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Mary Grace Umlauf, Yuki Mochizuki
The purpose of this report is to inform and warn academics about practices used by cybercriminals who seek to profit from unwary scholars and undermine the industry of science. This report describes the signs, symptoms, characteristics, and consequences of predatory publishing and related forms of consumer fraud. Methods to curb these cybercrimes include educating scholars and students about tactics used by predatory publishers; institutional changes in how faculty are evaluated using publications; soliciting cooperation from the industries that support academic publishing and indexing to curb incorporation of illegitimate journals; and taking an offensive position by reporting these consumer fraud crimes to the authorities...
April 2018: International Journal of Nursing Practice
Katharina Kircanski, Nanna Notthoff, Marguerite DeLiema, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin, Doug Shadel, Gary Mottola, Laura L Carstensen, Ian H Gotlib
Financial fraud is a societal problem for adults of all ages, but financial losses are especially damaging to older adults who typically live on fixed incomes and have less time to recoup losses. Persuasion tactics used by fraud perpetrators often elicit high levels of emotional arousal; thus, studying emotional arousal may help to identify the conditions under which individuals are particularly susceptible to fraud. We examined whether inducing high-arousal positive (HAP) and high-arousal negative (HAN) emotions increased susceptibility to fraud...
March 2018: Psychology and Aging
Elena Shumilina, Anastasiya Dykyy, Alexander Dikiy
The ever-increasing demand for fish as a food, has led to the development of new handling and packaging technologies resulting in premium quality fish products. In order to avoid frauds reaching the market, fish quality assurance methods need to be developed. In this study, two statistical models of biochemical processes that occur in Atlantic salmon during two weeks of storage at 0 and 4 °C were developed. These models were further used to detect salmon quality and its storage conditions. The biochemical processes were monitored using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA)...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
T G Legotlo, A Mutezo
BACKGROUND: Medical schemes play a significant role in funding private healthcare in South Africa (SA). However, the sector is negatively affected by the high rate of fraudulent claims. OBJECTIVES: To identify the types of fraudulent activities committed in SA medical scheme claims. METHODS: A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted, adopting a case study strategy. A sample of 15 employees was purposively selected from a single medical scheme administration company in SA...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Seung Eun Hong, Min Ki Hong, Bo Young Park, Kyong Jae Woo, So Ra Kang
Purpose: Recently a controversy has arisen about so-called "ghost surgery" practices, and people have voiced their opinions for legal sanction against such practices, which clearly undermine the foundation of medical ethics. However, there has been a lack of legal basis for punishing those actions. The present study aims to examine which pre-existing legal provisions could be applied to regulate ghost surgery. Methods: The Korean Medical Service Act has a provision relating to informed consent to inhibit ghost surgery but does not include penalty provisions prohibiting ghost surgery itself...
April 2018: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
M Creydt, M Fischer
The development of analytical strategies to fight against food fraud is currently one of the most developing fields in food science, as the food value chain becomes increasingly complex and global. Food can be certified by clear labeling, but also by objective analytical methods. As shown the last years, especially the omics technologies such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and isotopolomics are suitable to prove the geographical origin, the production or cultivation process, and the biological and the overall chemical identity of food...
March 23, 2018: Electrophoresis
Margit Sommersguter-Reichmann, Claudia Wild, Adolf Stepan, Gerhard Reichmann, Andrea Fried
In recent years, the fight against healthcare corruption has intensified. Estimates from the European Healthcare Fraud and Corruption Network calculate an approximate €56 billion annual loss to Europe as a result of corruption. To promote understanding of the complexity and interconnection of corrupt activities, we aim to present healthcare-related corruption typologies of the European Union and European Healthcare Fraud and Corruption Network. We subsequently link them to the typology of individual and institutional corruption introduced by Dennis Thompson in the context of investigating misconduct of US Congressional members...
March 23, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Sascha Liedtke, Luzia Seifert, Norman Ahlmann, Chandrasekhara Hariharan, Joachim Franzke, Wolfgang Vautz
The investigation of volatile compounds in the headspace of liquid samples can often be used for detailed and non-destructive characterisation of the sample. This has great potential for process control or the characterisation of food samples, such as olive oil. We investigated, for the first time, the plume of substances released from olive oil droplets by laser desorption in a feasibility study and applied ion mobility spectrometry coupled to rapid GC pre-separation to enhance selectivity. Our investigation demonstrated that significantly more substances can be detected and quantified via laser desorption than in the usual headspace, enabling a rapid (5-10 min), sensitive (low ng/g range) and comprehensive analysis of the sample, with the potential for quality control and fraud identification...
July 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Mi-Ra Kim, Kisung Kwon, Yoo-Kyung Jung, Tae Sun Kang
Skates and rays are commercially important fish in South Korea, and among them, Beringraja pulchra has the highest economic value. However, the similar morphological traits among skates and rays are often exploited for seafood fraud. Here, we designed both Beringraja pulchra-specific and skate-universal primer sets, capable of detecting short sequences in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene, and developed highly sensitive and reliable quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays to differentiate between Beringraja pulchra and other skate and ray species...
July 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Saurabh Nagrecha, Reid A Johnson, Nitesh V Chawla
Nonstandard insurers suffer from a peculiar variant of fraud wherein an overwhelming majority of claims have the semblance of fraud. We show that state-of-the-art fraud detection performs poorly when deployed at underwriting. Our proposed framework "FraudBuster" represents a new paradigm in predicting segments of fraud at underwriting in an interpretable and regulation compliant manner. We show that the most actionable and generalizable profile of fraud is represented by market segments with high confidence of fraud and high loss ratio...
