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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132097/the-development-of-a-new-artificial-model-of-a-finger-for-assessing-transmitted-vibrations
#1
Almaky Almagirby, Jem A Rongong, Matt J Carré
Prolonged exposure of the hand to tool-induced vibrations is associated with the occurrence of conditions such as vibration white finger. This study involves the development of a new artificial model that approximates both loading and vibration behaviour of the human finger. The layered system uses polypropylene "bones", encased in a cylinder of low modulus, room-temperature curing silicone gel (to replicate subcutaneous tissues), with an outer layer of latex (to replicate the dermis and epidermis). A protocol for manufacture was developed and dynamic mechanical analysis was carried out on a range of gels in order to choose a range close to the mechanical properties of the human finger...
November 4, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124683/the-21st-century-cures-act-implications-for-the-reduction-of-racial-health-disparities-in-the-us-criminal-justice-system-a-public-health-approach
#2
Donna M Cole, Dawna Marie Thomas, Kelsi Field, Amelia Wool, Taryn Lipiner, Natalie Massenberg, Barbara J Guthrie
Past drug epidemics have disproportionately criminalized drug addiction among African Americans, leading to disparate health outcomes, increased rates of HIV/AIDS, and mass incarceration. Conversely, the current opioid addiction crisis in the USA focuses primarily on white communities and is being addressed as a public health problem. The 21st Century Cures Act has the potential to reduce racial health disparities in the criminal justice system through the Act's public health approach to addiction and mental health issues...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120617/live-visualization-of-hiv-1-proviral-dna-using-a-dual-color-labeled-crispr-system
#3
Yingxin Ma, Mingxiu Wang, Wei Li, Zhi-Ping Zhang, Xiaowei Zhang, Tianwei Tan, Zongqiang Cui, Xian-En Zhang
HIV latency is one of the major problems in HIV/AIDS cure. Imaging single-copy integrated proviral HIV DNA in host cell has both virology and clinical significance but remains technical challenge. Here, we developed a dual-color labeled CRISPR system to image the HIV-1 integrated proviral DNA in latently infected cells. The pair of CRISPRs was fluorescently labeled with two different color QDs using two alternative bioorthogonal ligation reactions. Integrated HIV-sequences are successfully mapped based on the co-localized signals of QDs in living cells...
November 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112704/circulating-tumor-dna-predicts-survival-in-patients-with-resected-high-risk-stage-ii-iii-melanoma
#4
R J Lee, G Gremel, A Marshall, K A Myers, N Fisher, J Dunn, N Dhomen, P G Corrie, M R Middleton, P Lorigan, R Marais
Background: Patients with high-risk stage II/III resected melanoma commonly develop distant metastases. At present, we cannot differentiate between patients who will recur or those who are cured by surgery. We investigated if circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) can predict relapse and survival in patients with resected melanoma. Patients and methods: We performed droplet digital polymerase chain reaction to detect BRAF and NRAS mutations in plasma taken after surgery from 161 stage II/III high-risk melanoma patients enrolled in the AVAST-M adjuvant trial...
November 3, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110410/how-to-deal-with-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-the-light-of-an-african-ethic
#5
Thaddeus Metz
Many countries in Africa, and more generally those in the Global South with tropical areas, are plagued by illnesses that the wealthier parts of the world (mainly 'the West') neither suffer from nor put systematic effort into preventing, treating or curing. What does an ethic with a recognizably African pedigree entail for the ways various agents ought to respond to such neglected diseases? As many readers will know, a characteristically African ethic prescribes weighty duties to aid on the part of those in a position to do so, and it therefore entails that there should have been much more contribution from the Western, 'developed' world...
November 7, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102996/prostatectomy-versus-radiotherapy-for-early-stage-prostate-cancer-prepare-study-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-study-of-treatment-decision-making-in-men-with-localised-prostate-cancer
#6
Allan Ben Smith, Pascal Mancuso, Mark Sidhom, Karen Wong, Megan Berry, Orlando Rincones, Dion Forstner, Lesley Bokey, Afaf Girgis
BACKGROUND: Men diagnosed with localised prostate cancer (LPC) wanting curative treatment face a highly preference-sensitive choice between prostatectomy and radiotherapy, which offer similar cure rates but different side effects. This study aims to determine the information, decision-making needs and preferences of men with LPC choosing between robotic prostatectomy and standard external beam or stereotactic radiotherapy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will be conducted at a large public teaching hospital in Australia offering the choice between robotic prostatectomy and radiotherapy from early 2017...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089933/curaxin-cbl0100-blocks-hiv-1-replication-and-reactivation-through-inhibition-of-viral-transcriptional-elongation
#7
Maxime J Jean, Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Huachao Huang, Justin Brennan, Sydney Simpson, Andrei Purmal, Katerina Gurova, Michael C Keefer, James J Kobie, Netty G Santoso, Jian Zhu
Despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), predominantly caused by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), remains incurable. The barrier to a cure lies in the virus' ability to establish a latent infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Unsurprisingly, efforts for a sterilizing cure have focused on the "shock and kill" strategy using latency-reversing agents (LRAs) to complement cART in order to eliminate these latent reservoirs. However, this method faces numerous challenges...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089799/development-of-an-online-patient-centred-decision-aid-for-patients-with-oropharyngeal-cancer-in-the-transoral-robotic-surgery-era
#8
J S Lam, G M Scott, D A Palma, K Fung, A V Louie
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy (rt) has been the standard treatment for early oropharyngeal cancer, achieving excellent outcomes, but with significant toxicities. Transoral robotic surgery (tors) has emerged as a promising alternative. A decision aid (da) can help to establish patient treatment preferences. METHODS: A da was developed and piloted in 40 healthy adult volunteers. Assuming equal oncologic outcomes of the treatments, participants indicated their preference...
