz, Maria C Patino-Alonso, Sara Mora-Simon, Manuel A Gomez-Marcos, Rosario Alonso-Dominguez, Benigna Sanchez-Salgado, Jose I Recio-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Postprandial glycaemic response affects cognitive and vascular function. The acute effect of breakfast glycaemic index on vascular parameters is not sufficiently known. Also, the influence of breakfasts with different glycaemic index on cognitive performance has been mostly studied in children and adolescents with varying results. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyse the postprandial effect of high and low glycaemic index breakfasts on vascular function and cognitive performance and their relationship with postprandial glycaemic response in healthy young adults...
October 24, 2016: Trials
I Schütz-Fuhrmann, J Castañeda, Y Reznik, R Aronson, I Conget, S Liabat, S Runzis, S de Portu, O Cohen
The recent OpT2mise randomized trial compared the efficacy of insulin pump therapy and multiple daily injections (MDI) in people with Type 2 diabetes and HbA1c levels that remained ≥64 mmol/mol (8.0%) despite insulin dose optimization [1,2]. During the initial 6-month randomized phase of the study, pump therapy was shown to produce a significant improvement in glycaemic control and a 20% reduction in total daily insulin dose, compared with MDI therapy [1], and these benefits were sustained during the subsequent 6-month extension phase during which all participants received pump therapy [2]...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
M Mafauzy, H Zanariah, A Nazeri, S P Chan
AIMS: The aim of the study was to re-evaluate the relationship between hospital based diabetes care delivery and prevention of complications. METHODS: DiabCare is an observational, non-interventional, cross-sectional study of hospital-based outpatient diabetes care. RESULTS: A total of 1668 patients participated in the study: mean age 57.8 ± 11.0 years, duration of diabetes 13.0 ± 8.6 years, and duration of insulin treatment 5.6 ± 5.5 years...
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Lotta Walz, Anna K Jönsson, Brita Zilg, Carl Johan Östgren, Henrik Druid
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with confirmed fatal hyperglycaemia, which could predispose potentially preventable deaths in individuals on glucose lowering drugs. METHODS: A retrospective register-based case-control study conducted on a nationwide cohort with individuals who died due to hyperglycaemia as determined by forensic postmortem examination, in Sweden August 2006 to December 2012. Vitreous glucose was used to diagnose hyperglycaemia postmortem...
2016: PloS One
Anne M Murray, Fang-Chi Hsu, Jeff D Williamson, R Nick Bryan, Hertzel C Gerstein, Mark D Sullivan, Michael E Miller, Iris Leng, Laura L Lovato, Lenore J Launer
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Memory in Diabetes (MIND) substudy of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study, a double 2x2 factorial parallel-group randomised clinical trial, tested whether intensive compared with standard management of hyperglycaemia, BP or lipid levels reduced cognitive decline and brain atrophy in 2977 people with type 2 diabetes. We describe the results of the observational extension study, ACCORDION MIND ( registration no. NCT00182910), which aimed to measure the long-term effects of the three ACCORD interventions on cognitive and brain structure outcomes approximately 4 years after the trial ended...
October 20, 2016: Diabetologia
Francisco J Tinahones, Baptist Gallwitz, Matias Nordaby, Sophia Götz, Mario Maldonado-Lutomirsky, Hans J Woerle, Uli C Broedl
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of linagliptin versus placebo as add-on to empagliflozin and metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with inadequate glycaemic control despite stable-dose metformin received open-label empagliflozin 10 mg (study 1) or 25 mg (study 2) as add-on therapy for 16 weeks. Subsequently, those with HbA1c ≥7.0 and ≤10.5% (>53 and ≤91 mmol/mol) (N = 482) were randomized to 24 weeks' double-blind, double-dummy treatment with linagliptin 5 mg or placebo in study 1, or linagliptin 5 mg or placebo in study 2; all patients continued treatment with metformin and empagliflozin 10 mg (study 1) or metformin and empagliflozin 25 mg (study 2)...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
M Henze, H Alfonso, L Flicker, J George, S A Paul Chubb, G J Hankey, O P Almeida, J Golledge, P E Norman, B B Yeap
AIMS: To investigate behavioural, physical and biochemical characteristics associated with diabetes in the oldest age group of elderly men. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of community-dwelling men aged 79-97 years from Perth, Western Australia. Lifestyle behaviours, self-rated health, physical function, and fasting glucose and HbA1c levels were assessed. RESULTS: Of 1426 men, 315 had diabetes (22%). Men with diabetes were of similar age to men without (84...
October 20, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Richard S Metcalfe, Nicolas Tardif, Dylan Thompson, Niels B J Vollaard
Previously it has been reported that reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT; total training time of 3 × 10 min per week) improves maximal aerobic capacity in both sedentary men and women, but improves insulin sensitivity in men only. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a true sex difference in response to REHIT, or that these findings can be explained by the large interindividual variability in response inherent to all exercise training. Thirty-five sedentary participants (18 women; mean ± SD age for men and women, respectively: age, 33 ± 9 and 36 ± 9 years; body mass index, 25...
