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Glycaemic control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904925/breaking-sitting-with-light-activities-vs-structured-exercise-a-randomised-crossover-study-demonstrating-benefits-for-glycaemic-control-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-type-2-diabetes
#1
Bernard M F M Duvivier, Nicolaas C Schaper, Matthijs K C Hesselink, Linh van Kan, Nathalie Stienen, Bjorn Winkens, Annemarie Koster, Hans H C M Savelberg
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to examine the effects of breaking sitting with standing and light-intensity walking vs an energy-matched bout of structured exercise on 24 h glucose levels and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In a randomised crossover study, 19 patients with type 2 diabetes (13 men/6 women, 63 ± 9 years old) who were not using insulin each followed three regimens under free-living conditions, each lasting 4 days: (1) Sitting: 4415 steps/day with 14 h sitting/day; (2) Exercise: 4823 steps/day with 1...
December 1, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895821/implanting-1-1b4-human-%C3%AE-cell-pseudoislets-improves-glycaemic-control-in-diabetic-severe-combined-immune-deficient-mice
#2
Alastair D Green, Srividya Vasu, Neville H McClenaghan, Peter R Flatt
AIM: To investigate the potential of implanting pseudoislets formed from human insulin-releasing β-cell lines as an alternative to islet transplantation. METHODS: In this study, the anti-diabetic potential of novel human insulin releasing 1.1B4 β-cells was evaluated by implanting the cells, either as free cell suspensions, or as three-dimensional pseudoislets, into the subscapular region of severe combined immune deficient mice rendered diabetic by single high-dose administration of streptozotocin...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894336/curcumin-and-long-chain-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-for-prevention-of-type-2-diabetes-cop-d-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Rohith N Thota, Shamasunder H Acharya, Kylie A Abbott, Manohar L Garg
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle interventions, including increase in physical activity and dietary counselling, have shown the ability to prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D) in high-risk state individuals, but the prevalence is still skyrocketing in Australia, in line with global prevalence. Currently, no medicines are approved by the Therapeutic Goods Administration in Australia for the management of prediabetes. Therefore, there is a need of developing a safer, biologically efficacious and cost-effective alternative for delaying the transition of individual health state from prediabetes into T2D...
November 29, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884951/glycaemic-control-by-monoamine-oxidase-inhibition-in-a-patient-with-type-1-diabetes
#4
Hamlin Emory, Neptune Mizrahi
We present clinical, electroencephalographic and low-resolution electromagnetic tomography data that support combined treatment with insulin and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor in a patient with type 1 diabetes. We suggest that brain imaging data can identify a subgroup of patients who are likely to benefit from an insulin regimen and monoamine oxidase inhibition to improve glycaemic control, cardiovascular function, normalize the circadian rhythm and restore perception of glycaemic awareness.
November 24, 2016: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878933/psychiatric-disorders-during-early-adulthood-in-those-with-childhood-onset-type-1-diabetes-rates-and-clinical-risk-factors-from-population-based-follow-up
#5
M N Cooper, A Lin, G A Alvares, N H de Klerk, T W Jones, E A Davis
AIM: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for psychiatric disorders in early adulthood in patients with childhood onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: In this retrospective-cohort study, we identified a population-based childhood onset T1D cohort and an age and sex matched (5:1) non-diabetic comparison cohort. Data linkage was used to access inpatient hospitalization data, mental health support service data, and mortality data to follow-up both cohorts into early adulthood...
November 23, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878313/targeting-renal-glucose-reabsorption-to-treat-hyperglycaemia-the-pleiotropic-effects-of-sglt2-inhibition
#6
REVIEW
Volker Vallon, Scott C Thomson
Healthy kidneys filter ∼160 g/day of glucose (∼30% of daily energy intake) under euglycaemic conditions. To prevent valuable energy from being lost in the urine, the proximal tubule avidly reabsorbs filtered glucose up to a limit of ∼450 g/day. When blood glucose levels increase to the point that the filtered load exceeds this limit, the surplus is excreted in the urine. Thus, the kidney provides a safety valve that can prevent extreme hyperglycaemia as long as glomerular filtration is maintained. Most of the capacity for renal glucose reabsorption is provided by sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 in the early proximal tubule...
November 22, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874199/glucose-and-lipids-levels-with-lanreotide-autogel-120-mg-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-acromegaly-data-from-the-primarys-study
#7
Philippe J Caron, Stephan Petersenn, Aude Houchard, Caroline Sert, John S Bevan
OBJECTIVE: Impaired glycaemic control, characteristic of acromegaly, can be exacerbated by treatment with somatostatin analogues (SSAs), particularly those with multireceptor activity. We present data from the PRIMARYS study on the impact of the SSA lanreotide, associated with tumour volume and hormonal improvements, on glucose and other metabolic parameters in acromegaly. DESIGN: PRIMARYS was a 48-week open-label single-arm phase-3b study of lanreotide autogel 120mg/4 weeks...
