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Gaba a inhibitor

Seok Roh Yoon, Cho Ara, Zhou Zixiong, Jeong Hyuneui, Park Jeong-Eun, Cha Youn-Soo, Oh Suk-Heung, Lim Chae-Woong, Kim Bumseok
<p>Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common liver diseases and a major cause of liver fibrosis worldwide. G-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Recently, it has been reported that GABAergic signaling pathways are found in various non-neuronal tissues including the immune system and play a functional role. In the present study, we investigated whether administration of GABA has effects on NASH through its immunomodulatory effects...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
K R Vogel, G R Ainslie, E E W Jansen, G S Salomons, K M Gibson
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1-deficient (aldh5a1(-/-)) mice, the murine orthologue of human succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), manifest increased GABA (4-aminobutyric acid) that disrupts autophagy, increases mitochondria number, and induces oxidative stress, all mitigated with the mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibitor rapamycin [1]. Because GABA regulates mTOR, we tested the hypothesis that aldh5a1(-/-) mice would show altered levels of mRNA for genes associated with mTOR signaling and oxidative stress that could be mitigated by inhibiting mTOR...
October 16, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Mark J Millan, Jean-Michel Rivet, Alain Gobert
The highly-interconnected and neurochemically-rich frontal cortex plays a crucial role in the regulation of mood and cognition, domains disrupted in depression and other central nervous system disorders, and it is an important site of action for their therapeutic control. For improving our understanding of the function and dysfunction of the frontal cortex, and for identifying improved treatments, quantification of extracellular pools of neuromodulators by microdialysis in freely-moving rodents has proven indispensable...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Michael Saul, Petra Majdak, Samuel Perez, Matthew Reilly, Theodore Garland, Justin S Rhodes
Though exercise is critical for health, many lack the motivation to exercise, and it is unclear how motivation might be increased. To uncover the molecular underpinnings of increased motivation for exercise, we analyzed the transcriptome of the striatum in four mouse lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running and four non-selected control lines. The striatum was dissected and RNA was extracted and sequenced from four individuals of each line. We found multiple genes and gene systems with strong relationships to both selection and running history over the previous 6 days...
October 17, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Rocio Saravia, África Flores, Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala, Arnau Busquets-Garcia, Antoni Pastor, Rafael de la Torre, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Giovanni Marsicano, Andrés Ozaita, Rafael Maldonado, Fernando Berrendero
BACKGROUND: Tobacco withdrawal is associated with deficits in cognitive function, including attention, working memory, and episodic memory. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms involved in these effects is crucial because cognitive deficits during nicotine withdrawal may predict relapse in humans. METHODS: We investigated in mice the role of CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) in memory impairment and spine density changes induced by nicotine withdrawal precipitated by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine...
July 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Nicola Forte, Lucian Medrihan, Beatrice Cappetti, Pietro Baldelli, Fabio Benfenati
OBJECTIVE: The inhibition of glycolysis exerts potent antiseizure effects, as demonstrated by the efficacy of ketogenic and low-glucose/nonketogenic diets in the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy. ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP ) channels have been initially identified as the main determinant of the reduction of neuronal hyperexcitability. However, a plethora of other mechanisms have been proposed. Herein, we report the ability of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), a glucose analog that inhibits glycolytic enzymes, of potentiating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic tonic inhibition via neurosteroid-mediated activation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsia
Łukasz Fijałkowski, Kinga Sałat, Adrian Podkowa, Paula Zaręba, Alicja Nowaczyk
The chemical interaction of nine antiepileptic drugs (tiagabine, gabapentin, pregabalin, lamotrigine, zonisamide, valproic acid, valpromide, vigabatrin, progabide) and two endogenous metabolites (4-aminobutanoic acid, 4-hydroxybutanoic acid) with a model of human GABA transporter 1 (hGAT1) is described using the molecular docking method. To establish the role of hGAT1 in chronic pain, tiagabine, a selective hGAT1 inhibitor, was assessed in the in vivo experiments for its antiallodynic properties in two mouse models of neuropathic pain...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Alexandra B Byrne, Rebecca D McWhirter, Yuichi Sekine, Stephen M Strittmatter, David M Miller, Marc Hammarlund
The ability of a neuron to regenerate its axon after injury depends in part on its intrinsic regenerative potential. Here, we identify novel intrinsic regulators of axon regeneration: poly(ADP-ribose) glycohodrolases (PARGs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). PARGs, which remove poly(ADP-ribose) from proteins, act in injured C. elegans GABA motor neurons to enhance axon regeneration. PARG expression is regulated by DLK signaling, and PARGs mediate DLK function in enhancing axon regeneration. Conversely, PARPs, which add poly(ADP-ribose) to proteins, inhibit axon regeneration of both C...
