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Botulinun toxin

Joseph Jankovic
Botulinun neurotoxin (BoNT) has emerged as one of the most multipurpose therapeutic agents in modern medicine with more clinical applications than any other drug currently on the market. Initially developed in the treatment of strabismus and neurologic movement disorders, the use of botulinun neurotoxin has been expanding during the past 3 decades to include the treatment of a variety of ophthalmologic, gastrointestinal, urologic, orthopedic, dermatologic, dental, secretory, painful, cosmetic, and other conditions...
August 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Giovanni Mostile, Joseph Jankovic
Non-motor symptoms are increasingly recognized to adversely impact on the quality of life of patients with in Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly as the disease progresses. Autonomic symptom severity in patients with PD seems to correlate with older age, greater disease severity, psychiatric complications, sleep disorders, and higher doses of dopaminergic medication. The following therapeutic strategies are frequently used in the treatment of PD-related dysautonomia: 1. Orthostatic hypotension: fludrocortisone, midodrine, and droxidopa; 2...
December 2009: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Murad Alam, Simon S Yoo, David A Wrone, Lucile E White, John Y S Kim
BACKGROUND: A preponderance of evidence now indicates that storage of reconstituted botulinum toxin solution for longer than the 4 hours recommended by the manufacturer does not result in loss of effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: Then purpose of this study was to assess whether serial re-extraction of reconstituted botulinum toxin solution from vials undergoing prolonged storage is associated with increased risk of microbial contamination. METHODS: Consecutive 100-U vials of botulinun A exotoxin were reconstituted with 2...
August 2006: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
R Brunner
The lack of muscle control in neurological disorders often leads to deformities of the foot. The equinus (a contracture of the triceps surae muscle), the abduction and clubfoot deformity are the most common ones. The present paper describes the deformities and stresses the functional relevance for the patient. Therapeutic principles of the conservative orthopaedic means are described with special emphasis on the need of an adequate height of the aide and the foot position. Casting and the application of Botulinun toxine are described having a major side effect of muscle weakening...
February 1999: Der Orthop├Ąde
L A Andrade, V Borges, H B Ferraz, S M Azevedo-Silva
Botulinum toxin A is the more efficient therapy of focal dystonias and hemifacial spasm. Our experience with botulinum toxin A injections in 115 patients is reported. Marked or total improvement was achieved in all 45 patients with hemifacial spasm, in 70% of 20 patients with essential blepharospasm and in 71.4% of 14 patients with Meige's syndrome. In 65.2% of 23 patients with cervical dystonia marked but no total improvement was obtained. The worse results were seen in the 6 patients with hand dystonia (writers cramp), in whom marked improvement was obtained in just two...
September 1997: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
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