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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731723/would-you-use-it-with-a-seal-of-approval-important-attributes-of-2-4-dinitrophenol-2-4-dnp-as-a-hypothetical-pharmaceutical-product
#1
Emma E Bleasdale, Sam N Thrower, Andrea Petróczi
Background: 2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) is an effective but highly dangerous fat burner, not licensed for human consumption. Death cases reported for 2,4-DNP overdose, particularly among young adults, have raised concerns about the ineffective regulatory control, lack of education and risks associated with impurity, and the unknown concentration of 2,4-DNP purchased on the Internet. Methods: Using a sequential mixed method design and based on a hypothetical scenario as if 2,4-DNP was a licensed pharmaceutical drug, first we conducted a qualitative study to explore what product attributes people consider when buying a weight-loss aid...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717770/stanozolol-administration-combined-with-exercise-leads-to-decreased-telomerase-activity-possibly-associated-with-liver-aging
#2
Eren Ozcagli, Mehtap Kara, Tugba Kotil, Persefoni Fragkiadaki, Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Christina Tsitsimpikou, Polychronis D Stivaktakis, Dimitrios Tsoukalas, Demetrios A Spandidos, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Buket Alpertunga
Anabolic agents are doping substances which are commonly used in sports. Stanozolol, a 17α‑alkylated derivative of testosterone, has a widespread use among athletes and bodybuilders. Several medical and behavioral adverse effects are associated with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse, while the liver remains the most well recognized target organ. In the present study, the hepatic effects of stanozolol administration in rats at high doses resembling those used for doping purposes were investigated, in the presence or absence of exercise...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709932/an-unusual-case-of-inferior-vena-cava-thrombosis-in-a-healthy-male-bodybuilder
#3
Junichi Imanishi, Michiko Iseri, Masahiro Motoki, Sachiko Yoshikawa, Naohiko Sone, Tomoyuki Honjo, Kohei Kamemura, Kenji Kaihotsu, Masanori Iwahashi
Inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis is very rare, particularly in the absence of an apparent congenital caval abnormality or hypercoagulable state. We herein report an unusual case of a healthy and active 62-year-old male bodybuilder with a mass-like IVC thrombus. We placed an IVC filter and began treatment with rivaroxaban. The patient recovered successfully, and the IVC thrombus completely disappeared three months later. This case suggested that extrinsic compression of IVC by a tightened weightlifting belt around the abdomen is a triggering factor of IVC thrombosis, and rivaroxaban, a new oral anticoagulant, may be a useful option for treatment...
April 27, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680982/the-second-case-of-a-young-man-with-l-arginine-induced-acute-pancreatitis
#4
Quentin Binet, Inès Dufour, Emmanuel Agneessens, Jean-Claude Debongnie, Tarik Aouattah, Angélique Covas, Jean-Charles Coche, Xavier De Koninck
BACKGROUND: Dietary supplementation of arginine has been used by numerous world-class athletes and professional bodybuilders over the past 30 years. L-Arginine indeed enhances muscular power and general performance via maintaining ATP level. However, L-arginine is also known to induce acute pancreatitis in murine models. CASE REPORT: We report the case of young man presenting with upper abdominal pain and increased serum lipase levels. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography confirms a mild acute pancreatitis...
April 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657200/complementary-bodybuilding-a-potential-risk-for-permanent-kidney-disease
#5
Wael El-Reshaid, Kamel El-Reshaid, Shaikha Al-Bader, Ahmad Ramadan, John Patrick Madda
We report our experience of renal disease associated with bodybuilders who had been on high-protein diet, anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs), and growth hormone (GH) for years. A total of 22 adult males who volunteered information about use of high protein diet and AAS or GH were seen over a six-year period with renal disease. Kidney biopsy revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in eight, nephroangiosclerosis in four, chronic interstitial nephritis in three, acute interstitial nephritis in two, nephrocalcinosis with chronic interstitial nephritis in two, and single patients with membranous glomerulopathy, crescentic glomerulopathy, and sclerosing glomerulonephritis...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649200/hypercalcemia-in-a-bodybuilder-with-cosmetic-silicone-injections
#6
Majdi Hamadeh, Jawad Fares, Khalil Maatouk, Mohamad Darwish
Granulomatous hypercalcemia due to silicone injections is a rare disease with scarce literature. We present a case of a 35-year-old Caucasian male bodybuilder with multiple silicone injections in his upper extremities who developed hypercalcemia and urinary symptoms. He necessitated two sessions of dialysis. A biopsy of the upper arm showed granulomatous tissue. Corticosteroids were administered to relieve symptoms and reverse laboratory abnormalities. Silicone-induced hypercalcemia should be on high alert because of the increasing trend of body contour enhancements with injections, implants and fillers...
