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Cristina Márquez, M Isabel López, Itziar Ruisánchez, M Pilar Callao
Two data fusion strategies (high- and mid-level) combined with a multivariate classification approach (Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy, SIMCA) have been applied to take advantage of the synergistic effect of the information obtained from two spectroscopic techniques: FT-Raman and NIR. Mid-level data fusion consists of merging some of the previous selected variables from the spectra obtained from each spectroscopic technique and then applying the classification technique. High-level data fusion combines the SIMCA classification results obtained individually from each spectroscopic technique...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Lorenzo Cecchi, Marzia Innocenti, Fabrizio Melani, Marzia Migliorini, Lanfranco Conte, Nadia Mulinacci
Herein we describe the influence of olive oil refining processes on the lignan profile. The detection of new isobaric lignans is suggested to reveal frauds in commercial extra-Virgin Olive Oils. We analyzed five commercial olive oils by HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS to evaluate their lignan content and detected, for the first time, some isobaric forms of natural (+)-pinoresinol and (+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol. Then we analyzed partially and fully-refined oils from Italy, Tunisia and Spain. The isobaric forms occur only during the bleaching step of the refining process and remain unaltered after the final deodorizing step...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Dieter Böning
In modern societies there is strong belief in scientific progress. But unfortunately a parallel partial regress occurs because of often evitable mistakes. Mistakes are mainly forgetting, erroneous theories, errors in experiments and manuscripts, prejudice, selected publication of "positive" results and fraud. An example for forgetting is that methods introduced decades ago are used without knowing the underlying theories: basic articles are no longer read nor cited. This omission may cause incorrect interpretation of results...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Ian Brockington
A citation analysis of more than 2500 works on the childbearing and menstrual psychoses has shown that the average number of citations is 1 % of the literature or less; Anglo-Saxon authors have the lowest standards of scholarship. Many excellent works have received few of no citations. Attention is drawn to citation fraud and the pernicious effect of superficial "reviews."
October 6, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Nariakira Moriyama
Recently, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare estimated the prevalence rate of gambling disorder to be 4.8 percent of the population. This rate is outstandingly higher than other countries with prevalence rates between 0.25 and 2.0 percent. It is also estimated that no fewer than 5 million Japanese suffer from the disease. In the last two years, 100 new patients visited the author's clinic. On an average, they started gambling at the age of 19.7 years, and incurring debt at the age of 25.8 years. They first visited the clinic at an average age of 38...
October 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Alison McCook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2016: Science
Luca Braglia, Silvia Gianì, Diego Breviario, Floriana Gavazzi, Francesco Mastromauro, Laura Morello
The analysis of feed composition in terms of ingredients is addressed by Regulation (EC) 767/2009 and is important for detecting economic fraud and for monitoring feed safety. Within the framework of the EU project Feed-code, we developed and internally validated a modular assay, relying on intron polymorphism, for the complete qualitative analysis of the botanical composition of feed and the quantitative determination of six target plant species. Main performance parameters of each module, such as applicability, repeatability, specificity, and limit of detection, were evaluated...
October 1, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Heimir Thorisson, James H Lambert, John J Cardenas, Igor Linkov
Infrastructure development of volatile regions is a significant investment by international government and nongovernment organizations, with attendant requirements for risk management. Global development banks may be tasked to manage these investments and provide a channel between donors and borrowers. Moreover, various stakeholders from the private sector, local and international agencies, and the military can be engaged in conception, planning, and implementation of constituent projects. Emergent and future conditions of military conflict, politics, economics, technology, environment, behaviors, institutions, and society that stress infrastructure development are prevalent, and funding mechanisms are vulnerable to fraud, waste, and abuse...
September 30, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Yvonne Gunning, Andrew D Watson, Neil M Rigby, Mark Philo, Joshua K Peazer, E Kate Kemsley
We describe a simple protocol for identifying and quantifying the two components in binary mixtures of species possessing one or more similar proteins. Central to the method is the identification of 'corresponding proteins' in the species of interest, in other words proteins that are nominally the same but possess species-specific sequence differences. When subject to proteolysis, corresponding proteins will give rise to some peptides which are likewise similar but with species-specific variants. These are 'corresponding peptides'...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Pamela T Avila
Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is associated with child abuse, neglect, poverty, homelessness, and societal causes. Sex trafficking is the participation in commercial sex acts in which force, fraud, or coercion occur. This article discusses the scope of CSEC and sex trafficking, and the necessary identification skills and medical evaluations needed to help these patients.
