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Noor-Ul-Huda Ghori, Atif Shafique, Muhammad Qasim Hayat, Sadia Anjum
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is the most prevalent human pathogen in Pakistan and is the major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in infected patients. It has shifted from being hypo-endemic to being hyper-endemic. There was no information about the origin and evolution of the local variants. Here we use newly developed phyloinformatic methods of sequence analysis to conduct the first comprehensive investigation of the evolutionary and biogeographic history in unprecedented detail and breadth...
2016: PloS One
Saeeda Khanum, Rubina Hanif, Elizabeth S Spelke, Ilaria Berteletti, Daniel C Hyde
Current theories of numerical cognition posit that uniquely human symbolic number abilities connect to an early developing cognitive system for representing approximate numerical magnitudes, the approximate number system (ANS). In support of this proposal, recent laboratory-based training experiments with U.S. children show enhanced performance on symbolic addition after brief practice comparing or adding arrays of dots without counting: tasks that engage the ANS. Here we explore the nature and generality of this effect through two brief training experiments...
2016: PloS One
Mamoona Chaudhry, Maqbool Ahmad, Hamad Bin Rashid, Bakhat Sultan, Haroon Rashid Chaudhry, Aayesha Riaz, Muhammad Shabir Shaheen
A prospective study was conducted from November 2013 to February 2014 to estimate the spatial clustering; cumulative incidence and risk factors associated with avian influenza (AI) subtype H9 infection on commercial poultry farms of Pakistan. A total of 400 farms were enrolled and followed during the study period. Among these, 109 farms submitted samples suspected for AI to the laboratory, and only 47 farms were confirmed positive by hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) test. Data was collected from these 109 farms about their demography, management, and biosecurity practices...
October 20, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Irfan A Butt, Bilal Aslam, Muhammad H Rasool, Humerah B Shafiq, Mohsin Khurshid, Muhammad A Aslam
To test various items in hospital environment as reservoirs of bacteria. Methods: This simple descriptive study was conducted between June and December 2014. Pediatric wards of 4 different hospitals of Faisalabad, Pakistan were selected and 8 different items per hospital were sampled (n=160). Poisson regression analysis was carried out with R software and using lme4 package. Results: There were no differences between the  hospitals regarding total number of bacterial isolates or bacterial isolates per sample source or prevalent bacterial species...
November 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Mahmood Rasool, Arif Malik, Uzma Jabbar, Irshad Begum, Mahmood H Qazi, Muhammad Asif, Muhammad I Naseer, Shakeel A Ansari, Jummanah Jarullah, Absarul Haque, Mohammad S Jamal
To check the amount of cellular damage caused by serial transfusions of blood in thalassemia patients.  Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan between August 2012 and December 2012. A total of 43 thalassemia patients underwent at least 10 blood transfusions. Comprehensive biochemical analysis of blood was performed to record the levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid, albumin, liver function tests, malondialdehyde (MDA), and ferritin.  Results: Serum creatinine (0...
November 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Shahnawaz Baloch, Tasneem Gul Kazi, Hassan Imran Afridi, Jameel Ahmed Baig, Farah Naz Talpur, Muhammad Balal Arain
There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Mark Haddad, Ahmed Waqas, Wahhaj Qayyum, Maryam Shams, Saad Malik
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders such as depression are common and rank as major contributors to the global burden of disease. Condition recognition and subsequent management of depression is variable and influenced by the attitudes and beliefs of clinicians as well as those of patients. Most studies examining health professionals' attitudes have been conducted in Western nations; this study explores beliefs and attitudes about depression among doctors working in Lahore, Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015 used a questionnaire concerning demographics, education in psychiatry, beliefs about depression causes, and attitudes about depression using the Revised Depression Attitude Questionnaire (R-DAQ)...
October 18, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Il Suh
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a global leading cause of death nowadays. Fortunately, the majority of risk factors which cause CVD are preventable. The INTERSTROKE study recently reported that about 90% of the population-attributable risk of stroke is associated with ten modifiable risk factors. Especially high blood pressure levels are well established to be associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Recently CVD mortality has been decreasing in high-income countries but increasing in some middle-income countries and low-income countries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tazeen Jafar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life, and is associated with increased risks of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. CKD ranked 18 leading (and most rapidly rising cause of mortality by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The social and economic consequences of CKD are far worse in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rajeev Gupta
High BP is the most important cause of mortality and disease burden globally as well as in South Asian region. Global Burden of Diseases Study has reported that in year 2013 high systolic BP globally led to 10.8 million deaths and 208.1 million DALYs and in South Asian countries led to 2.1 million deaths (19.4%) and 49.9 million DALYs (24.0%). Global Burden of Chronic Disease Risk Factors study has reported from years 1980 to 2008 that while mean BP declined in high income countries, it increased in South Asian countries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ahmed A Arif, Elizabeth Racine
Objective The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of breastfeeding duration with childhood asthma among low-income families in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Mothers/caregivers of two-hundred children with asthma and an equal number of children without asthma were interviewed about breastfeeding duration. Based on the responses, six different binary variables were constructed: breastfeeding three months or less, six months or less, nine months or less, 12 months or less, 18 months or less, and 24 months or less...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Arham Zavery, Faisal Qureshi, Arbaz Riaz, Fatima Pervez, Nousheen Iqbal, Javaid A Khan
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of shisha smoking; its associated factors and awareness among medical students of Karachi, Pakistan following the imposition of nationwide shisha ban. A cross sectional study was conducted among medical students of two medical universities, namely Sindh Medical College and Aga Khan University Karachi, Pakistan from October till December 2014. A total of 422 participants were included. Data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. The mean age was 21 ± 1...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Community Health
He Wang, Ying-Chun Xu, Po-Ren Hsueh
In the Asia-Pacific region, Candida albicans is the predominant Candida species causing invasive candidiasis/candidemia in Australia, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand whereas C. tropicalis is the most frequently encountered Candida species in Pakistan and India. Invasive isolates of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis complex and C. tropicalis remain highly susceptible to fluconazole (>90% susceptible). Fluconazole resistance (6.8-15%), isolates with the non-wild-type phenotype for itraconazole susceptibility (3...
