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Risk Reclassification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242596/total-energy-expenditure-and-vigorous-intensity-physical-activity-are-associated-with-reduced-odds-of-reclassification-among-men-on-active-surveillance
#1
David E Guy, Avi Vandersluis, Laurence H Klotz, Neil Fleshner, Alexander Kiss, Chris Parker, Vasundara Venkateswaran
BACKGROUND: Research examining the association between physical activity (PA) and prostate cancer (PCa) has accumulated; however, few studies have examined this association in the context of active surveillance. The current study examines this among men initially diagnosed with favorable-risk PCa and managed by active surveillance at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Canada and the Royal Marsden Hospital in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Participants completed a questionnaire on daily participation in non-leisure, transport, and recreational PA...
December 14, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231189/the-liver-frailty-index-improves-mortality-prediction-of-the-subjective-clinician-assessment-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#2
Jennifer C Lai, Kenneth E Covinsky, Charles E McCulloch, Sandy Feng
OBJECTIVES: Frailty, a critical determinant of health outcomes, is most commonly assessed in patients with cirrhosis by general clinician assessment that is limited by its subjectivity. We aimed to compare the objective Liver Frailty Index (LFI), consisting of three performance-based tests (grip, chair stands, balance), with a subjective hepatologist assessment. METHODS: Outpatients with cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation (LT) underwent: (1) objective measurement using the LFI and (2) subjective clinician assessment...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230662/relationship-of-histologic-grade-and-histologic-subtype-with-oncotype-dx-recurrence-score-retrospective-review-of-863-breast-cancer-oncotype-dx-results
#3
Kamaljeet Singh, Xin He, Elizabeth T Kalife, Shahrzad Ehdaivand, Yihong Wang, C James Sung
PURPOSE: Oncotype Dx (ODx) is a multigene assay that is prognostic and predictive in estrogen receptor (ER) positive early breast cancer. ODx recurrence score (RS) is reported to be histologic grade dependent. Relationship of RS with breast cancer histologic subtypes is unknown. This study was designed to assess the relationship of histologic subtype with RS. Histologic grade dependence of RS was also investigated. METHODS: Results of consecutive ODx tests (1/2007-7/2016) from two institutions were reviewed...
December 11, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229941/urinary-endotrophin-predicts-disease-progression-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
Daniel Guldager Kring Rasmussen, Anthony Fenton, Mark Jesky, Charles Ferro, Peter Boor, Martin Tepel, Morten Asser Karsdal, Federica Genovese, Paul Cockwell
Renal fibrosis is the central pathogenic process in progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Collagen type VI (COL VI) is upregulated in renal fibrosis. Endotrophin is released from COL VI and promotes pleiotropic pro-fibrotic effects. Kidney disease severity varies considerably and accurate information regarding CKD progression may improve clinical decisions. We tested the hypothesis that urinary endotrophin derived during COL VI deposition in fibrotic human kidneys is a marker for progression of CKD in the Renal Impairment in Secondary Care (RIISC) cohort, a prospective observational study of 499 CKD patients...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229724/serum-galectin-3-and-poor-outcomes-among-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#5
Aili Wang, Chongke Zhong, Zhengbao Zhu, Tian Xu, Yanbo Peng, Tan Xu, Hao Peng, Chung-Shiuan Chen, Jinchao Wang, Zhong Ju, Qunwei Li, Deqin Geng, Yingxian Sun, Jianhui Zhang, Xiaodong Yuan, Jing Chen, Yonghong Zhang, Jiang He
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elevated galectin-3 has been associated with atherosclerosis and poor outcomes in patients with heart failure. However, it remains unclear whether galectin-3 has any effect on the poor outcomes of ischemic stroke. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between galectin-3 with poor outcomes among patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Serum galectin-3 was measured in 3082 patients with acute ischemic stroke. The primary outcome was a combination of death or major disability (modified Rankin Scale score, ≥3) at 3 months after stroke...