October 4, 2016: ELife
Chia-Yuan Chang, Yi-Wen Chen, Tsu-Wei Wang, Wen-Sung Lai
Accumulating evidence implies that both AKT1 and GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit genes are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis. Activated Akt promotes GABAergic neuron differentiation and increases GABAAR expression on the plasma membrane. To elucidate the role of Akt1 in modulating GABAergic functions and schizophrenia-related cognitive deficits, a set of 6 in vitro and in vivo experiments was conducted. First, an Akt1/2 inhibitor was applied to evaluate its effect on GABAergic neuron-like cell formation from P19 cells...
2016: Scientific Reports
Irfan Zia Qureshi, Asia Bibi, Sana Shahid, Madiha Ghazanfar
Use of pesticides or insecticides can be highly toxic to aquatic life forms due to leaching and agricultural runoff, rains or flood. Fipronil (FP) is a GABA receptor inhibitor, while buprofezin (BPFN) is an insect growth regulator. Presently, we exposed groups of aquaria acclimated carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) for 96h to sub-lethal concentrations of fipronil (400μgL(-1); 9.15×10(-7)molL(-1)) and buprofezin (BPFN, 100mgL(-1); 1.072×10(-6)molL(-1)) singly or in combination. The extent of damage was assessed at biochemical, hematological, molecular biological and histopathological level...
October 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Gabriela B L Spiacci, Leandro S Antero, Daniel G Reis, Sabrina F Lisboa, Leonardo B Resstel
The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) is highly expressed in the dorsal portion of hippocampus - a brain region that has been involved in the control of conditioned emotional response (CER) in the contextual fear conditioning (CFC) model. These responses are characterized by increased freezing behavior and autonomic parameters. Moreover, CB1 receptors activation negatively modulate the release of several neurotransmitters, including glutamate and GABA, which also have been related to modulation of CER. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the involvement of CB1 receptors in the dorsal hippocampus on CER expression...
October 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Liqing Song, Kai Wang, Yan Li, Yong Yang
Inefficient neural differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) motivates recent investigation of the influence of biophysical characteristics of cellular microenvironment, in particular nanotopography, on hiPSC fate decision. However, the roles of geometry and dimensions of nanotopography in neural lineage commitment of hiPSCs have not been well understood. The objective of this study is to delineate the effects of geometry, feature size and height of nanotopography on neuronal differentiation of hiPSCs...
August 24, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Qingwei Huo, Ming Chen, Quansheng He, Jiajia Zhang, Bo Li, Kai Jin, Xi Chen, Cheng Long, Li Yang
Genetic and biochemical studies have focused on the role of amyloid β protein in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In comparison, the physiological roles of its precursor protein, amyloid precursor protein (APP), in synaptic and network activity is less well studied. Using an APP knockout (APP(-/-)) mouse model, we show that the duration of UP state, which is a key feature of cortical synaptic integration occurring predominantly during slow-wave sleep, is significantly increased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the absence of APP...
August 23, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Keisuke Kakizawa, Miho Watanabe, Hiroki Mutoh, Yuta Okawa, Miho Yamashita, Yuchio Yanagawa, Keiichi Itoi, Takafumi Suda, Yutaka Oki, Atsuo Fukuda
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which is synthesized in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, plays an important role in the endocrine stress response. The excitability of CRH neurons is regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing neurons projecting to the PVN. We investigated the role of GABA in the regulation of CRH release. The release of CRH was impaired, accumulating in the cell bodies of CRH neurons in heterozygous GAD67-GFP (green fluorescent protein) knock-in mice (GAD67(+/GFP)), which exhibited decreased GABA content...
