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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530684/tackling-hiv-and-aids-contributions-by-non-human-primate-models
#1
Koen K A Van Rompay
During the past three decades, non-human primate (NHP) models have gained an increasing importance in HIV basic and translational research. In contrast to natural host models, infection of macaques with virulent simian or simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SIV, SHIV) results in a disease that closely resembles HIV infection and AIDS. Although there is no perfect animal model, and each of the available models has its benefits and limitations, carefully designed NHP studies with selection of experimental variables have unraveled important questions of basic pathogenesis and have provided the tools to explore and screen intervention strategies...
May 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530113/refining-current-scientific-priorities-identifying-new-scientific-gaps-in-hiv-related-heart-lung-blood-and-sleep-hlbs-research
#2
Homer L TwiggIII, Ronald Crystal, Judith Currier, Paul M Ridker, Nancy Berliner, Hans-Peter Kiem, George Rutherford, Shimian Zou, Simone Glynn, Renee Wong, Emmanuel Peprah, Michael Engelgau, Tony L Creazzo, Sandra Colombini-Hatch, Elisabet Caler
The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) AIDS Program's goal is to provide direction and support for research and training programs in areas of HIV-related heart, lung, blood and sleep (HLBS) diseases. To better define NHLBI current HIV-related scientific priorities and with the goal of identifying new scientific priorities and gaps in HIV-related HLBS research, a wide group of investigators gathered for a scientific NHLBI HIV Working Group on December 14-15, 2015, in Bethesda, MD. The core objectives of the Working Group included discussions on: 1) HIV-related HLBS comorbidities in the antiretroviral era; 2) HIV cure; 3) HIV prevention; and 4) mechanisms to implement new scientific discoveries in an efficient and timely manner so as to have the most impact on people living with HIV (PLWH)...
May 20, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520967/in-vivo-models-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-persistence-and-cure-strategies
#3
Christopher C Nixon, Maud Mavigner, Guido Silvestri, J Victor Garcia
Current HIV therapy is not curative regardless of how soon after infection it is initiated or how long it is administered, and therapy interruption almost invariably results in robust viral rebound. Human immunodeficiency virus persistence is therefore the major obstacle to a cure for AIDS. The testing and implementation of novel yet unproven approaches to HIV eradication that could compromise the health status of HIV-infected individuals might not be ethically warranted. Therefore, adequate in vitro and in vivo evidence of efficacy is needed to facilitate the clinical implementation of promising strategies for an HIV cure...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516457/computed-tomography-or-necropsy-diagnosis-of-multiple-bullae-and-the-treatment-of-pneumothorax-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#4
Jong-Min Kim, Sungyoung Han, Jun-Seop Shin, Byoung-Hoon Min, Won Young Jeong, Ga Eul Lee, Min Sun Kim, Ju Eun Kim, Hyunwoo Chung, Chung-Gyu Park
Pulmonary bullae and pneumothorax have various etiologies in veterinary medicine. We diagnosed multiple pulmonary bullae combined with or without pneumothorax by computed tomography (CT) or necropsy in seven rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) imported from China. Two of seven rhesus macaques accompanied by pneumothorax were cured by fixation of ruptured lung through left or right 3rd intercostal thoracotomy. Pneumonyssus simicola, one of the etiologies of pulmonary bullae, was not detected from tracheobronchiolar lavage...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497113/toward-a-cure-does-host-immunity-play-a-role
#5
Jielin Zhang, Clyde S Crumpacker
Three decades of research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS reveal that the human body has developed through evolution a genome immune system embodying epigenetic regulation against pathogenic nucleic acid invasion. In HIV infection, this epigenetic regulation plays a cardinal role in HIV RNA production that silences HIV transcription at a molecular (RNA) level, controls viral load at a cellular (biological) level, and governs the viremic stage of AIDS at the clinical (patient) level. Even though the human genome is largely similar among humans and HIV is a single viral species, human hosts show significant differences in viral RNA levels, ranging from cell to organ to individual and expressed as elite controllers, posttreatment controllers, and patients with AIDS...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491286/unwinding-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Vasil Peev, Eunsil Hahm, Jochen Reiser
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) represents the most common primary glomerular disease responsible for the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States (US). The disease progresses from podocyte injury to chronic kidney disease (CKD), ultimately leading to total nephron degeneration. Extensive basic science research has been conducted to unwind the mechanisms of FSGS and, with those insights, understand major contributors of CKD in general. As a result, several putative molecules and pathways have been studied, all implicated in the disease; some serve, in addition, as early biomarkers...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482505/sirna-nanoparticle-conjugate-in-gene-silencing-a-future-cure-to-deadly-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Rituparna Acharya, Suman Saha, Sayantan Ray, Sugata Hazra, Manoj K Mitra, Jui Chakraborty
Alzheimers, cancer, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are considered to be some of the most deadly diseases of the 21st century on account of their severity and rapid increase in the number of affected population and with scarce cases of recovery, they still remain a troubling paradox. Specifically, with millions of cancer patients worldwide and lack of proper cure for the same, understanding the deadly disease at the molecular level and planning a therapeutic strategy in the same line is the need of the hour...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473734/long-term-survival-of-aids-patients-treated-with-only-traditional-chinese-medicine
#8
Yifei Wang, Fujun Jin, Qiaoli Wang, Zucai Suo
Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM) has been used in Chinese society for more than 5,000 years to treat diseases from inflammation to cancer. Here, we report the case of nine living AIDS patients in the age range of 51 to 67 who were treated with either a unique formula of TCM alone from 2001 to 2009 or the TCM from 2001 to 2006 and then switched to occasional antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly, the viral loads of eight patients were at undetectable levels on June 28, 2016, while the remaining patient had a low viral load of 29 copies/ml...