March 2018: Big Data
Tom G Moreels
Medical publishing has become a pivotal aspect of all stages of career development in medicine in Belgium. Publication pressure is therefore present from the stage of the medical student to the level of the head of an academic medical service. This pressure represents a real danger to commit scientific misconduct, ranging from minor missteps to severe fraud. Recent surveys have shown that scientific misconduct and publication fraud represent an important problem in medical publishing, more than in other scientific fields, also in Belgium...
January 2018: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Núria Carranco, Mireia Farrés-Cebrián, Javier Saurina, Oscar Núñez
High performance liquid chromatography method with ultra-violet detection (HPLC-UV) fingerprinting was applied for the analysis and characterization of olive oils, and was performed using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 reversed-phase column under gradient elution, employing 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol as mobile phase. More than 130 edible oils, including monovarietal extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) and other vegetable oils, were analyzed. Principal component analysis results showed a noticeable discrimination between olive oils and other vegetable oils using raw HPLC-UV chromatographic profiles as data descriptors...
March 21, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Yu-Jun Zheng, Xiao-Han Zhou, Wei-Guo Sheng, Yu Xue, Sheng-Yong Chen
Recently telecom fraud has become a serious problem especially in developing countries such as China. At present, it can be very difficult to coordinate different agencies to prevent fraud completely. In this paper we study how to detect large transfers that are sent from victims deceived by fraudsters at the receiving bank. We propose a new generative adversarial network (GAN) based model to calculate for each large transfer a probability that it is fraudulent, such that the bank can take appropriate measures to prevent potential fraudsters to take the money if the probability exceeds a threshold...
March 5, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Doreen Huppert, Thomas Brandt
Seasickness, fear of heights, and adverse effects of alcohol were the major areas where descriptions of vertigo and dizziness were found in Roman, Greek, and Chinese texts from about 730 BC-600 AD. A few detailed accounts were suggestive of specific vestibular disorders such as Menière's attacks (Huangdi Neijing, the Yellow Thearch's Classic of Internal Medicine) or vestibular migraine (Aretaeus of Cappadocia). Further, the etymological and metaphorical meanings of the terms and their symptoms provide fascinating historical insights, e...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neurology
María Jesús Martínez Bueno, Francisco José Díaz-Galiano, Łukasz Rajski, Víctor Cutillas, Amadeo R Fernández-Alba
In the last decade, the consumption trend of organic food has increased dramatically worldwide. However, the lack of reliable chemical markers to discriminate between organic and conventional products makes this market susceptible to food fraud in products labeled as "organic". Metabolomic fingerprinting approach has been demonstrated as the best option for a full characterization of metabolome occurring in plants, since their pattern may reflect the impact of both endogenous and exogenous factors...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Bruna Dell'Acqua Cassão, Fernando A M Herbella, Francisco Schlottmann, Marco G Patti
BACKGROUND: Retraction of previously published scientific articles is an important mechanism to preserve the integrity of scientific work. This study analyzed retractions of previously published articles from surgery journals. METHODS: We searched for retracted articles in the 100 surgery journals with the highest SJR2 indicator grades. RESULTS: We found 130 retracted articles in 49 journals (49%). Five or more retracted articles were published in 8 journals (8%)...
March 8, 2018: Surgery
Tao Wang, Qin-Rui Xing, Hui Wang, Wei Chen
The number of articles published in open access journals (OAJs) has increased dramatically in recent years. Simultaneously, the quality of publications in these journals has been called into question. Few studies have explored the retraction rate from OAJs. The purpose of the current study was to determine the reasons for retractions of articles from OAJs in biomedical research. The Medline database was searched through PubMed to identify retracted publications in OAJs. The journals were identified by the Directory of Open Access Journals...
March 7, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Samah Lahouidak, Rachid Salghi, Mohammed Zougagh, Angel Ríos
A capillary electrophoresis method was developed for the determination of coumarin (COUM), ethyl vanillin (EVA), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (PHB), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), vanillin (VAN), vanillic acid (VANA) and vanillic alcohol (VOH) in vanilla products. The measured concentrations are compared to values obtained by liquid chromatography (LC) method. Analytical results, method precision, and accuracy data are presented and limits of detection for the method ranged from 2 to 5 μg mL-1 . The results obtained are used in monitoring the composition of vanilla flavorings, as well as for confirmation of natural or non-natural origin of vanilla in samples using four selected food samples containing this flavour...
March 6, 2018: Electrophoresis
Juraj Lipscher
This review summarizes possibilities of including scientific methods for investigation of art objects into the secondary school chemistry curriculum. We discuss methods such as X-ray radiography, infrared reflectography, neutron activation autoradiography, X-ray fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy and provide recent examples of their use. The results obtained, especially when combined with modern digital image processing algorithms, are indeed impressive. The second part of the paper is devoted to suggestions for actual use in teaching...
February 1, 2018: Chimia
Jordan Deliversky, Mariela Deliverska
Ethical and legal considerations with regards to biometric data usage are directly related to the right to protection of personal data, which is part of the rights protected under the European Convention of human rights. Specific protection is required to the process and use of sensitive data which reveals certain personal characteristic and is related to the health status of individuals. Biometric data and information on individual upon which people could be identified based on specifics and distinguishing signs...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
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