April 13, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599408/non-parathyroid-hypercalcemia-associated-with-paraffin-oil-injection-in-12-younger-male-bodybuilders
#7
Anne Sophie Koldkjær Sølling, Birgitte Tougaard, Torben Harsløf, Bente Langdahl, Helle Kongsbak Brockstedt, Keld-Erik Byg, Per Ivarsen, Ina Karstoft Ystrøm, Frank Holden Mose, Gustaf Lissel Isaksson, Morten Steen Svarer Hansen, Subagini Nagarajah, Charlotte Ejersted, Elisabeth Bendstrup, Lars Rejnmark
INTRODUCTION: Injection of paraffin oil to augment muscles size is a troubling phenomenon known to cause a foreign-body reaction with formation of granulomas. In a few case-reports, long-term side effects have been reported in terms of hypercalcemia and renal failure. METHODS: We identified a case series of 12 male bodybuilders presenting with non-parathyroid hypercalcemia who previously had injected paraffin oil to increase muscles size. RESULTS: At admission, all patients had moderate to severe hypercalcemia with suppressed PTH levels and impaired renal function...
March 29, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564546/sports-psychiatry-mental-health-and-mental-disorders-in-athletes-and-exercise-treatment-of-mental-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Andreas Ströhle
Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics...
March 21, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511665/acute-effects-of-one-session-dry-needling-on-a-chronic-golfer-s-elbow-disability
#9
Ardalan Shariat, Pardis Noormohammadpour, Amir Hossein Memari, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Joshua A Cleland, Ramin Kordi
A 40-year-old retired male elite athlete with more than 20 years' experience in wrestling and bodybuilding with mild elbow pain and disability of 2 years presented to our clinic reporting an acute pain in medial aspect of the elbow. Physical examination revealed symptoms of left Golfer's elbow during target-directed movements. The results of sonography in left elbow showed low level of hypo echo irregularity and increased blood flow in color Doppler mode in the common flexor origin. The pain amplitude was moderate at rest and extremely high during kinetic and intentional movements...
February 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498199/%C3%AE-2-agonists-as-misusing-drugs-assessment-of-both-clenbuterol-and-salbutamol-related-european-medicines-agency-pharmacovigilance-database-reports
#10
Giulia Milano, Stefania Chiappini, Francesca Mattioli, Antonietta Martelli, Fabrizio Schifano
A recent years' increase in misusing levels of image- and performance- enhancing drugs (IPEDs) has been observed. Out of these drugs, beta-2 agonists have recently emerged for their potential of misuse, especially for slimming and bodybuilding purposes. To this perspective, clenbuterol ('the size zero pill') has been reported as being both popular and widely available from the illegal market. All clenbuterol and salbutamol misuse/abuse/dependence/withdrawal/overdose/off-label spontaneous reports (2006-2016) from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) EudraVigilance (EV) database were collected and analysed by age range, gender, concomitant therapies and source of information...
March 2, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490578/physiological-implications-of-preparing-for-a-natural-male-bodybuilding-competition
#11
Lachlan Mitchell, Gary Slater, Daniel Hackett, Nathan Johnson, Helen O'Connor
This study aimed to describe the body composition and physiological changes which take place during the in-season and recovery periods of a group of natural bodybuilders. Natural male bodybuilders (n = 9) were assessed 16 (PRE16), 8 (PRE8), and 1 (PRE1) week(s) before, and 4 (POST4) weeks after a bodybuilding competition. Assessments included body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), serum hormones, and 7-day weighed food and training diaries. Change in parameters was assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472947/comparison-of-the-prevalence-of-psychiatric-disorders-in-performance-enhancing-drug-users-and-nonuser-bodybuilders
#12
Afshin Ostovar, Mohammad Javad Haerinejad, Samad Akbarzadeh, Mojtaba Keshavarz
Objective: The present study aimed at comparing the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and generalized anxiety disorder between performance-enhancing drug users and nonuser bodybuilders. Moreover, the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders was also reported. Method: In this study, 453 athletes were recruited from Bushehr bodybuilding gyms from February to May 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the participants' information, including demographic characteristics, sports' status and performance-enhancing drug use...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463075/adverse-effects-of-doping-with-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-aas-in-competitive-athletics-recreational-sports-and-bodybuilding
#13
Elena Vorona, Eberhard Nieschlag
Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. High doses of AAS cause a significant increase of erythrocytes und haemoglobin concentration, which may lead to thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke...