April 1, 2017: Alternative & Complementary Therapies: a New Bimonthly Publication for Health Care Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471431/current-application-of-crispr-cas9-gene-editing-technique-to-eradication-of-hiv-aids
#9
REVIEW
Z Huang, A Tomitaka, A Raymond, M Nair
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains a major health hazard despite significant advances in prevention and treatment of HIV infection. The major reason for the persistence of HIV/AIDS is the inability of existing treatments to clear or eradicate the multiple HIV reservoirs that exist in the human body. To suppress the virus replication and rebound, HIV/AIDS patients must take life-long antiviral medications. The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) system is an emerging gene-editing technique with the potential to eliminate or disrupt HIV-integrated genomes or HIV-infected cells from multiple HIV reservoirs, which could result in the complete cure of HIV/AIDS...
May 4, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469517/a-little-help-from-the-follicles-understanding-the-germinal-center-response-to-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection-and-prophylactic-vaccines
#10
REVIEW
Ebony N Gary, Michele A Kutzler
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) is the causative agent of AIDS. There are currently more than 35 million people living with HIV infection worldwide, and more than 2 million new infections occur each year. The global pandemic caused by HIV-1 is the subject of numerous research projects, with the development of a prophylactic vaccine and a therapeutic cure being the ultimate goals. The classic paradigms of vaccinology have proven incapable of producing a viable vaccine due to the complexity of the virus' replication cycle, its genetic diversity, and a lack of understanding of the immune correlates of protection...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465838/a-critical-review-of-the-evidence-concerning-the-hiv-latency-reversing-effect-of-disulfiram-the-possible-explanations-for-its-inability-to-reduce-the-size-of-the-latent-reservoir-in-vivo-and-the-caveats-associated-with-its-use-in-practice
#11
REVIEW
Harry D J Knights
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) effectively suppresses the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), improves immune function, and decreases the morbidity of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, it is unable to eradicate the virus because it does not eliminate latently infected cells. The latent reservoir poses the major barrier to an HIV-1 cure. The "shock and kill" strategy aims to reactivate the virus and destroy latently infected cells. Many latency reversing agents (LRAs) reactivate HIV in vitro, but the absence of damaging side-effects and efficacy in vivo make disulfiram particularly promising...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464317/joint-analysis-of-longitudinal-and-survival-aids-data-with-a-spatial-fraction-of-long-term-survivors-a-bayesian-approach
#12
Rui Martins, Giovani L Silva, Valeska Andreozzi
A typical survival analysis with time-dependent covariates usually does not take into account the possible random fluctuations or the contamination by measurement errors of the variables. Ignoring these sources of randomness may cause bias in the estimates of the model parameters. One possible way for overcoming that limitation is to consider a longitudinal model for the time-varying covariates jointly with a survival model for the time to the event of interest, thereby taking advantage of the complementary information flowing between these two-model outcomes...
May 2, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432928/a-humanized-mouse-based-hiv-1-viral-outgrowth-assay-with-higher-sensitivity-than-in-vitro-qvoa-in-detecting-latently-infected-cells-from-individuals-on-art-with-undetectable-viral-loads
#13
Paige Charlins, Kimberly Schmitt, Leila Remling-Mulder, Louise E Hogan, Emily Hanhauser, Kristen S Hobbs, Frederick Hecht, Steven G Deeks, Timothy J Henrich, Ramesh Akkina
Assays that can verify full viral eradication are essential in the context of achieving a cure for HIV/AIDS. In vitro quantitative viral out growth assays (qVOA) are currently the gold standard for measuring latent HIV-1 but these assays often fail to detect very low levels of replication-competent virus. Here we investigated an alternative in vivo approach for sensitive viral detection using humanized mice (hmVOA). Peripheral blood CD4+ T cell samples from HIV subjects on stable ART with undetectable viral loads by RT-PCR were first assayed by in vitro qVOA...
