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Grainne H Kirwan, Chris Fullwood, Brendan Rooney
Social networking sites (SNSs) can provide cybercriminals with various opportunities, including gathering of user data and login credentials to enable fraud, and directing of users toward online locations that may install malware onto their devices. The techniques employed by such cybercriminals can include clickbait (text or video), advertisement of nonexistent but potentially desirable products, and hoax competitions/giveaways. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with falling victim to these malicious techniques...
October 19, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Yue Liu, Li Xiang, Yi Zhang, Xianrong Lai, Chao Xiong, Jingjian Li, Yanyan Su, Wei Sun, Shilin Chen
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae), an ancient crop with modern virtues, is increasingly consumed in source of foods and nutraceuticals. The growing demand leads to the adulteration of commercial sea buckthorn products, which is a common form of food fraud. Herein, a high resolution melting assay, targeting a DNA barcoding region of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) (Bar-HRM) was developed to identify the seven native Chinese Hippophae species, and to authenticate commercial sea buckthorn products. Melting data from the HRM assay demonstrated that all Hippophae species could be clearly distinguished...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
J Stebbing, D A Sanders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Oncogene
Athina I Ropodi, Efstathios Z Panagou, George-John E Nychas
In recent years, fraud detection has become a major priority for food authorities, as fraudulent practices can have various economic and safety consequences. This work explores ways of identifying frozen-then-thawed minced beef labeled as fresh in a rapid, large-scale and cost-effective way. For this reason, freshly-ground beef was purchased from seven separate shops at different times, divided in fifteen portions and placed in Petri dishes. Multi-spectral images and FTIR spectra of the first five were immediately acquired while the remaining were frozen (-20°C) and stored for 7 and 32days (5 samples for each time interval)...
September 28, 2017: Meat Science
Clare Fiala, Eleftherios P Diamandis
We discuss in depth six causes of scientific irreproducibility and their ramifications for the clinical sciences: fraud, unfounded papers published by prominent authorities, bias, technical deficiencies, fragmented science and problems with big data. Some proposed methods to combat this problem are briefly described, including an effort to replicate results from some high impact papers and a proposal that authors include detailed preclinical data in papers with supposedly high translational value. We here advocate for a 5-year reflection on papers with seemingly high clinical/translational potential, published alongside the original paper where authors reflect on the quality, reproducibility and impact of their findings...
October 14, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Donna-Mareè Cawthorn, Stefano Mariani
Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and seafood supply chain fraud are multifaceted problems that demand multifaceted solutions. Here, we investigate the extent to which global fisheries trade data analyses can support effective seafood traceability and promote sustainable seafood markets using one of the world's most highly prized, yet misunderstood, groups of fishes as a model: the snappers, family Lutjanidae. By collating and comparing production, import and export data from international and national statistical collections for the period 2006-2013, we show that official trade data severely lack the level of detail required to track snapper trade flows, uncover potential IUU activities and/or inform exploitation management of snappers and related species...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Victor R van der Geest, David Weisburd, Arjan A J Blokland
This study describes the criminal careers of offenders convicted of fraud, distinguishing different career dimensions such as intermittency, versatility and specialization. Results indicate that most fraud offenders are versatile in the sense that they also have significant criminal records for other serious offending (that is, not fraud). At the same time they are also specialized in fraud. When we examine developmental trajectories of serious offending and next explore patterns of fraud for the groups identified, we find that offenders in our sample represent a heterogeneous group and that the classic divide between typical financial (for example, white-collar) offenders and common criminals does not apply to the majority of our sample...
September 2017: Eur J Criminol
Tomás Martín Arroyo, Amelia V González-Porto, Carmen Bartolomé Esteban
Honey samples (n = 126) from Castilla-La Mancha (Central Spain) were characterized based on their physicochemical properties and a melissopalynological analysis. The latter showed that Echium pollen type was the dominant palynomorph in most samples, representing at least 30% of the pollen in each sample. As anticipated, a relationship was observed between the proportion of this pollen and the properties of the honey. One goal of this study was to set a threshold that defines the percentage of pollen necessary for Viper's bugloss honey to be considered monofloral or multifloral...
2017: PloS One
Pedro David Delgado-López, Eva María Corrales-García
So-called predatory publishing is a new and rising phenomenon presenting as an intellectual fraud that jeopardises the quality of scientific contribution, compromises the activity of authors, reviewers and editors of legitimate journals, damages the image of open access publications and is a very profitable business. In this paper, we review the concept and relevance of predatory journals and the characteristics that differentiate them from legitimate publications. Neurosurgical and general neuroscience journals are not immune to this problem...