October 2017: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078592/technological-aids-in-uniportal-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery
#9
REVIEW
Sonia Raquelline Roque Cañas, Alonso José Oviedo Argueta, Ching Feng Wu, Diego Gonzalez-Rivas
With the evolution of uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), the technological aids have come to help skill surgeons to improve the results in thoracic surgery and feasible to perform a complex surgery. The technological aids are divided into three important groups, which make surgical steps easy to perform, besides reducing surgical time and surgical accidents in the hands of experienced surgeons. The groups are: (I) conventional thoracoscopic instruments; (II) sealing devices using in uniportal VATS; (III) high definition cameras, robotic arms prototype and the future robotic aids for uniportal VATS surgery...
2017: J Vis Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077949/incorporation-of-aptamers-in-the-terminal-loop-of-shrnas-yields-an-effective-and-novel-combinatorial-targeting-strategy
#10
Ka Ming Pang, Daniela Castanotto, Haitang Li, Lisa Scherer, John J Rossi
Gene therapy by engineering patient's own blood cells to confer HIV resistance can potentially lead to a functional cure for AIDS. Toward this goal, we have previously developed an anti-HIV lentivirus vector that deploys a combination of shRNA, ribozyme and RNA decoy. To further improve this therapeutic vector against viral escape, we sought an additional reagent to target HIV integrase. Here, we report the development of a new strategy for selection and expression of aptamer for gene therapy. We developed a SELEX protocol (multi-tag SELEX) for selecting RNA aptamers against proteins with low solubility or stability, such as integrase...
October 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075194/pharmacogenomics-dna-biomarkers-in-colorectal-cancer-current-update
#11
REVIEW
Nurul-Syakima Ab Mutalib, Najwa F Md Yusof, Shafina-Nadiawati Abdul, Rahman Jamal
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains as one of the most common cause of worldwide cancer morbidity and mortality. Improvements in surgical modalities and adjuvant chemotherapy have increased the cure rates in early stage disease, but a significant portion of the patients will develop recurrence or advanced disease. The efficacy of chemotherapy of recurrence and advanced CRC has improved significantly over the last decade. Previously, the historical drug 5-fluorouracil was used as single chemotherapeutic agent. Now with the addition of other drugs such as capecitabine, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, bevacizumab, cetuximab, panitumumab, vemurafenib, and dabrafenib, the median survival of patients with advanced CRC has significantly improved from less than a year to the current standard of almost 2 years...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063298/four-dimensional-computed-tomography-clinical-impact-for-patients-with-primary-hyperparathyroidism
#12
Yuan Tian, Sharman Tan Tanny, Paul Einsiedel, Meir Lichtenstein, Damien L Stella, Pramit M Phal, Julie A Miller
BACKGROUND: In recent years, four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) has emerged as a new localization study for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the added value of 4DCT in our institution in the first 4 years of use. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted from February 2004 to June 2015. Since 2011, patients over 50 years of age without concordant sestamibi-SPECT (SeS) and ultrasound (US) findings underwent 4DCT...
October 23, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055806/new-generation-of-docking-programs-supercomputer-validation-of-force-fields-and-quantum-chemical-methods-for-docking
#13
Alexey V Sulimov, Danil C Kutov, Ekaterina V Katkova, Ivan S Ilin, Vladimir B Sulimov
Discovery of new inhibitors of the protein associated with a given disease is the initial and most important stage of the whole process of the rational development of new pharmaceutical substances. New inhibitors block the active site of the target protein and the disease is cured. Computer-aided molecular modeling can considerably increase effectiveness of new inhibitors development. Reliable predictions of the target protein inhibition by a small molecule, ligand, is defined by the accuracy of docking programs...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049538/3d-printed-mitral-valve-models-affordable-simulation-for-robotic-mitral-valve-repair
#14
Ned Premyodhin, Divneet Mandair, Alice S Ferng, Timothy S Leach, Ryan P Palsma, Mohammad Z Albanna, Zain I Khalpey
OBJECTIVES: 3D printed mitral valve (MV) models that capture the suture response of real tissue may be utilized as surgical training tools. Leveraging clinical imaging modalities, 3D computerized modelling and 3D printing technology to produce affordable models complements currently available virtual simulators and paves the way for patient- and pathology-specific preoperative rehearsal. METHODS: We used polyvinyl alcohol, a dissolvable thermoplastic, to 3D print moulds that were casted with liquid platinum-cure silicone yielding flexible, low-cost MV models capable of simulating valvular tissue...
