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Botulinical toxin

Géraldine Martens, Steven Laureys, Aurore Thibaut
Background: Spasticity is a motor disorder frequently encountered after a lesion involving the central nervous system. It is hypothesized to arise from an anarchic reorganization of the pyramidal and parapyramidal fibers and leads to hypertonia and hyperreflexia of the affected muscular groups. While this symptom and its management is well-known in patients suffering from stroke, multiple sclerosis or spinal cord lesion, little is known regarding its appropriate management in patients presenting disorders of consciousness after brain damage...
December 9, 2017: Brain Sciences
José D Carrillo-Ruiz, Pablo Andrade, Mary Fonseca, Fiacro Jiménez, María L Montes-Castillo, Francisco Velasco
Background: Neurotomies were one of the first procedures performed in the field of functional neurosurgery. Microstimulators and microscopes facilitate the performance of neurotomies to treat focal spasticity. This report shows how three different consecutive neurotomies were performed in one patient with chronic left upper/lower extremity spasticity. Case Description: A 65-year-old male with intractable epilepsy underwent a right temporal lobectomy for seizure control...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
L Lispi, L Leonardi, A Petrucci
The aim of this study is to assess the neurophysiological abnormalities of type A botulin toxin-infiltrated human muscle, and their evolution over time. Seried cMAP measurements, 3 and 20 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation, EMG, SFEMG over 3 months from toxin injection. Our findings consist in lack of decrement with 3 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation and facilitation with 20 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation; progressive increasing of jitter; early appearance of fibrillations; small and short motor unit action potential in the first 3 weeks, followed by increasing of MUAP amplitude and duration, with polyphasic morphology...
November 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
M Prevot, C Thomet, B Cornette de Saint-Cyr, A Marchac, E Delay
The goal of this article is to provide a systemic approach to forehead rejuvenation. Fillers, botulinic toxin injections, transpalpebral, endoscopic or bicoronal brow lift must be usual techniques for every plastic surgeon in overall facial rejuvenation. Achieving a long lasting and aesthetically pleasing forehead is possible only with surgical techniques when aging is obvious.
October 2017: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
Federico Posteraro, Simona Crea, Stefano Mazzoleni, Mihai Berteanu, Ileana Ciobanu, Nicola Vitiello, Marco Cempini, Sabata Gervasio, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting
BACKGROUND: Spasticity is a muscle disorder associated with upper motor neuron syndrome occurring in neurological disorders, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury and others. It influences the patient's rehabilitation, interfering with function, limiting independence, causing pain and producing secondary impairments, such as contractures or other complications. Due to the heterogeneity of clinical signs of spasticity, there is no agreement on the most appropriate assessment and measurement modality for the evaluation of treatment outcomes...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
L Dousset, A Pham-Ledard, M-S Doutre, M Beylot-Barry, O Cogrel
BACKGROUND: Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD) is characterised by episodes of weeping erythematous lesions, particularly in areas subject to friction or maceration. Treatment is complex. The value of botulinum toxin has been demonstrated in several studies and in individual cases. AIM: To report clinical and progressive data for 8 patients treated for HHD with injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A), following the failure of several other therapeutic approaches. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight patients (three males and five females), of median age 52...
October 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
J Martellucci, G Rossi, I Corsale, P Carrieri, M D'Elia, I Giani
Myoxinol is a complex of oligopeptides obtained from the seeds of Hibiscus esculentus used in cosmetic as natural alternative to botulin toxin. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of local myoxinol for the treatment of acute anal fissure. All the consecutive patients with acute fissure treated from January to June 2014 underwent 30 days of topical treatment (twice/day) with a mioxinol based ointment. Pain, symptomatic relief, fissure healing and re-epithelization, 1-year recurrence rate, subjective satisfaction and need for further treatments were evaluated...