August 2016: Science Advances
Gisele C Vaz, Neeru M Sharma, Hong Zheng, Matthew C Zimmerman, Robson S Santos, Frederic Frezard, Marco A P Fontes, Kaushik P Patel
BACKGROUND: Liposomes are concentric lipid vesicles that allow a sustained release of entrapped substances. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. NEW METHOD: Using GABA-containing liposomes (GL) prepared by the freeze-thawing method, we determined the effect of sustained release of GABA on expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and GABAA receptor (GABAAR) in an in vitro neuronal model...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Kara R Vogel, Garrett R Ainslie, K Michael Gibson
Recent studies have identified a role for supraphysiological gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the regulation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), a protein kinase with pleiotropic roles in cellular development and homeostasis, including integration of growth factors and nutrient sensing and synaptic input in neurons (Lakhani et al. 2014; Vogel et al. 2015). Aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1-deficient (aldh5a1 (-/-) ) mice, the murine orthologue of human succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), manifest increased GABA that disrupts mitophagy and increases mitochondria number with enhanced oxidant stress...
November 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Lu Wang, Yan Wang, Shimeng Zhou, Liukun Yang, Qixin Shi, Yujiao Li, Kun Zhang, Le Yang, Minggao Zhao, Qi Yang
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a form of inherited mental retardation that results from the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), the product of the Fmr1 gene. Numerous studies have shown that FMRP expression in astrocytes is important in the development of FXS. Although astrocytes affect neuronal dendrite development in Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice, the factors released by astrocytes are still unclear. We cultured wild type (WT) cortical neurons in astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) from WT or Fmr1 KO mice...
2016: Genes
Shi Di, Christy A Itoga, Marc O Fisher, Jonathan Solomonow, Emily A Roltsch, Nicholas W Gilpin, Jeffrey G Tasker
UNLABELLED: Stress and glucocorticoids stimulate the rapid mobilization of endocannabinoids in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Cannabinoid receptors in the BLA contribute to anxiogenesis and fear-memory formation. We tested for rapid glucocorticoid-induced endocannabinoid regulation of synaptic inhibition in the rat BLA. Glucocorticoid application to amygdala slices elicited a rapid, nonreversible suppression of spontaneous, but not evoked, GABAergic synaptic currents in BLA principal neurons; the effect was also seen with a membrane-impermeant glucocorticoid, but not with intracellular glucocorticoid application, implicating a membrane-associated glucocorticoid receptor...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Lanier Heyburn, Michaeline L Hebron, Jacqueline Smith, Charisse Winston, John Bechara, Zhaoxia Li, Irina Lonskaya, Mark P Burns, Brent Harris, Charbel E-H Moussa
The trans-activating response DNA/RNA binding protein (TDP)-43 pathology is associated with many neurodegenerative diseases via unknown mechanisms. Here, we use a transgenic mouse model overexpressing human wild-type neuronal TDP-43 to study the effects of TDP-43 pathology on glutamate metabolism and synaptic function. We found that neuronal TDP-43 overexpression affects synaptic protein expression, including Synapsin-1 and alters surrounding astrocytic function. TDP-43 over-expression is associated with an increase in glutamate and GABA and reduction of glutamine and aspartate levels, indicating impairment of pre-synaptic terminal...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Licheng Chen, Hao Zheng, Shimeng Zhang
Epilepsy is a common type of neurological disorder with complex etiology. The mechanisms are still not clear. MicroRNAs are endogenous noncoding RNAs with many physiological activities. Multiple microRNAs were abnormally expressed in status epilepticus, including miR-210. In this study, we applied lithium chloride and pilocarpine to induce epileptic activity and aimed to disclose the potential mechanisms. Our data showed that miR-210 was significantly upregulated in hippocampus one day after modeling (P<0...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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