July 31, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026923/nonhuman-primate-models-for-studies-of-aids-virus-persistence-during-suppressive-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#15
Gregory Q Del Prete, Jeffrey D Lifson
Nonhuman primate (NHP) models of AIDS represent a potentially powerful component of the effort to understand in vivo sources of AIDS virus that persist in the setting of suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and to develop and evaluate novel strategies for more definitive treatment of HIV infection (i.e., viral eradication "cure", or sustained off-cART remission). Multiple different NHP models are available, each characterized by a particular NHP species, infecting virus, and cART regimen, and each with a distinct capacity to recapitulate different aspects of HIV infection...
October 13, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022531/survival-of-patients-with-kaposi-s-sarcoma-in-the-south-african-antiretroviral-treatment-era-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
M M Sengayi, D Kielkowski, M Egger, L Dreosti, J Bohlius
BACKGROUND: When South Africa (SA) implemented its antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in 2004, the model for treating HIV-positive Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) patients shifted from symptomatic palliation to potential cure. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate survival and changes over time in AIDS-KS patients treated at a tertiary academic hospital oncology unit (the Steve Biko Academic Hospital medical oncology unit) in Pretoria, SA, in the context of ART availability in SA. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of electronic and paper records of KS patients who accessed cancer care between May 2004 and September 2012...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019452/minimal-residual-disease-analysis-in-myeloma-when-why-and-where
#17
Uday Yanamandra, Shaji K Kumar
The primary hurdle in the path to curing multiple myeloma (MM) is defining a validated minimal residual disease (MRD) and its utility in the therapeutic decision making. A better definition of MRD will aid in tailoring MM therapy further to address the clonal heterogeneity and genomic instability and overcome patient's ineffective immune surveillance. MRD analysis can define the logical endpoint for maintenance therapy, in addition also aids in providing a better clinical end point for studies comparing novel agents in myeloma...
October 11, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019352/hot-news-gene-therapy-with-crispr-cas9-coming-to-age-for-hiv-cure
#18
Vicente Soriano
The huge success of current antiretroviral therapy is mediated by a triple effect: (i) Halting progression to AIDS in infected persons; (ii) reducing the risk of transmission to contacts (treatment as prevention); and (iii) minimizing the risk of HIV acquisition treating uninfected persons at risk (pre-exposure prophylaxis). However, UNAIDS has estimated that only 70% of infected people globally are diagnosed, only 53% are treated, and overall 44% have undetectable viral load, which is the necessary request for ensuring any antiretroviral benefit...
October 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978417/detection-and-treatment-of-fiebig-stage-i-hiv-1-infection-in-young-at-risk-women-in-south-africa-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Krista L Dong, Amber Moodley, Douglas S Kwon, Musie S Ghebremichael, Mary Dong, Nasreen Ismail, Zaza M Ndhlovu, Jenniffer M Mabuka, Daniel M Muema, Karyn Pretorius, Nina Lin, Bruce D Walker, Thumbi Ndung'u
BACKGROUND: HIV incidence among young women in sub-Saharan Africa remains high and their inclusion in vaccine and cure efforts is crucial. We aimed to establish a cohort of young women detected during Fiebig stage I acute HIV infection in whom treatment was initiated immediately after diagnosis to advance research in this high-risk group. METHODS: 945 women aged 18-23 years in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, who were HIV uninfected and sexually active consented to HIV-1 RNA testing twice a week and biological sampling and risk assessment every 3 months during participation in a 48-96 week life-skills and job-readiness programme...
September 29, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967921/defining-total-body-aids-virus-burden-with-implications-for-curative-strategies
#20
Jacob D Estes, Cissy Kityo, Francis Ssali, Louise Swainson, Krystelle Nganou Makamdop, Gregory Q Del Prete, Steven G Deeks, Paul A Luciw, Jeffrey G Chipman, Gregory J Beilman, Torfi Hoskuldsson, Alexander Khoruts, Jodi Anderson, Claire Deleage, Jacob Jasurda, Thomas E Schmidt, Michael Hafertepe, Samuel P Callisto, Hope Pearson, Thomas Reimann, Jared Schuster, Jordan Schoephoerster, Peter Southern, Katherine Perkey, Liang Shang, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Courtney V Fletcher, Jeffrey D Lifson, Daniel C Douek, Joseph M McCune, Ashley T Haase, Timothy W Schacker
In the quest for a functional cure or the eradication of HIV infection, it is necessary to know the sizes of the reservoirs from which infection rebounds after treatment interruption. Thus, we quantified SIV and HIV tissue burdens in tissues of infected nonhuman primates and lymphoid tissue (LT) biopsies from infected humans. Before antiretroviral therapy (ART), LTs contained >98% of the SIV RNA(+) and DNA(+) cells. With ART, the numbers of virus (v) RNA+ cells substantially decreased but remained detectable, and their persistence was associated with relatively lower drug concentrations in LT than in peripheral blood...
November 2017: Nature Medicine
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