September 28, 2017: Neurocirugía
Laura Righetti, Josep Rubert, Gianni Galaverna, Kamila Hurkova, Chiara Dall'Asta, Jana Hajslova, Milena Stranska-Zachariasova
In the present work the possibility of using an untargeted metabolomic strategy to discriminate between common and durum wheat lipidome for an authenticity purpose was explored. A first study was conducted by analyzing 52 samples from two durum and common wheat varieties. Afterwards, an extended and independent sample set (173 samples and five varieties) was used as a confirmatory study to verify the stability and consistency of the models obtained. Putatively identified markers were evaluated applying ROC curves resulting in individual marker AUC >90% both in preliminary and confirmatory study...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Chang-Kyu Kim, Deug-Chan Lee, Suk-Ho Choi
Korean native honey (KNH) is much more expensive than European honey (EH) in Korea, because KNH is a favored honey which is produced less than EH. Food fraud of KNH has drawn attention of the government office concerned, which is in need of a method to differentiate between KNH and EH which are produced by the Asiatic honeybee, Apis cerana and the European honeybee, Apis mellifera, respectively. A method to discriminate KNH and EH was established by using duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in this study...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
David I Ellis, Rebecca Eccles, Yun Xu, Julia Griffen, Howbeer Muhamadali, Pavel Matousek, Ian Goodall, Royston Goodacre
Major food adulteration incidents occur with alarming frequency and are episodic, with the latest incident, involving the adulteration of meat from 21 producers in Brazil supplied to 60 other countries, reinforcing this view. Food fraud and counterfeiting involves all types of foods, feed, beverages, and packaging, with the potential for serious health, as well as significant economic and social impacts. In the spirit drinks sector, counterfeiters often 'recycle' used genuine packaging, or employ good quality simulants...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Andrea Dal Pozzolo, Giacomo Boracchi, Olivier Caelen, Cesare Alippi, Gianluca Bontempi
Detecting frauds in credit card transactions is perhaps one of the best testbeds for computational intelligence algorithms. In fact, this problem involves a number of relevant challenges, namely: concept drift (customers' habits evolve and fraudsters change their strategies over time), class imbalance (genuine transactions far outnumber frauds), and verification latency (only a small set of transactions are timely checked by investigators). However, the vast majority of learning algorithms that have been proposed for fraud detection rely on assumptions that hardly hold in a real-world fraud-detection system (FDS)...
September 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Lei Lei, Ying Zhang
This study investigated the status quo of article retractions by Chinese researchers. The bibliometric information of 834 retractions from the Web of Science SCI-expanded database were downloaded and analysed. The results showed that the number of retractions increased in the past two decades, and misconduct such as plagiarism, fraud, and faked peer review explained approximately three quarters of the retractions. Meanwhile, a large proportion of the retractions seemed typical of deliberate fraud, which might be evidenced by retractions authored by repeat offenders of data fraud and those due to faked peer review...
September 9, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
Matthew J Renwick, Elias Mossialos
Crowdfunding is an expanding form of alternative financing that is gaining traction in the health sector. This article presents a typology for crowdfunded health projects and a review of the main economic benefits and risks of crowdfunding in the health market. We use evidence from a literature review, complimented by expert interviews, to extend the fundamental principles and established theories of crowdfunding to a health market context. Crowdfunded health projects can be classified into four types according to the venture's purpose and funding method...
August 31, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Francesca Trimboli, Valeria Maria Morittu, Caterina Cicino, Camillo Palmieri, Domenico Britti
The substitution of ewe milk with more economic cow milk is a common fraud. Here we present a capillary electrophoresis method for the quantification of ewe milk in ovine/bovine milk mixtures, which allows for the rapid and inexpensive recognition of ewe milk adulteration with cow milk. We utilized a routine CE method for human blood and urine proteins analysis, which fulfilled the separation of skimmed milk proteins in alkaline buffer. Under this condition, ovine and bovine milk exhibited a recognizable and distinct CE protein profiles, with a specific ewe peak showing a reproducible migration zone in ovine/bovine mixtures...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Abdulla Watad, Howard Amital, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Since Jenner, vaccines and vaccinations have stirred a hot, highly polarized debate, leading to contrasting positions and feelings, ranging from acritical enthusiasm to blind denial. On the one hand, we find anti-vaccination movements which divulge and disseminate misleading information, myths, prejudices, and even frauds, with the main aim of denying that vaccination practices represent a major public health measure, being effective in controlling infectious diseases and safeguarding the wellbeing of entire communities...
September 4, 2017: Vaccine
Roger A Leite, Theresia Gschwandtner, Silvia Miksch, Simone Kriglstein, Margit Pohl, Erich Gstrein, Johannes Kuntner
Financial institutions are interested in ensuring security and quality for their customers. Banks, for instance, need to identify and stop harmful transactions in a timely manner. In order to detect fraudulent operations, data mining techniques and customer profile analysis are commonly used. However, these approaches are not supported by Visual Analytics techniques yet. Visual Analytics techniques have potential to considerably enhance the knowledge discovery process and increase the detection and prediction accuracy of financial fraud detection systems...
August 31, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
I Bosmali, S A Ordoudi, M Z Tsimidou, P Madesis
Saffron, the spice produced from the red stigmas of the flower of Crocus sativus L. is a frequent target of fraud and mislabeling practices that cannot be fully traced using the ISO 3632 trade standard specifications and test methods. A molecular approach is proposed herein as a promising branding strategy for the authentication of highly esteemed saffron brands such as the Greek Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) "Krokos Kozanis". Specific ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) markers were used to assess for the first time, the within species variability of several populations of C...
October 2017: Food Research International
Lidiya Wilwet, Geevaretnam Jeyasekaran, Robinson Jeya Shakila, Balasubramanian Sivaraman, Pandurengan Padmavathy
Food authenticity is an issue of major concern for food authorities, as mislabeling represents one of the major commercial frauds. In this study, a novel PCR-RFLP protocol was developed as a tool to authenticate four shrimp products of commercial importance belonging to the family, Penaeidae, viz. Litopenaeus vannamei, Penaeus monodon, P. semisulcatus and Fenneropenaeus indicus. PCR amplification was performed targeting 16S rRNA/tRNA(val) region having an amplicon size of 530bp using the specific primers for shrimps, 16S-Cru4/16S-Cru3...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
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