November 22, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872118/cost-burden-of-type-2-diabetes-in-germany-results-from-the-population-based-kora-studies
#8
Susanne Ulrich, Rolf Holle, Margarethe Wacker, Renee Stark, Andrea Icks, Barbara Thorand, Annette Peters, Michael Laxy
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of type 2 diabetes on direct and indirect costs and to describe the effect of relevant diabetes-related factors, such as type of treatment or glycaemic control on direct costs. DESIGN: Bottom-up excess cost analysis from a societal perspective based on population-based survey data. PARTICIPANTS: 9160 observations from 6803 individuals aged 31-96 years (9.6% with type 2 diabetes) from the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) studies in Southern Germany...
November 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868372/liraglutide-as-adjunct-to-insulin-treatment-in-type-1-diabetes-does-not-interfere-with-glycaemic-recovery-or-gastric-emptying-rate-during-hypoglycaemia-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blind-parallel-group-study
#9
Christian Seerup Frandsen, Thomas Fremming Dejgaard, Henrik Ullits Andersen, Jens Juul Holst, Bolette Hartmann, Birger Thorsteinsson, Sten Madsbad
AIM: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) therapy is a potential treatment as adjunct to insulin in type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, GLP-1RAs inhibit glucagon secretion and delay gastric emptying (GE) rate and may impair recovery from hypoglycaemia. We evaluated the effect of the GLP-1RA liraglutide on counterregulatory responses and GE rate during hypoglycaemia in persons with T1D. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a 12-week, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, 20 patients aged >18 years with T1D and HbA1c ≥8% (64 mmol/mol) were randomly assigned (1:1) to liraglutide 1...
November 21, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866223/circulating-microrna-levels-predict-residual-beta-cell-function-and-glycaemic-control-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Nasim Samandari, Aashiq H Mirza, Lotte B Nielsen, Simranjeet Kaur, Philip Hougaard, Siri Fredheim, Henrik B Mortensen, Flemming Pociot
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to identify circulating microRNA (miRNA) that predicts clinical progression in a cohort of 123 children with new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Plasma samples were prospectively obtained at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 60 months after diagnosis from a subset of 40 children from the Danish Remission Phase Cohort, and profiled for miRNAs. At the same time points, meal-stimulated C-peptide and HbA1c levels were measured and insulin-dose adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c) calculated...
November 19, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865961/lifetime-depression-and-anxiety-increase-prevalent-psychological-symptoms-and-worsen-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetes-the-fremantle-diabetes-study-phase-ii
#11
S R Whitworth, D G Bruce, S E Starkstein, W A Davis, T M E Davis, R S Bucks
AIMS: To determine the contribution of lifetime major depressive disorder (L-MDD) and lifetime generalized anxiety disorder (L-GAD) to current psychological symptom severity, health behaviour and glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: 1285 community-dwelling people with type 2 diabetes (Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase-II; FDS2) completed the PHQ-9 and Brief Life-Time Depression Scale (BLDS) to assess current and past MDD. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GADS) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-Lifetime (GAD-LT), designed for FDS2, assessed current and past anxiety...
November 9, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865756/association-of-insulin-dosage-with-mortality-or-major-adverse-cardiovascular-events-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#12
John-Michael Gamble, Eugene Chibrikov, Laurie K Twells, William K Midodzi, Stephanie W Young, Don MacDonald, Sumit R Majumdar
BACKGROUND: Existing studies have shown conflicting evidence regarding the safety of exogenous insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. In particular, observational studies have reported an increased risk of death and cardiovascular disease among users of higher versus lower doses of insulin. We aimed to quantify the association between increasing dosage of insulin exposure and death and cardiovascular events, while taking into account time-dependent confounding and mediation that might have biased previous studies...
November 16, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864787/glycaemic-effects-of-non-statin-lipid-lowering-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Patrick D Collins, Naveed Sattar
Since the publication of the JUPITER trial, attention has been focused on the adverse glycemic effects of statin therapy. Although the modest increase in the risk of new diabetes mellitus is outweighed by the reduction in cardiovascular events for statins, emerging biochemical and genetic links between lipid metabolism and glycemic control raise the prospect of a broader diabetogenic effect of lipid-lowering therapies. For the novel and powerful PCSK9-inhibitor class available evidence does not support a major glycaemic effect with the results of large scale trials awaited although preliminary genetic data does suggest a link...