October 18, 2016: Future Microbiology
Jesús E Ospina, Àngels Orcau, Joan-Pau Millet, Miriam Ros, Sonia Gil, Joan A Caylà
BACKGROUND: The increase in immigration in Barcelona between 2000 and 2008 forced a reorganization of the control of tuberculosis (TB). TB clinical units (TBCU) were created and community health workers (CHW) were gradually included. OBJECTIVE: To understand trends in the incidence of TB among immigrants, their main characteristics and treatment compliance during the period 1991-2013. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of cases detected among immigrants by the Tuberculosis Program in Barcelona, Spain...
2016: PloS One
Farkhanda Manzoor, Mahnoor Pervez
Baiting systems have been introduced using slow-acting bait toxicants to provide environment-friendly and target-specific termite management. In the present study, the Exterra termite bait system (USA) with chlorfluazuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, as the active ingredient was tested against termite colonies. Ten residential areas of Lahore, infested with subterranean termites were selected for the study. The study period was from 2013 to 2015. In-ground stations were installed at 10 sites and above-ground stations were only installed at four test sites...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Ajeet Kumar Gadhwal, B S Ankit, Chitresh Chahar, Pankaj Tantia, P Sirohi, R P Agrawal
OBJECTIVE: Thrombocytopenia in dengue fever is a common and serious complication. However, no specific treatment is available for dengue fever induced thrombocytopenia. In few countries (Pakistan, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and other Asian countries) the leaf extract of Carica papaya has been effectively used for thrombocytopenia. So, the study is planned to access effect of Carica papaya leaf extract on platelet count in dengue fever patients. METHODS: All participants were randomised into two groups, study group and control group; the study group was given papaya leaf extract capsule of 500 mg once daily and routine supportive treatment for consecutive five days...
June 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Mohammad Y Yakoob, Renata Micha, Shahab Khatibzadeh, Gitanjali M Singh, Peilin Shi, Habibul Ahsan, Nagalla Balakrishna, Ginnela N V Brahmam, Yu Chen, Ashkan Afshin, Saman Fahimi, Goodarz Danaei, John W Powles, Majid Ezzati, Dariush Mozaffarian
OBJECTIVES: To quantify cardiovascular disease and diabetes deaths attributable to dietary and metabolic risks by country, age, sex, and time in South Asian countries. METHODS: We used the 2010 Global Burden of Disease national surveys to characterize risk factor levels by age and sex. We derived etiological effects of risk factors-disease endpoints, by age, from meta-analyses. We defined optimal levels. We combined these inputs with cause-specific mortality rates to compute population-attributable fractions as a percentage of total cardiometabolic deaths...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Akbar Ali, Rosemary E Gale, Abdul Rauf Shakoori
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by an increase in the number of myeloid cells in the marrow and an arrest in their maturation. Various genetic mutations are associated with AML. FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), a member of the class III receptor tyrosine kinase family, plays an important role in stem cell survival, and the development of dendritic and natural killer cells. FLT3/TKD mutations are generally missense mutations or in-frame alterations of residues D835 and I836 within the activation loop of the FLT3 protein...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Abdul Sattar Chang, Syed Tufail Hussain Sherazi, Aftab Ahmed Kandhro, Sarfaraz Ahmed Mahesar, Fouzia Chang, Syed Nasrullah Shah, Zahid Hussain Laghari, Tarique Panhwar
Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is cheap and valuable byproduct of edible oil processing industries. This study was designed to characterize PFAD collected from different local oil industries. AOCS methods were used for the determination of physicochemical parameters such as free fatty acid (FFA), saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV) and moisture content. Fatty acid composition was analyzed using GC-MS. Moisture content of samples was found to be in the range between 0.06-7.50%, while FFA, SV, IV and PV were found to be 65...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Oleo Science
K H Awan, Q A Hussain, Shankargouda Patil, Mahesh Maralingannavar
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco and tobacco-related products have been attributed to be causative factors for oral cancer. Newer, chewable, and commercially available smokeless tobacco (ST) products, such as gutka pose further threat in this direction. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of oral cancer associated with gutka and other ST products. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study of 134 cases and 134 controls, over a period of 6 months (July-December 2014), was carried out at the Baqai University, Karachi, Pakistan...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
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