September 27, 2016: Nurse Practitioner
Hebert Vinicius Pereira, Victória Silva Amador, Marcelo Martins Sena, Rodinei Augusti, Evandro Piccin
Paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) combined with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied for the first time in a forensic context to a fast and effective differentiation of beers. Eight different brands of American standard lager beers produced by four different breweries (141 samples from 55 batches) were studied with the aim at performing a differentiation according to their market prices. The three leader brands in the Brazilian beer market, which have been subject to fraud, were modeled as the higher-price class, while the five brands most used for counterfeiting were modeled as the lower-price class...
October 12, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Valisha D Price, Barbara A Swanson, Briana J Jegier, Janice Phillips, Kathryn Swartout, Louis Fogg
The U.S. Marshals Service (USMS) prisoner population is diverse and includes immigration violators, fugitives that have evaded apprehension, perpetrators of Medicaid fraud, and parole and probation violators. Unlike state and local jails, the USMS has numerous housing options for its prisoners. Given the unique characteristics, federal prisoners' quality of care, and subsequent clinical outcomes, may differ from those of state and local inmates. However, little is known about hospitalization rates and length of stay for HIV-positive USMS prisoners...
October 2016: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Isaac Holeman, Tara Patricia Cookson, Claudia Pagliari
BACKGROUND: Poor governance impedes the provision of equitable and cost-effective health care in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although systemic problems such as corruption and inefficiency have been characterized as intractable, "good governance" interventions that promote transparency, accountability and public participation have yielded encouraging results. Mobile phones and other Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are beginning to play a role in these interventions, but little is known about their use and effects in the context of LMIC health care...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
Ye Wu, Shaojun Zhang, Jiming Hao, Huan Liu, Xiaomeng Wu, Jingnan Hu, Michael P Walsh, Timothy J Wallington, K Max Zhang, Svetlana Stevanovic
The large (26-fold over the past 25years) increase in the on-road vehicle fleet in China has raised sustainability concerns regarding air pollution prevention, energy conservation, and climate change mitigation. China has established integrated emission control policies and measures since the 1990s, including implementation of emission standards for new vehicles, inspection and maintenance programs for in-use vehicles, improvement in fuel quality, promotion of sustainable transportation and alternative fuel vehicles, and traffic management programs...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Mehdi Dadkhah, Glenn Borchardt, Tomasz Maliszewski
Day by day, researchers receive new suspicious emails in their inboxes. Many of them do not have sufficient information about these types of emails and may become victims of cyber-attacks. In this short communication we review current cyber threats in academic publishing and try to present general guidelines for authors.
September 13, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Roosy Aulakh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Vanessa Giannetti, Maurizio Boccacci Mariani, Paola Mannino
An authentication study based on headspace solid-phase microextraction/GC-MS was performed with a set of 60 samples representative of traditional "Pasta di Gragnano protected geographical indication (PGI)" and the most common Italian pasta brands. Multivariate chemometric tools were used to classify the samples based on the chemical information provided from 20 target flavor compounds, including Maillard reaction and lipid oxidation products. Pattern recognition by principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis showed a natural grouping of samples according to the drying process adopted for their production (i...
September 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Andrzej Skowron, Andrzej Jankowski
Understanding the nature of interactions is regarded as one of the biggest challenges in projects related to complex adaptive systems. We discuss foundations for interactive computations in interactive intelligent systems (IIS), developed in the Wistech program and used for modeling complex systems. We emphasize the key role of risk management in problem solving by IIS. The considerations are based on experience gained in real-life projects concerning, e.g., medical diagnosis and therapy support, control of an unmanned helicopter, fraud detection algorithmic trading or fire commander decision support...
2016: Natural Computing
Monica Casale, Lucia Bagnasco, Mirca Zotti, Simone Di Piazza, Nicola Sitta, Paolo Oliveri
Boletus edulis and allied species (BEAS), known as "porcini mushrooms", represent almost the totality of wild mushrooms placed on the Italian market, both fresh and dehydrated. Furthermore, considerable amounts of these dried fungi are imported from China. The presence of Tylopilus spp. and other extraneous species (i.e., species edible but not belonging to BEAS) within dried porcini mushrooms - mainly from those imported from China and sold in Italy - may represent an evaluable problem from a commercial point of view...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
Caroline White
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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