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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131070/pathophysiology-of-post-transplant-hypertension-in-kidney-transplant-focus-on-calcineurin-inhibitors-induced-oxidative-stress-and-renal-sodium-retention-and-implications-with-rhoa-rho-kinase-pathway
#1
Lorenzo A Calò, Verdiana Ravarotto, Francesca Simioni, Elena Naso, Francesco Marchini, Luciana Bonfante, Lucrezia Furian, Paolo Rigotti
Post-transplant hypertension is a common occurrence during treatment with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) in kidney transplant population. The pathogenesis of vasoconstriction induced by CNIs involves vascular tone alterations and kidney sodium transport regulation. Among the factors involved a key role is played by the activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system with enhanced release of Angiotensin II (Ang II) and increase of oxidative stress. A common pathway between oxidative stress and hypertension induced by CNIs may be identified in the involvement of the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway, key for the induction of hypertension and cardiovascular-renal remodeling, of the oxidative stress mediated increased nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and increased renal sodium retention via increased activity of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal tubule...
October 16, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118218/consciousness-regained-disentangling-mechanisms-brain-systems-and-behavioral-responses
#2
Johan F Storm, Mélanie Boly, Adenauer G Casali, Marcello Massimini, Umberto Olcese, Cyriel M A Pennartz, Melanie Wilke
How consciousness (experience) arises from and relates to material brain processes (the "mind-body problem") has been pondered by thinkers for centuries, and is regarded as among the deepest unsolved problems in science, with wide-ranging theoretical, clinical, and ethical implications. Until the last few decades, this was largely seen as a philosophical topic, but not widely accepted in mainstream neuroscience. Since the 1980s, however, novel methods and theoretical advances have yielded remarkable results, opening up the field for scientific and clinical progress...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089921/the-neurological-wake-up-test-a-role-in-neurocritical-care-monitoring-of-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#3
REVIEW
Niklas Marklund
The most fundamental clinical monitoring tool in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients is the repeated clinical examination. In the severe TBI patient treated by continuous sedation in a neurocritical care (NCC) unit, sedation interruption is required to enable a clinical evaluation (named the neurological wake-up test; NWT) assessing the level of consciousness, pupillary diameter and reactivity to light, and presence of focal neurological deficits. There is a basic conflict regarding the NWT in the NCC setting; can the clinical information obtained by the NWT justify the risk of inducing a stress response in a severe TBI patient? Furthermore, in the presence of advanced multimodal monitoring and neuroimaging, is the NWT necessary to identify important clinical alterations? In studies of severe TBI patients, the NWT was consistently shown to induce a stress reaction including brief increases in intracranial pressure (ICP) and changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079090/n-loss-to-drain-flow-and-n2o-emissions-from-a-corn-soybean-rotation-with-winter-rye
#4
K Gillette, R W Malone, T C Kaspar, L Ma, T B Parkin, D B Jaynes, Q X Fang, J L Hatfield, G W Feyereisen, K C Kersebaum
Anthropogenic perturbation of the global nitrogen cycle and its effects on the environment such as hypoxia in coastal regions and increased N2O emissions is of increasing, multi-disciplinary, worldwide concern, and agricultural production is a major contributor. Only limited studies, however, have simultaneously investigated NO3(-) losses to subsurface drain flow and N2O emissions under corn-soybean production. We used the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) to evaluate NO3(-) losses to drain flow and N2O emissions in a corn-soybean system with a winter rye cover crop (CC) in central Iowa over a nine year period...
October 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059673/efficacy-of-buffered-hypertonic-saline-nasal-irrigation-for-nasal-symptoms-in-children-with-seasonal-allergic-rhinitis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Velia Malizia, Salvatore Fasola, Giuliana Ferrante, Giovanna Cilluffo, Laura Montalbano, Massimo Landi, Donatella Marchese, Giovanni Passalacqua, Stefania La Grutta
BACKGROUND: Saline nasal irrigation is labelled as an add-on treatment in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 21-day use of buffered hypertonic saline (BHS) versus normal saline solution (NSS) on reducing nasal symptoms in children with seasonal AR (SAR). Comparing their efficacy on nasal cytology counts (NCC), quality of life, and sleep quality was the secondary aim. METHODS: In this 21-day, open-label, randomized controlled study, 36 SAR children (aged 6-13 years) with a Total 5 Symptom Score (T5SS) ≥5 received twice-daily BHS or NSS delivered through a nasal douche...