December 2017: Updates in Surgery
Michelangelo Buonocore, Laura Demartini, Silvia Mandrini, Anna Dall'Angelo, Elena Dalla Toffola
This case presentation describes a 47-year-old woman who developed complex regional pain syndrome type II with severe neuropathic pain following iatrogenic transection of the tibial nerve at the ankle. The pain and disability progressively worsened over time, markedly impaired ambulation, and were not relieved despite various analgesic treatments. After injection of botulinum toxin (abobotulinumtoxinA, BoNT-A) in the leg muscles the tendons of which pass through the tarsal tunnel (together with the tibial nerve), her pain decreased and her walking capacity improved...
February 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Kazimierz Tomczykiewicz
Cervical dystonia is the most common form of dystonia in adult age. It is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that cause abnormal movements and positioning of the head and neck. Symptoms of it are often associated with pain. This distinguishes this form from other dystonia. The drug of choice is botulinum toxin. It effectively reduces both pain and abnormal excessive muscle activity. In some cases, particularly where there is not obtained the full recovery after treatment botulinum toxin we used drugs for systemic effect...
August 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Kazimierz Cervical Dystonia Treatment With Botulin Toxin
Cervical dystonia is the most common form of dystonia in adult age. It is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that cause abnormal movements and positioning of the head and neck. Symptoms of it are often associated with pain. This distinguishes this form from other dystonia. The drug of choice is botulinum toxin. It effectively reduces both pain and abnormal excessive muscle activity. In some cases, particularly where there is not obtained the full recovery after treatment botulinum toxin we used drugs for systemic effect...
July 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Vimal Veeriah, Angelo Zanniti, Riccardo Paone, Suvro Chatterjee, Nadia Rucci, Anna Teti, Mattia Capulli
Endothelial cells are spatially close to osteoblasts and regulate osteogenesis. Moreover, they are sensitive to mechanical stimuli, therefore we hypothesized that they are implicated in the regulation of bone metabolism during unloading. Conditioned media from endothelial cells (EC-CM) subjected to simulated microgravity (0.08g and 0.008g) increased osteoblast proliferation and decreased their differentiation compared to unit gravity (1g) EC-CM. Microgravity-EC-CM increased the expression of osteoblast Rankl and subsequent osteoclastogenesis, and induced the osteoblast de-differentiating factor, Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), whose downregulation recovered osteoblast activity, decreased Rankl expression and reduced osteoclastogenesis...
2016: Scientific Reports
Dimos D Mitsikostas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article addresses nocebo in headache. Nocebo is the antipode of placebo and refers to adverse events a person manifests after receiving placebo. RECENT FINDINGS: In randomized trials for migraine prevention meta-analyses revealed that eight out of 20 patients treated with placebo experienced any adverse event. More importantly, one out of 20 patients treated with placebo withdrew treatment because of adverse events. The adverse events in placebo groups mirrored the adverse events expected of the active medication studied, confirming that pretrial suggestions induce the adverse events in placebo-treated patients...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Dario Esposito, Francesco Maione, Alessandra D'Alessandro, Giovanni Sarnelli, Giovanni D De Palma
Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by dysphagia, regurgitation of undigested food, chest pain, weight loss and respiratory symptoms. The most common form of achalasia is the idiopathic one. Diagnosis largely relies upon endoscopy, barium swallow study, and high resolution esophageal manometry (HRM). Barium swallow and manometry after treatment are also good predictors of success of treatment as it is the residue symptomatology. Short term improvement in the symptomatology of achalasia can be achieved with medical therapy with calcium channel blockers or endoscopic botulin toxin injection...
January 25, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Yu N Ponomarenko, S V Vasenko, A M Nenko
The study analyses results of treatment of 196 patients, with cerebral palsy, which underwent a course of health-resort treatment is performed. Past medical history of patients for the last 10 years was also analysed. It was found that the use of botulin toxin <A> (BT-A) <Dysport®> as a part of complex rehabilitation of the patients significantly improved the effectiveness of the treatment. It was determined that the reasons of the lack of spasticity reduce are caused by degeneration of the muscles...
