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I M Madaeva, O N Berdina, N V Semenova, L A Grebenkina, V V Madaev, L I Kolesnikova
AIM: To reveal gender characteristics of the sleep structure in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) during polysomnographic monitoring (PSGM). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: According to the results of a pre-survey using an apnea screening questionnaire, the investigation included 58 women (body mass index (BMI), 38.2±2.1 kg/m2) and 75 men (BMI, 34.2±1.8 kg/m2), aged 50-55 years, who complained about snoring, sleep apnea, and daytime hypersomnia. Copy-pair groups were formed and compared after objectively confirming the diagnosis by PSGM made at a specialized sleep laboratory, by applying the GRASS-TELEFACTOR Twin PSG system (Comet) with an integrated SPM-1 sleep module (USA) in accordance with the standard procedure...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Edyta K Bichler, Courtney C Elder, Paul S García
Antibiotics are used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections, but effects on neuron excitability have been documented. A recent study demonstrated that clarithromycin alleviates daytime sleepiness in hypersomnia patients (Trotti et al. 2014). To explore the potential application of clarithromycin as a stimulant, we performed whole cell patch clamp recordings in rat pyramidal cells from the CA3 region of hippocampus. In the presence of the antibiotic, rheobase current was reduced by 50%, F-I relationship (number of action potentials as a function of injected current) was shifted to the left, and the resting membrane potential was more depolarized...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
N A Amosova, I G Smolentseva, P M Guseinova, O A Maslyuk, E L Gavrilov
Disorders of sleep and wakefulness occur in about 60-98% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The majority of research on the scale and nature of the disorders was performed in patients treated with antiparkinsonian drugs, and, therefore, the true picture of sleep disorders was interfering with side effects of therapy. The spectrum of these disorders in PD patients is broad and includes insomnia, parasomnia and hypersomnia. The main symptoms of insomnia are difficulty in maintaining sleep, associated with nocturia, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), night cramps, akinesia and tremor...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Jiali Pu, Baorong Zhang, Xinzhen Yin
Insulinoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor. Hypersomnia as the first presentation in a patient with insulinoma is even more rare and may be easy to misdiagnose. We are herein reporting a case of insulinoma initially presenting with prolonged sleep time and extreme difficulty in waking. The abovementioned symptoms occurred every 2-3 months. Over the last 2 months, the attacks had become more frequent and severe. On computed tomography examination, a 12×9-mm cystic nodule was detected in the uncinate process of the pancreas, which was pathologically diagnosed as insulinoma...
October 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Lynn M Trotti
The transition from sleep to wake is marked by sleep inertia, a distinct state that is measurably different from wakefulness and manifests as performance impairments and sleepiness. Although the precise substrate of sleep inertia is unknown, electroencephalographic, evoked potential, and neuroimaging studies suggest the persistence of some features of sleep beyond the point of awakening. Forced desynchrony studies have demonstrated that sleep inertia impacts cognition differently than do homeostatic and circadian drives and that sleep inertia is most intense during awakenings from the biological night...
September 4, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
P A Geoffroy, J-A Micoulaud Franchi, R Lopez, I Poirot, A Brion, S Royant-Parola, B Etain
OBJECTIVES: Sleep complaints are very common in bipolar disorders (BD) both during acute phases (manic and depressive episodes) and remission (about 80 % of patients with remitted BD have poor sleep quality). Sleep complaints during remission are of particular importance since they are associated with more mood relapses and worse outcomes. In this context, this review discusses the characterization and treatment of sleep complaints in BD. METHODS: We examined the international scientific literature in June 2016 and performed a literature search with PubMed electronic database using the following headings: "bipolar disorder" and ("sleep" or "insomnia" or "hypersomnia" or "circadian" or "apnoea" or "apnea" or "restless legs")...