2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055271/neurocysticercosis-as-an-infectious-acquired-epilepsy-worldwide
#6
REVIEW
Doodipala Samba Reddy, Randy Volkmer
Aside from brain injury and genetic causes, there is emerging information on brain infection and inflammation as a common cause of epilepsy. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the most common cause of epilepsy worldwide, is caused by brain cysts from the Taenia solium tapeworm. In this article, we provide a critical analysis of current and emerging information on the relationship between NCC infection and epilepsy occurrence. We searched PubMed and other databases for reports on the prevalence of NCC and incidence of epilepsy in certain regions worldwide...
November 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046296/geraniin-is-a-diuretic-by-inhibiting-the-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-nkcc2
#7
Erika Moreno, Juan A Gayosso, Jose Ramón Montejano, Georgina Almaguer, Norma Vázquez, Cristino Cruz, Adriana Mercado, Norma A Bobadilla, Gerardo Gamba, Alfredo Sierra, Victoria Ramírez
Geranium seemannii Peyr is a perennial plant endemic in central Mexico that has been widely used for its diuretic effect, but the responsible compound of this effect is unknown as well as the mechanism by which the diuretic effect is achieved. Geraniin is one of the compounds isolated from this kind of geranium. This study was designed to determinate whether geraniin possesses diuretic activity and to elucidate the mechanism of action. Geraniin was extracted and purified from Geranium seemannii Peyr. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: 1) Control, 2) 75 mg/kg of geraniin, 3) 20 mg/Kg of furosemide, and 4) 10 mg/Kg of hydrochlorothiazide...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041534/application-of-third-order-correlation-between-intensity-fluctuations-to-determination-of-scattering-potential-of-quasi-homogeneous-medium
#8
Jia Li, Yuechun Shi
Within the first-order Born approximation, we introduce the third-order correlation between intensity fluctuation (CIF) of light scattered from a quasi-homogeneous (QH) medium. By utilizing the Gaussian moment theorem for describing the scattering potential statistics, analytic forms are derived for the third-order, normalized CIF and variance of intensity fluctuations (VIF) of the far-zone scattered field. It is found that the normalized CIF of the scattered field is proportional to the product of Fourier transforms of the strengths of the scattering potential, while the variance of intensity fluctuations (VIF) of the scattered field is the cube of the Fourier transform of the normalized correlation coefficient (NCC) of the scattering potential...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037816/in-vitro-segregation-and-isolation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-crest-cells
#9
Sabine Münst, Philipp Koch, Jaideep Kesavan, Michael Alexander-Mays, Bernhard Münst, Sandra Blaess, Oliver Brüstle
The neural crest (NC) is a transient embryonic cell population with remarkable characteristics. After delaminating from the neural tube, NC cells (NCCs) migrate extensively, populate nearly every tissue of the body and differentiate into highly diverse cell types such as peripheral neurons and glia, but also mesenchymal cells including chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes. While the NC has been extensively studied in several animal models, little is known about human NC development. A number of methods have been established to derive NCCs in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC)...
October 13, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028331/ion-induced-hydrogel-formation-and-nematic-ordering-of-nanocrystalline-cellulose-suspensions
#10
Pascal Bertsch, Stéphane Isabettini, Peter Fischer
Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) is a promising material for formation of hydrogels and nematic liquid crystals. While salt addition is known to facilitate hydrogel formation, it remains unclear whether this originates from cationic bridging or charge screening effects. Herein, we demonstrate the effect of mono- and divalent salts on NCC gelation and nematic ordering. A strong correlation of NCC suspension zeta-potential and rheological behavior was found. Lower concentrations of divalent cations were needed to decrease NCC zeta-potential and form hydrogels...