April 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432094/the-use-of-synthetic-hybrid-strains-to-determine-the-role-of-replicon-3-in-virulence-of-the-burkholderia-cepacia-complex
#14
Kirsty Agnoli, Roman Freitag, Margarida C Gomes, Christian Jenul, Angela Suppiger, Olga Mannweiler, Carmen Frauenknecht, Daniel Janser, Annette C Vergunst, Leo Eberl
The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) displays a wealth of metabolic diversity with great biotechnological potential, but the utilisation of these bacteria is limited by their opportunistic pathogenicity to humans. The third replicon of the Bcc, megaplasmid pC3 (0.5 to 1.4 Mb, previously chromosome 3), is important for various phenotypes, including virulence, antifungal and proteolytic activities, and the utilization of certain substrates. Approximately half of plasmid pC3 is well-conserved throughout sequenced Bcc members, while the other half is not...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429679/mycobacterium-avium-complex-disease
#15
Charles L Daley
Despite the ubiqitous nature of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms in the environment, relatively few of those who are infected develop disease. Thus, some degree of susceptibility due to either underlying lung disease or immunosuppression is required. The frequency of pulmonary MAC disease is increasing in many areas, and the exact reasons are unknown. Isolation of MAC from a respiratory specimen does not necessarily mean that treatment is required, as the decision to treatment requires the synthesis of clinical, radiographic, and microbiologic information as well as a weighing of the risks and benefits for the individual patient...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418987/the-roles-of-behavioral-and-social-science-research-in-the-fight-against-hiv-aids-a-functional-framework
#16
Paul Gaist, Michael J Stirratt
Landmark advances have been made in HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. These include proof-of-concept and public health implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and "treatment as prevention" (TasP) to reduce HIV transmission as well as definitive evidence of the clinical gain from early antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Significant progress has been made in understanding and addressing the social contexts and behavioral factors that impact HIV prevention, care, and treatment interventions...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417477/a-flexible-family-of-transformation-cure-rate-models
#17
M V Koutras, F S Milienos
In this paper, we introduce a flexible family of cure rate models, mainly motivated by the biological derivation of the classical promotion time cure rate model and assuming that a metastasis-competent tumor cell produces a detectable-tumor mass only when a specific number of distinct biological factors affect the cell. Special cases of the new model are, among others, the promotion time (proportional hazards), the geometric (proportional odds), and the negative binomial cure rate model. In addition, our model generalizes specific families of transformation cure rate models and some well-studied destructive cure rate models...
April 17, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413739/genetic-modulation-therapy-through-stem-cell-transplantation-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection
#18
REVIEW
Varshil Mehta, Divya Chandramohan, Shivika Agarwal
Highly active anti-retroviral treatment has changed the dimensions of the outcomes for patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, HIV infection is still an ailment which is spreading throughout the world extensively. Given the confinements of the present restorative methodologies and the non-availability of any strategic vaccination against HIV, there is a squeezing need to build a therapeutic treatment. Viral tropism for HIV includes CD4+ cells, macrophages, and microglial cells, and it is through binding with co-receptors C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)...
March 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406033/the-impact-of-hiv-antiretroviral-treatment-perception-on-risky-sexual-behaviour-in-botswana-a-short-report
#19
Gobopamang Letamo, Mpho Keetile, Kannan Navaneetham
The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of ART perception on risky sexual behaviours in Botswana. Using binary logistic regression analysis controlling for individual characteristics, the results tend to support the hypothesis that ART misconceptions do not necessarily increase risky sexual behaviours. In particular, the study findings suggest the belief that ARVs cure HIV and AIDS and that people on ARVs should not always use condoms do not necessarily lead to increased risky sexual behaviours, particularly among women...
April 13, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404854/autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-disrupts-adaptive-immune-responses-during-rebound-shiv-viremia
#20
Daniel B Reeves, Christopher W Peterson, Hans-Peter Kiem, Joshua T Schiffer
Primary HIV-1 infection induces a virus-specific adaptive/cytolytic immune response that impacts plasma viral load setpoint and rate of progression to AIDS. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppresses plasma viremia to undetectable levels that rebound upon cART treatment interruption. Following cART withdrawal, the memory component of the virus-specific adaptive immune response may improve viral control compared to primary infection. Here, using primary infection and treatment interruption data from macaques infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), we observe lower peak viral load but unchanged viral setpoint during viral rebound...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
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