September 23, 2016: L'Encéphale
Teerayuth Rungnirundorn, Viroj Verachai, Joel Gelernter, Robert T Malison, Rasmon Kalayasiri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Males and females who use methamphetamine (MA) differ in sociodemographics, MA diagnoses, comorbidities, and brain activity. The objective of this study was to investigate sex differences in the characteristics of MA use and dependence in patients at a Thai substance treatment center. METHODS: Demographic, MA use, and diagnostic data for 782 MA users were obtained by using the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism-Thai version...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Poul Jørgen Jennum, Lars Østergaard Pedersen, Justyna Maria Czarna Bahl, Signe Modvig, Karina Fog, Anja Holm, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Steen Gammeltoft
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of neurodegeneration are altered in narcolepsy in order to evaluate whether the hypocretin deficiency and abnormal sleep-wake pattern in narcolepsy leads to neurodegeneration. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with central hypersomnia (10 type 1 narcolepsy, 5 type 2 narcolepsy, and 6 idiopathic hypersomnia cases) aged 33 years on average, and with a disease duration of 2-29 years, and 12 healthy controls underwent CSF analyses of levels of β-amyloid, total tau protein (T-tau), phosphorylated tau protein (P-tau181), α-synuclein, neurofilament light chain (NF-L), and chitinase 3-like protein-1 (CHI3L1)...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
Catherine G Coughlin, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Michael H Bloch
OBJECTIVE: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are first-line treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), but their impact on suicidal ideation is equivocal. Our goal is to examine the time course and clinical predictors of citalopram-induced suicidal ideation during phase 1 of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial. METHODS: Of the 4,041 subjects with DSM-IV nonpsychotic MDD in the STAR*D trial phase 1 (2001-2006), we included in our analysis 3,577 subjects who reported side-effect data and had received citalopram (20-60 mg/d) for 8-14 weeks...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Kyeong Min Kwak, Young-Su Ju, Young-Jun Kwon, Yun Kyung Chung, Bong Kyu Kim, Hyunjoo Kim, Kanwoo Youn
BACKGROUND: Aircraft noise is a major environmental noise problem. This study was conducted in order to investigate the relationship between sleep disturbance and exposure to aircraft noise on the residents who are living near an airport. METHODS: There were 3308 residents (1403 in the high exposure group, 1428 in the low exposure group, and 477 in the non-exposure group) selected as the subjects for this study. The Insomnia severity Index (ISI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaires were used to evaluate sleep disturbance...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Christopher A Kosky, Anastasios Bonakis, Arthee Yogendran, Gihan Hettiarachchi, Paul I Dargan, Adrian J Williams
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Drugs and psychoactive substances can cause sleepiness and when undetected, may lead to over diagnosis of central hypersomnias. We performed urine drug testing using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in adults undergoing multiple sleep latency testing (MSLT) for a suspected central hypersomnia. We examined how the drug test results modified the treating physician's diagnosis. METHODS: One hundred eighty-six consecutive patients with a suspected central hypersomnia who underwent clinical assessment, MSLT and urine drug testing by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were retrospectively studied...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Ruth Janke van Holst, Lisa van der Cruijsen, Petra van Mierlo, Gert Jan Lammers, Roshan Cools, Sebastiaan Overeem, Esther Aarts
BACKGROUND: Besides influencing vigilance, orexin neurotransmission serves a variety of functions, including reward, motivation, and appetite regulation. As obesity is an important symptom in orexin-deficient narcolepsy, we explored the effects of satiety on food-related choices and spontaneous snack intake in patients with narcolepsy type 1 (n = 24) compared with healthy matched controls (n = 19). In additional analyses, we also included patients with idiopathic hypersomnia (n = 14) to assess sleepiness-related influences...
August 19, 2016: Sleep
Peter J H Scott, Xia Shao, Timothy J Desmond, Brian G Hockley, Phillip Sherman, Carole A Quesada, Kirk A Frey, Robert A Koeppe, Michael R Kilbourn, Nicolaas I Bohnen
Clarithromycin is a potential treatment for hypersomnia acting through proposed negative allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. We were interested whether this therapeutic benefit might extend to Parkinson's disease (PD) patients because GABAergic neurotransmission is implicated in postural control. Prior to initiating clinical studies in PD patients, we wished to better understand clarithromycin's mechanism of action. In this work we investigated whether the proposed activity of clarithromycin at the GABAA receptor is associated with the benzodiazepine binding site using in vivo [(11)C]flumazenil positron emission tomography (PET) in primates and ex vivo [(3)H]flumazenil autoradiography in rat brain...