October 20, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021560/the-thiazide-sensitive-sodium-chloride-co-transporter-ncc-is-modulated-by-site-specific-ubiquitylation
#11
Lena L Rosenbaek, Federica Rizzo, Qi Wu, Lorena Rojas-Vega, Gerardo Gamba, Nanna MacAulay, Olivier Staub, Robert A Fenton
The renal sodium chloride cotransporter, NCC, in the distal convoluted tubule is important for maintaining body Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis. Endogenous NCC is highly ubiquitylated, but the role of individual ubiquitylation sites is not established. Here, we assessed the role of 10 ubiquitylation sites for NCC function. Transient transfections of HEK293 cells with human wildtype (WT) NCC or various K to R mutants identified greater membrane abundance for K706R, K828R and K909R mutants. Relative to WT-NCC, stable tetracycline inducible MDCKI cell lines expressing K706R, K828R and K909R mutants had significantly higher total and phosphorylated NCC levels at the apical plasma membrane under basal conditions...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021385/aldosterone-is-essential-for-angiotensin-ii-induced-upregulation-of-pendrin
#12
Daigoro Hirohama, Nobuhiro Ayuzawa, Kohei Ueda, Mitsuhiro Nishimoto, Wakako Kawarazaki, Atsushi Watanabe, Tatsuo Shimosawa, Takeshi Marumo, Shigeru Shibata, Toshiro Fujita
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has an important role in the control of fluid homeostasis and BP during volume depletion. Dietary salt restriction elevates circulating angiotensin II (AngII) and aldosterone levels, increasing levels of the Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger pendrin in β-intercalated cells and the Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) in distal convoluted tubules. However, the independent roles of AngII and aldosterone in regulating these levels remain unclear. In C57BL/6J mice receiving a low-salt diet or AngII infusion, we evaluated the membrane protein abundance of pendrin and NCC; assessed the phosphorylation of the mineralocorticoid receptor, which selectively inhibits aldosterone binding in intercalated cells; and measured BP by radiotelemetry in pendrin-knockout and wild-type mice...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020381/antibody-banding-patterns-of-the-enzyme-linked-immunoelectrotransfer-blot-eitb-and-brain-imaging-findings-in-patients-with-neurocysticercosis
#13
Gianfranco Arroyo, Silvia Rodriguez, Andres G Lescano, Karen Alroy, Javier A Bustos, Saul Santivañez, Isidro Gonzales, Herbert Saavedra, E Javier Pretell, Armando E Gonzalez, Robert H Gilman, Victor C W Tsang, Hector H Garcia
Background: The enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay is the reference serological test for neurocysticercosis (NCC). A positive result on EITB does not always correlate with the presence of active infections in the central nervous system (CNS), and patients with a single viable brain cyst may be EITB negative. Nonetheless, EITB antibody banding patterns appears to be related with the expression of three protein families of Taenia solium, and in turn with the characteristics of NCC in the CNS (type, stage and burden of viable cysts)...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017464/respective-contribution-of-the-cephalic-neural-crest-and-mesoderm-to-six1-expressing-head-territories-in-the-avian-embryo
#14
Barbara F Fonseca, Gérard Couly, Elisabeth Dupin
BACKGROUND: Vertebrate head development depends on a series of interactions between many cell populations of distinct embryological origins. Cranial mesenchymal tissues have a dual embryonic source: - the neural crest (NC), which generates most of craniofacial skeleton, dermis, pericytes, fat cells, and tenocytes; and - the mesoderm, which yields muscles, blood vessel endothelia and some posterior cranial bones. The molecular players that orchestrate co-development of cephalic NC and mesodermal cells to properly construct the head of vertebrates remain poorly understood...
October 10, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994773/improved-method-for-the-establishment-of-an-in-vitro-blood-brain-barrier-model-based-on-porcine-brain-endothelial-cells
#15
Simone S E Nielsen, Piotr Siupka, Ana Georgian, Jane E Preston, Andrea E Tóth, Siti R Yusof, N Joan Abbott, Morten S Nielsen
The aim of this protocol presents an optimized procedure for the purification and cultivation of pBECs and to establish in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models based on pBECs in mono-culture (MC), MC with astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM), and non-contact co-culture (NCC) with astrocytes of porcine or rat origin. pBECs were isolated and cultured from fragments of capillaries from the brain cortices of domestic pigs 5-6 months old. These fragments were purified by careful removal of meninges, isolation and homogenization of grey matter, filtration, enzymatic digestion, and centrifugation...
