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Michael W King
Despite the U.S. substantially outspending peer high income nations with almost 18% of GDP dedicated to health care, on any number of statistical measurements from life expectancy to birth rates to chronic disease, 1 the U.S. achieves inferior health outcomes. In short, Americans receive a very disappointing return on investment on their health care dollars, causing economic and social strain. 2 Accordingly, the debates rage on: what is the top driver of health care spending? Among the culprits: poor communication and coordination among disparate providers, paperwork required by payors and regulations, well-intentioned physicians overprescribing treatments, drugs and devices, outright fraud and abuse, and medical malpractice litigation...
November 2017: American Journal of Law & Medicine
Sharmin Sultana, Md Eaqub Ali, M A Motalib Hossain, Asing, Nina Naquiah, I S M Zaidul
Species substitution, the use of a low value fish in place of a high value fish, is the biggest problem in international trade and the leading cause of fraud in the fisheries arena sector. Current DNA barcoding systems have partly solved this problem but also failed in many instances to amplify PCR targets from highly processed products because of the degradation of a longer barcode marker (~650bp). In the present study, a novel mini barcode marker (295bp) was developed to discriminate fish species in raw and processed states forms...
March 2018: Food Research International
Sergio I Prada
Background: The Medicaid Drug Utilization Review (DUR) program is a 2-phase process conducted by Medicaid state agencies. The first phase is a prospective DUR and involves electronically monitoring prescription drug claims to identify prescription-related problems, such as therapeutic duplication, contraindications, incorrect dosage, or duration of treatment. The second phase is a retrospective DUR and involves ongoing and periodic examinations of claims data to identify patterns of fraud, abuse, underutilization, drug-drug interaction, or medically unnecessary care, implementing corrective actions when needed...
December 2017: American Health & Drug Benefits
Leonor Pereira, Sónia Gomes, Sara Barrias, José Ramiro Fernandes, Paula Martins-Lopes
Olive oil and wine production have a worldwide economic impact. Their market reliability is under great concern because of the increasing number of fraud and adulteration attempts. The need for a traceability system in all its extension is crucial particularly for the cases of olive oils and wines with certified labels, in which only a limited number of olives and grapevine varieties, respectively, are allowed in a restricted well-defined geographical area. Molecular markers have been vastly applied to the food sector, and in particular High-Resolution DNA Melting technology has been successfully applied for olive oil and wine authentication, as part of the traceability system...
January 2018: Food Research International
Ralph M Barnes, Heather M Johnston, Noah MacKenzie, Stephanie J Tobin, Chelsea M Taglang
Two experiments were conducted to determine the relative impact of direct and indirect (ad hominem) attacks on science claims. Four hundred and thirty-nine college students (Experiment 1) and 199 adults (Experiment 2) read a series of science claims and indicated their attitudes towards those claims. Each claim was paired with one of the following: A) a direct attack upon the empirical basis of the science claim B) an ad hominem attack on the scientist who made the claim or C) both. Results indicate that ad hominem attacks may have the same degree of impact as attacks on the empirical basis of the science claims, and that allegations of conflict of interest may be just as influential as allegations of outright fraud...
2018: PloS One
Lissandra Sousa Dalsecco, Rafael Melo Palhares, Pollyana Carvalho Oliveira, Lilian Viana Teixeira, Marcela Gonçalves Drummond, Denise Aparecida Andrade de Oliveira
Species substitution in meat products is a common problem reported worldwide. This type of food fraud is, typically, an intentional act for economic gain, using sources of low-priced meats in high-value meat products. Consequences include economic, health, and religious concerns. Highly sensitive and efficient techniques are thus required to detect meat species. This paper describes a method based on real-time PCR to detect 10 animal species (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa, Ovis aries, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Bubalus bubalis, Equus caballus, Felis catus, and Canis familiaris) in meat product...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Andreas F Mavrogenis, Georgios N Panagopoulos, Panayiotis D Megaloikonomos, Vassilis N Panagopoulos, Cyril Mauffrey, Andrew Quaile, Marius M Scarlat
Scientific misconduct (fraud) in medical writing is an important and not infrequent problem for the scientific community. Although noteworthy examples of fraud surface occasionally in the media, detection of fraud in medical publishing is generally not as straightforward as one might think. National bodies on ethics in science, strict selection criteria, a robust peer-review process, careful statistical validation, and anti-plagiarism and image-fraud detection software contribute to the production of high-quality manuscripts...