December 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864588/impact-of-perioperative-hypoglycaemia-in-subjects-with-diabetes-undergoing-colorectal-surgery
#14
Si Ning Serene Goh, Ester Yeoh, Kok Yang Tan
INTRODUCTION: This study explores the association between perioperative hypoglycaemia and surgical outcomes in subjects with diabetes, undergoing colorectal surgery. METHODS: A retrospective review of 149 subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) who underwent colorectal surgery between 2010 and 2015 was performed. Perioperative glucose levels, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) measurements within 3 months of surgery and surgical complications based on Clavien-Dindo classification were analysed...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860160/effect-of-one-week-of-cpap-treatment-of-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-on-24-h-profiles-of-glucose-insulin-and-counter-regulatory-hormones-in-type-2-diabetes
#15
Babak Mokhlesi, Daniela Grimaldi, Guglielmo Beccuti, Eve Van Cauter
Studies examining the impact of CPAP treatment on glycaemic control have yielded conflicting results. We examined the 24-h profiles of glucose, insulin and counter-regulatory hormones in twelve subjects with type 2 diabetes and OSA before and after one week of effective in-laboratory CPAP therapy over an entire 8-h night. Blood samples were collected every 15-30 minutes for 24 hours under controlled conditions. The 24-h mean glucose decreased from 153.2 ± 33.0 to 139.7 ± 24.2 mg/dL with CPAP (-13...
November 17, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855623/phytogenic-polyphenols-as-glycogen-phosphorylase-inhibitors-the-potential-of-triterpenes-and-flavonoids-for-glycaemic-control-in-type-2-diabetes
#16
George A Stravodimos, Ben A Chetter, Efthimios Kyriakis, Anastassia L Kantsadi, Demetra S M Chatzileontiadou, Vassiliki T Skamnaki, Atsushi Kato, Joseph M Hayes, Demetres D Leonidas
Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is a validated pharmaceutical target for the development of antihyperglycaemic agents. Phytogenic polyphenols, mainly flavonoids and pentacyclic triterpenes, have been found to be potent inhibitors of GP. These compounds have both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical potential for glycemic control in diabetes type 2. This review focuses mainly on the most successful (potent) of these compounds discovered to date. The protein-ligand interactions that form the structural basis of their potencies are discussed, highlighting the potential for exploitation of their scaffolds in the future design of new GP inhibitors...
November 18, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853029/ultrasound-assessment-of-thyroid-gland-volume-in-diabetic-patients-without-overt-thyroid-disease
#17
Christopher C Nduka, Ademola A Adeyekun
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease are known to mutually influence each other. Thyroid disease can worsen glycaemic control in diabetes, and patients with diabetes mellitus have increased incidence of thyroid disorders such as increase in size, compared to the normal population. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to sonographically assess thyroid gland volume in Nigerian adult diabetic patients and compare with apparently healthy adults (controls)...
October 2016: Annals of African Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835765/sustained-glycaemic-control-and-less-nocturnal-hypoglycaemia-with-insulin-glargine-300u-ml-compared-with-glargine-100u-ml-in-japanese-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-edition-jp-1-randomised-12-month-trial-including-6-month-extension
#18
Munehide Matsuhisa, Masayoshi Koyama, Xi Cheng, Mariko Sumi, Matthew C Riddle, Geremia B Bolli, Takahisa Hirose
AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of insulin glargine 300U/mL (Gla-300) versus glargine 100U/mL (Gla-100) in adults with type 1 diabetes in Japan over 12months. METHODS: EDITION JP 1 was a multicentre, randomised, open-label phase 3 study. Following a 6-month on-treatment period, participants continued to receive Gla-300 or Gla-100 once daily, plus mealtime insulin, over a 6-month open-label extension phase. HbA1c, hypoglycaemia, body weight and adverse events were assessed...
October 13, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834301/improvement-in-insulin-sensitivity-following-intensive-insulin-therapy-and-association-of-glucagon-with-long-term-diabetes-remission
#19
Bo Zhang, Yan-Yan Chen, Zhao-Jun Yang, Xin Wang, Guang-Wei Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of the acute glucagon response in the long-term remission of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus following short-term intensive insulin therapy (IIT). METHODS: Ten patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus received IIT. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests and the clamp technique were performed pre- and post-IIT. Remission was defined as maintenance of target glycaemic control without anti-diabetic agents for 1 year...
November 10, 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833922/the-feasibility-of-health-trainer-improved-patient-self-management-in-patients-with-low-health-literacy-and-poorly-controlled-diabetes-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Joanne Protheroe, Trishna Rathod, Bernadette Bartlam, Gillian Rowlands, Gerry Richardson, David Reeves
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is most prevalent in deprived communities and patients with low health literacy have worse glycaemic control and higher rates of diabetic complications. However, recruitment from this patient population into intervention trials is highly challenging. We conducted a study to explore the feasibility of recruitment and to assess the effect of a lay health trainer intervention, in patients with low health literacy and poorly controlled diabetes from a socioeconomically disadvantaged population, compared with usual care...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
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