September 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988934/bis-choline-tetrathiomolybdate-in-patients-with-wilson-s-disease-an-open-label-multicentre-phase-2-study
#16
Karl Heinz Weiss, Frederick K Askari, Anna Czlonkowska, Peter Ferenci, Jeff M Bronstein, Danny Bega, Aftab Ala, David Nicholl, Susan Flint, Lars Olsson, Thomas Plitz, Carl Bjartmar, Michael L Schilsky
BACKGROUND: Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which copper accumulates in the liver, brain, and other tissues. Therapies are limited by efficacy, safety concerns, and multiple daily dosing. Bis-choline tetrathiomolybdate (WTX101) is an oral first-in-class copper-protein-binding molecule that targets hepatic intracellular copper and reduces plasma non-ceruloplasmin-bound copper (NCC) by forming tripartite complexes with albumin and increasing biliary copper excretion. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of WTX101 in the initial or early treatment of patients with Wilson's disease...
October 5, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981730/establishment-and-proteomic-characterization-of-ncc-lms1-c1-a-novel-cell-line-of-primary-leiomyosarcoma-of-the-bone
#17
Marimu Sakumoto, Mami Takahashi, Rieko Oyama, Yoko Takai, Fusako Kito, Kumiko Shiozawa, Zhiwei Qiao, Akihiko Yoshida, Makoto Endo, Akira Kawai, Tadashi Kondo
Background: Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is one of most aggressive mesenchymal malignancies that differentiate towards smooth muscle. The clinical outcome of LMS patients is poor; as such, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic approaches. Experimental models such as patient-derived cell lines are invaluable tools for pre-clinical studies. In the present study, we established a stable cell line from the tumor tissue of a patient with a primary LMS of the bone. Despite the urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies in LMS, there are only a few LMS cell lines available in public cell banks, none of which are primary to the bone...
October 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967940/nanocellulose-as-a-sustainable-biomass-material-structure-properties-present-status-and-future-prospects-in-biomedical-applications
#18
REVIEW
Yan Xue, Zihao Mou, Huining Xiao
Nanocellulose, extracted from the most abundant biomass material cellulose, has proved to be an environmentally friendly material with excellent mechanical performance owing to its unique nano-scaled structure, and has been used in a variety of applications as engineering and functional materials. The great biocompatibility and biodegradability, in particular, render nanocellulose promising in biomedical applications. In this review, the structure, treatment technology and properties of three different nanocellulose categories, i...
October 12, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965226/soluble-fas-faslare-elevated-in-the-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-neurocysticercosis
#19
Xiaohua Chen, Xuan Yu, Yipeng Wang, Jiankui Zhu, Junchao Gu
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taeniasolium is one of the most common parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. Inflammation and apoptosis are two main responses involved in NCC pathogenesis. We aimed to examine apoptosis by the TUNEL assay and apoptosis-associated sFas and sFasL levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of patients with NCC. Brain biopsy (n = 1), CSF (n = 14), and serum (n = 36) of patients with NCC and uninfected controls (n = 14 and 24 for CSF and serum, respectively) were collected together with clinical data...
November 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959031/coup-tfii-is-required-for-morphogenesis-of-the-neural-crest-derived-tympanic-ring
#20
Wen-Hsin Hsu, Chun-Ming Chen, Li-Ru You
Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter-Transcription Factor II (COUP-TFII) plays pivotal roles in cell growth, cell differentiation, and cell fate determination. Although genome-wide studies have identified COUP-TFII binding on gene sets mainly involved in neural crest cell (NCC) development and craniofacial morphogenesis, the direct functional connection between COUP-TFII and NCCs in vivo has not been well characterized. In this study, we show that COUP-TFII is expressed in the subpopulation of NCCs and its derivatives, and targeted ablation of COUP-TFII in mouse NCCs results in markedly shortened and bifurcated tympanic rings, which in turn disturb the caudal direction of external acoustic meatus invagination...
September 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
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