August 11, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Andrea Galbiati, Jubin Abutalebi, Sandro Iannaccone, Virginia Maria Borsa, Stela Musteata, Marco Zucconi, Enrico Giora, Luigi Ferini-Strambi
Idiopathic Hypersomnia (IH) is a rare sleep disorder characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) that leads to invalidating daytime consequences. Till now the treatment of IH has mirrored that of sleepiness in narcolepsy, and it is mainly focused on symptoms' management. We employed an anodal transcranic Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) treatment in order to induce a shift toward arousal in IH patients' cortex during the day. Every patients underwent a 4 weeks treatment (3 stimulations per week, for a total of 12 stimulations over a period of 28 days) with an assessment at the baseline and after treatment aimed to the evaluation of subjective daytime sleepiness, neurocognitive functions, and attentional domain tested by means of the Attentional Network Task (ANT)...
April 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
Joseph Andrew Berkowski, Anita Valanju Shelgikar
Central disorders of hypersomnolence are rare conditions with a poorly understood pathophysiology, making the identification and management challenging for sleep clinicians. Clinical history is essential for ruling out secondary causes of hypersomnolence and distinguishing among diagnoses. Current diagnostic criteria rely heavily on the polysomnogram and multiple sleep latency test. The current focus of treatment of hypersomnolence is on drugs that promote alertness. Additionally, in the case of narcolepsy type 1, medication management addresses control of cataplexy, the hallmark symptom of this disorder...
September 2016: Sleep Medicine Clinics
Francesca Billwiller, Leslie Renouard, Olivier Clement, Patrice Fort, Pierre-Hervé Luppi
We recently demonstrated that granule cells located in the dorsal dentate gyrus (dDG) are activated by neurons located in the lateral supramammillary nucleus (SumL) during paradoxical sleep (PS) hypersomnia. To determine whether these neurons are glutamatergic and/or GABAergic, we combined FOS immunostaining with in situ hybridization of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGLUT2, a marker of glutamatergic neurons) or that of the vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT, a marker of GABAergic neurons) mRNA in rats displaying PS hypersomnia (PSR)...
August 18, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Yves Dauvilliers, Régis Lopez
Central hypersomnias include narcolepsy type 1, type 2 and idiopathic hypersomnia with daytime sleepiness excessive in the foreground of the clinical symptoms. Despite major advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of the narcolepsy type 1 with a low level of hypocretin-1 in cerebrospinal fluid, its current management is only symptomatic. The current management is also only symptomatic for type 2 narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia with an unknown pathophysiology. Treatment options may vary from a single drug targeting several symptoms or several drugs treating a specific symptom...
June 2016: La Revue du Praticien
Elisa Evangelista, Lucie Barateau, Yves Dauvilliers
Excessive sleepiness is a common problem, defined by a complaint of excessive daytime sleepiness almost daily with an inability to stay awake and alert dosing periods at sleep, with episodes of irresistible sleep need or drowsiness or non-intentional sleep, or by a night's sleep time overly extended often associated with sleep inertia. This sleepiness is variable in terms of phenotype and severity to be specified by the out-patient clinic. It is considered to be chronic beyond three months and often responsible for significant functional impairment of school and professional performance, of the accidents and cardiovascular risk...
June 2016: La Revue du Praticien
E Bekhuis, R A Schoevers, C D van Borkulo, J G M Rosmalen, L Boschloo
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often co-occur with somatic symptomatology. Little is known about the contributions of individual symptoms to this association and more insight into their relationships could help to identify symptoms that are central in the processes behind the co-occurrence. This study explores associations between individual MDD/GAD symptoms and somatic symptoms by using the network approach. METHOD: MDD/GAD symptoms were assessed in 2704 participants (mean age 41...
October 2016: Psychological Medicine
Elisabetta Pupillo, Claudio Cricelli, Francesco Mazzoleni, Iacopo Cricelli, Alessandro Pasqua, Serena Pecchioli, Francesco Lapi, Ettore Beghi
BACKGROUND: There are no studies on prevalence, incidence and comorbidities of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the Italian population. METHODS: The database of 700 Italian general practitioners (population, 923,356) was investigated. All patients with International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision - Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis of PD during the period 2002-2012 were included. Parkinsonisms were excluded. Clinical conditions preceding PD were identified through ICD-9-CM codes...
2016: Neuroepidemiology
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