February 19, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460810/consequences-of-an-extreme-diet-in-the-professional-sport-refeeding-syndrome-to-a-bodybuilder
#14
Indrė Lapinskienė, Gabija Mikulevičienė, Gabija Laubner, Robertas Badaras
Refeeding syndrome, as a life-threatening condition, is well known among severely malnourished or deeply metabolically stressed patients. This case presents an atypical manifestation of the syndrome to a young bodybuilder, whose extreme diet, including 5 months of insufficient nourishment before the sport competition and 6 days of carbohydrates overload afterwards, has led him to a bilateral lower - limb paralysis and drastic homeostatic disturbances. Severe hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia and hyperglycemia with mildly elevated liver enzymes have occurred...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417114/the-effects-of-whey-and-soy-proteins-on-growth-performance-gastrointestinal-digestion-and-selected-physiological-responses-in-rats
#15
B Wróblewska, J Juśkiewicz, B Kroplewski, A Jurgoński, E Wasilewska, D Złotkowska, L Markiewicz
The objective of this work was to identify the nutritional and physiological effects of commercial soy and whey protein preparations. Wistar rats were fed with soy (S), whey (W), or casein (C) preparations as the sole dietary protein source. The nitrogen balance, body composition, changes in caecal microbiota, mucosal and bacterial enzyme activities, and allergenic potential of the preparations were analysed. The whey diet elicited greater skeletal muscle anabolism than the soy diet. Rats from the S group had the lowest values of body weight, fat, and lean mass gain...
March 1, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371857/nutritional-strategies-of-high-level-natural-bodybuilders-during-competition-preparation
#16
A J Chappell, T Simper, M E Barker
Background: Competitive bodybuilders employ a combination of resistance training, cardiovascular exercise, calorie reduction, supplementation regimes and peaking strategies in order to lose fat mass and maintain fat free mass. Although recommendations exist for contest preparation, applied research is limited and data on the contest preparation regimes of bodybuilders are restricted to case studies or small cohorts. Moreover, the influence of different nutritional strategies on competitive outcome is unknown...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362698/attentional-biases-toward-body-images-in-males-at-high-risk-of-muscle-dysmorphia
#17
Xinhong Jin, Yahong Jin, Shi Zhou, Shun-Nan Yang, Shuzhi Chang, Hui Li
Objective: Although research on muscle dysmorphia (MD), a body dysmorphic disorder subtype, has recently increased, the causes and mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. Results from studies examining disorders associated with body image suggest the involvement of self-schema in biasing attention toward specific body information. The present study examined whether individuals at higher risk of MD also display attentional biases toward specific types of body images. Methods: The validated Chinese version of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale was used to distinguish men at higher and lower risk of MD...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350021/bodybuilding-protein-supplements-and-cow-s-milk-allergy-in-adult
#18
M J C S Sousa, A L Reis Ferreira, J P Moreira da Silva
We report a case of a previously healthy 24-year-old man with a 3-month history of gastrointestinal symptoms during exercise and also few minutes after the ingestion of cow's milk (CM) without exercise. He reported the ingestion of a blend of hydrolyzed whey and casein proteins for bodybuilding for the last 2 years. The in vivo tests showed positivity to CM, α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin and casein extracts, and also to the protein supplement. The serum specific IgE was positive for CM, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin...
January 2018: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344437/rhabdomyolysis-in-a-patient-taking-both-oxandrolone-for-bodybuilding-and-methamphetamine
#19
Michael Krzyzak, Natarajan Elangovan
Nonprescription drug use is increasingly prevalent in the United States. We report a case of a 31-year-old male who presented with hallucinations and was found to have rhabdomyolysis. He was consuming oxandrolone for six weeks and ingested methamphetamine the night prior to presentation. With supportive treatment, including intravenous hydration, the patient's mental status returned to baseline and rhabdomyolysis resolved. Our case illustrates the need to understand the interaction between different illicit substances...
November 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313696/spontaneous-hepatic-rupture-in-a-bodybuilder-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Pietro Mascagni, Fabio Melandro, Zoe Larghi Laureiro, Gianluca Mennini, Massimo Rossi
This article is the first description of a spontaneous hepatic rupture in a young bodybuilder with a history of clenbuterol and ephedrine alkaloid use. The patient presented with a sudden mid-epigastric pain and vomiting. Hemoglobin levels decreased a few hours later and a computed tomography scan was performed which revealed a rupture of the right liver capsule and hemoperitoneum. Two attempts at transarterial embolization did not control the bleeding and a right hemihepatectomy was performed. The pathological report identified a hepatic adenoma, a capsular tear and diffuse peliosis hepatis...
April 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
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