July 7, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Gregory C Jones, Christopher A R Sainsbury
Cystic fibrosis is a common genetic condition and abnormal glucose handling leading to cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is a frequent comorbidity. CFRD is mainly thought to be the result of progressive pancreatic damage resulting in beta cell dysfunction and loss of insulin secretion. Whilst Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing is still recommended for diagnosing CFRD, the relationship between glucose abnormalities and adverse outcomes in CF is complex and occurs at stages of dysglycaemia occurring prior to diagnosis of diabetes by World Health Organisation criteria...
October 17, 2016: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Suman Mishra, Jinny Willis, Juliet Ansell, John Alexander Monro
Kiwifruit is a carbohydrate food of low glycaemic potency which could potentially be exchanged for starch-based foods in management of postprandial glycaemia. The effect of equicarbohydrate partial exchange of kiwifruit varieties 'Hayward' green (GR) and 'Zesy002' (SunGold; SG) for a starchy wheat-based breakfast cereal (WB) on the characteristics of the postprandial glycaemic response and satiety was therefore determined. A total of twenty non-diabetic subjects (mean age 36 years; mean BMI 24·5 kg/m(2)) consumed four meals, each containing 40 g available carbohydrate, in random order, after an overnight fast...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
S M Wijayaratna, T Cundy, P L Drury, S Sehgal, S A Wijayaratna, F Wu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lower limb (LL) cellulitis related hospitalisations are prevalent in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) subjects. We assess its costs and factors associated with length of stay and readmissions. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study at an urban hospital servicing a multi-ethnic population in New Zealand, where 7% of the adult population is estimated to have diabetes. Admissions with LL cellulitis in 2008-2013 were identified using coding records. Subsequent hospitalisations after 1 month with the same diagnosis were classified as readmissions...
October 17, 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
Lykke Sylow, Maximilian Kleinert, Erik A Richter, Thomas E Jensen
Skeletal muscle extracts glucose from the blood to maintain demand for carbohydrates as an energy source during exercise. Such uptake involves complex molecular signalling processes that are distinct from those activated by insulin. Exercise-stimulated glucose uptake is preserved in insulin-resistant muscle, emphasizing exercise as a therapeutic cornerstone among patients with metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Exercise increases uptake of glucose by up to 50-fold through the simultaneous stimulation of three key steps: delivery, transport across the muscle membrane and intracellular flux through metabolic processes (glycolysis and glucose oxidation)...
October 14, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Christopher Gilfillan, Pratyusha Naidu, Florence Gunawan, Fadwa Hassan, Pei Tian, Ngaire Elwood
AIMS: Telomeres undergo shortening with cell division, accelerated by increased oxidative stress. We aimed to demonstrate shortened telomeres in the offspring of mothers who have diabetes as a consequence of exposure to increased oxidative stress during intrauterine development. METHODS: We examined the level of glycaemia (glucose, HbA1c, fructosamine), oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and the levels of antioxidant enzymes (Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase) and correlate these findings with mean telomere length (TL) in maternal and foetal blood in groups of pregnant women with pre-gestational diabetes (PGD), gestational diabetes (GD) and a euglycaemic control group...
2016: PloS One
Pamella Cristine Anunciação, Leandro de Morais Cardoso, Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz, Cicero Beserra de Menezes, Carlos Wanderlei Piler de Carvalho, Helena Maria Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
PURPOSE: Glycaemic control is essential to prevent the manifestation of diabetes in predisposed individuals and the development of associated comorbidities. It is believed that sorghum may modulate the glucose response. In this study, we investigated the effect of extruded sorghum consumption, and the profile of bioactive compounds, on postprandial glycaemia of a subsequent meal in normal weight and normoglycaemic subjects. METHODS: This was a randomized, single-blind, crossover designed study...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Maria Felicia Faienza, Annamaria Ventura, Maurizio Delvecchio, Anna Fusillo, Laura Piacente, Gabriella Aceto, Graziana Colaianni, Silvia Colucci, Luciano Cavallo, Maria Grano, Giacomina Brunetti
CONTEXT: Childhood type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is associated with decreased bone mass. Sclerostin and dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) are Wnt inhibitors which regulate bone formation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sclerostin and DKK-1 levels in TD1M children and to analyze the influence of the glycaemic control on bone health. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at a clinical research center. Partecipants: One hundred and six T1DM subjects (12.2 ± 4 years), 66 on multiple daily injections (MDI) and 40 on continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin (CSII), and 80 controls...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Chandrashekhara P, Sreelatha P, Chongtham Pravina Tiken, Prashanth B
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Kamlesh Khunti, David Millar-Jones
Achieving tight glycaemic control early following the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is key to optimising clinical outcomes, yet many patients and clinicians are reluctant to initiate and intensify insulin therapy. Reasons for this arise primarily from a lack of time, clinical expertise and patient understanding. However, meaningful progress can be achieved with self-management educational programmes soon after diagnosis. Clinician education and training, along with easy-to-use and well-tolerated therapies (for example, those carrying a low risk of hypoglycaemia and/or avoiding weight gain), may also increase the likelihood of patient adherence...
October 7, 2016: Primary Care Diabetes
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