January 25, 2018: Orthopedics
Dhivya Ravichandran, Padmapriya Praveenkumar, John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan, Rengarajan Amirtharajan
In this technological era, it is highly essential to protect the digital medical data from the fraud and forgery as they are transmitted over the public channel. Also with the increased data traffic, it is hard to transmit the entire bulky medical data. New methods have come into the scene to reduce the traffic while maintaining the sufficient level of security. Partial encryption is one of the methods which selectively encrypt the bulky medical image. Meanwhile, if the same medical image is needed to be reused for another diagnosis, then it is recommended to protect the entire medical image...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Samuel J Stratton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Jing Yan, Sergio B Oey, Stefan P J van Leeuwen, Saskia M van Ruth
In this study, the processing derived contaminants 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol (2- and 3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters (GEs) were analysed in 84 oil samples by GC-MS/MS for the discrimination of processing grades of olive oils as a potential authentication tool. Concentrations of 2- and 3-MCPD esters and GEs varied in the ranges 0-6 mg/kg, 0-1.5 mg/kg, and 0-1 mg/kg oil, respectively. The concentrations of the three compounds in lower grade olive oils were significantly higher (P < .001) than that in EVOO...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Jian Feng, Bin Liu
Cooperative (co-op) advertising investments benefit brand goodwill and further improve supply chain performance. Meanwhile, online word-of-mouth (OWOM) can also play an important role in supply chain performance. On the basis of co-op advertising, this paper considers a single supply chain structure led by a manufacturer and examines a fundamental issue concerning the impact of OWOM on supply chain performance. Firstly, by the method of differential game, this paper analyzes the dynamic impact of OWOM and advertising on supply chain performance (i...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Salvatore Pepi, Alessandro Sardella, Alessandra Bonazza, Carmela Vaccaro
The identification of geographical origin of food products is important for both consumers and producers to ensure quality and avoid label falsifications. The caper plant (Capparis spinosa L., Brassicales Capparidaceae), a xerophytic shrub common in the Mediterranean area, produces buds and fruits that are commercialized in brine at high price. Those grown in Italy in the Aeolian Islands are renowned for their high quality. This study is aimed to establish a correlation between the geological and geochemical features of soil and the chemical composition of caper buds grown in two Aeolian Islands, Lipari and Salina...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Shahin Fakhrzadegan, Hossein Gholami-Doon, Bagher Shamloo, Solmaz Shokouhi-Moqhaddam
Background: Prisoners are a vulnerable group within societies, and also threaten society due to their dangerous behavior. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between prisoners' personality disorders and their crime and substance use. Methods: This was a descriptive-correlational study. The statistical population consisted of all prisoners of Kerman, Iran. Through stratified random sampling, 228 prisoners (114 women and 114 men) were selected as the study subjects...
April 2017: Addiction & Health
Dawn Bounds, Kathleen R Delaney, Wrenetha Julion, Susan Breitenstein
It is estimated that annually 100,000 to 300,000 youth are at risk for sex trafficking; a commercial sex act induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or any such act where the person induced to perform such an act is younger than 18 years of age. Increasingly, such transactions are occurring online via Internet-based sites that serve the commercial sex industry. Commercial sex transactions involving trafficking are illegal; thus, Internet discussions between those involved must be veiled. Even so, transactions around sex trafficking do occur...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Yingying Li, Yingying Zhang, Huichen Li, Wentao Zhao, Wenping Guo, Shouwei Wang
Food adulteration and fraud is driven by economic interests; it is thus necessary to establish a high-through method that allows quantitative identification of familiar animal and plant proteins for global use. In this study, a sensitive mass spectrometric approach for the detection of eight species, including pork, beef, lamb, chicken, duck, soy, peanut, and pea, is presented and the heat stability and specificity of screened peptides are verified. To improve screening efficiency of specific peptides, several key data searching parameters, including peptides, sequence lengths, sequence coverage, and unique peptides, are investigated...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Thomas Kuballa, Thomas Hausler, Alex O Okaru, Maria Neufeld, Kennedy O Abuga, Isaac O Kibwage, Jürgen Rehm, Burkhard Luy, Stephan G Walch, Dirk W Lachenmeier
Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Bagher Larijani, Kamal Niaz, Ata Pourabbasi, Fazlullah Khan, Jonathan Spoor, Mohammad Abdollahi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: EXCLI Journal
Charles T Yang, Dipankar Ghosh, Francis Beaudry
Following the internationalization of food production and manufacturing, a significant increase of food fraud was discovered, ranging from false label claims to the use of additives and fillers to increase profitability. The accidental or fraudulent mixing of animal products or by-products from different species is an important preoccupation for consumers with health or ethical concerns. Gelatin is widely used during food processing as well as in cosmetics, nutraceutics and medical formulations. It contains mainly type I, II and III collagen polypeptides...
December 26, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Anna Sophie Mursch-Edlmayr, D Mojon, M Bolz
Approximately 5% of the patients in the ophthalmological practice suffer from non-organic vision loss. In children non-organic vision loss has been observed from the age of 6 years. In order to be able to make a rapid diagnosis knowledge of the relevant clinical tests is decisive. If a patient shows signs of non-organic visual loss, diagnostic externalization of the visual function is crucial. Depending on the symptoms there are various tests, which can be used to differentiate between organic and non-organic disorders...
December 22, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Stephen R Wirth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: JEMS: a Journal of Emergency Medical Services
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