August 2015: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
P Graziano, G Dell'Aversana Orabona, F Astarita, L M Ponzo, R Nunziata, G Salzano, F Maglitto, D Solari, A Santella, M Cappabianca, G Iaconetta, L Califano
OBJECTIVE: The association of bilateral hypertrophy of temporalis and masseteric muscles is a rare clinical entity. The origin of the condition is unclear, causing cosmetic problems, pain, and functional impairment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this paper we analyzed 15 patients treated at the Department of Maxillo-Facial Surgery of the University of Naples Federico II, from 2000 to 2013, for temporalis and/or masseteric muscle hypertrophy, and in particular, a rare case of a patient with a marked bilateral swelling of the temporalis and masseteric region, in conjunction with a review of the literature...
2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Rogelio Revuelta-Gutiérrez, Héctor Sebastián Velasco-Torres, Lourdes Olivia Vales Hidalgo, Jaime Jesús Martínez-Anda
BACKGROUND: The coexistence of hemifacial spasm and trigeminal neuralgia, a clinical entity known as painful tic convulsive, was first described in 1910. It is an uncommon condition that is worthy of interest in neurosurgical practice, because of its common pathophysiology mechanism: Neuro-vascular compression in most of the cases. OBJECTIVE: To present 2 cases of painful tic convulsive that received treatment at our institution, and to give a brief review of the existing literature related to this...
November 2016: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Maria Renata Proverbio, Marta Lamba, Alessandro Rossi, Paolo Siani
INTRODUCTION: Foodborne botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by ingestion of food contaminated with botulinum toxins. Despite rare the mortality rate is high if untreated. Diagnosis of botulism is still a challenge for clinician, due to the variability of clinical manifestations and disease course. We report on a child with type B botulin intoxication who was early diagnosed and treated underlining that clinical suspicion is crucial to start prompt treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: An 11-year-old boy presented with bilateral ptosis and mydriasis, dry mouth, difficulty in swallowing, dysphonia, urine retention and constipation...
June 2016: Anaerobe
Jonathan M Sykes, Patrick Trevidic, Gustavo A Suárez, Gisella Criollo-Lamilla
The muscular anatomy of the face is complex. Animation patterns of facial muscles vary significantly among individuals. Activity of facial muscles determines expression and emotion and affects the eyes aperture and the amount and extent of facial rhytids. Injection of botulin toxin for facial rejuvenation has become a very popular procedure and allows the practitioner the ability to modulate facial expression and to decrease the amount of facial rhytids. A thorough knowledge of the variant facial anatomy is necessary to maximize the efficiency of botulin toxin injection...
November 2015: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
K Isa, K Oka, N Beauchamp, M Sato, K Wada, K Ohtani, S Nakanishi, E McCartney, M Tanaka, T Shimizu, S Kamiya, C Kruger, M Takahashi
Probiotics are live microorganisms ingested for the purpose of conferring a health benefit on the host. Development of new probiotics includes the need for safety evaluations that should consider factors such as pathogenicity, infectivity, virulence factors, toxicity, and metabolic activity. Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588(®) (CBM 588(®)), an anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, has been developed as a probiotic for use by humans and food animals. Safety studies of this probiotic strain have been conducted and include assessment of antimicrobial sensitivity, documentation of the lack of Clostridium toxin genes, and evaluation of CBM 588(®) on reproductive and developmental toxicity in a rodent model...
August 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Virtaj Singh, Andrea Trescot, Isuta Nishio
Although interventional procedures should be used cautiously in the setting of chronic pain, there is a role for a variety of injections to facilitate a patient's overall rehabilitation program. There are many resources available, including a prior issue of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, which discuss the more conventional spinal injections. The focus of this article is on lesser-known injection options for treating chronic pain. The authors separately discuss trigger point injections, regenerative injections (prolotherapy), and injections using botulin toxins...
May 2015: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
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