December 11, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227997/normalized-emphysema-scores-on-low-dose-ct-validation-as-an-imaging-biomarker-for-mortality
#6
Leticia Gallardo-Estrella, Esther Pompe, Pim A de Jong, Colin Jacobs, Eva M van Rikxoort, Mathias Prokop, Clara I Sánchez, Bram van Ginneken
The purpose of this study is to develop a computed tomography (CT) biomarker of emphysema that is robust across reconstruction settings, and evaluate its ability to predict mortality in patients at high risk for lung cancer. Data included baseline CT scans acquired between August 2002 and April 2004 from 1737 deceased subjects and 5740 surviving controls taken from the National Lung Screening Trial. Emphysema scores were computed in the original scans (origES) and after applying resampling, normalization and bullae analysis (normES)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226610/nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based-metabolomics-identifies-phenylalanine-as-a-novel-predictor-of-incident-heart-failure-hospitalisation-results-from-prosper-and-finrisk-1997
#7
Christian Delles, Naomi J Rankin, Charles Boachie, Alex McConnachie, Ian Ford, Antti Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Stella Trompet, Simon P Mooijaart, J Wouter Jukema, Faiez Zannad, Mika Ala-Korpela, Veikko Salomaa, Aki S Havulinna, Paul Welsh, Peter Würtz, Naveed Sattar
AIMS: We investigated the association between quantified metabolite, lipid and lipoprotein measures and incident heart failure hospitalisation (HFH) in the elderly, and examined whether circulating metabolic measures improve HFH prediction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Overall, 80 metabolic measures from the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) trial were measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (n = 5341; 182 HFH events during 2...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222133/gdf-15-growth-differentiation-factor-15-is-associated-with-lack-of-ventricular-recovery-and-mortality-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#8
Juyong Brian Kim, Yukari Kobayashi, Kegan J Moneghetti, Daniel A Brenner, Ryan O'Malley, Ingela Schnittger, Joseph C Wu, Gillian Murtagh, Agim Beshiri, Michael Fischbein, D Craig Miller, David Liang, Alan C Yeung, Francois Haddad, William F Fearon
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that circulating biomarkers may predict outcome in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We examined the association between inflammatory, myocardial, and renal biomarkers and their role in ventricular recovery and outcome after TAVR. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 112 subjects undergoing TAVR were included in the prospective registry. Plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide, hs-TnI (high-sensitivity troponin I), CRP (C-reactive protein), GDF-15 (growth differentiation factor 15), GAL-3 (galectin-3), and Cys-C (cystatin-C) were assessed before TAVR and in 100 sex-matched healthy controls...
December 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221111/nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-risk-prediction-via-salivary-detection-of-host-and-epstein-barr-virus-genetic-variants
#9
Qian Cui, Fu-Tuo Feng, Miao Xu, Wen-Sheng Liu, You-Yuan Yao, Shang-Hang Xie, Xi-Zhao Li, Zu-Lu Ye, Qi-Sheng Feng, Li-Zhen Chen, Jin-Xin Bei, Lin Feng, Qi-Hong Huang, Wei-Hua Jia, Su-Mei Cao, Ellen T Chang, Weimin Ye, Hans-Olov Adami, Yi-Xin Zeng
Genetic susceptibility and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection are important etiological factors in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, in southern China, where NPC is endemic, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the EBV-encoded RPMS1 gene (locus 155391: G > A [G155391A]) and seven host SNPs (rs1412829, rs28421666, rs2860580, rs2894207, rs31489, rs6774494, and rs9510787) were confirmed to be significantly associated with NPC risk in 50 NPC cases versus 54 hospital-based controls with throat washing specimens and 1925 NPC cases versus 1947 hospital-based controls with buffy coat samples, respectively...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216254/international-classification-of-diseases-icd-coded-obesity-predicts-risk-of-incident-osteoporotic-fracture
#10
Shuman Yang, Lisa M Lix, Lin Yan, Aynslie M Hinds, William D Leslie
International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes have been used to ascertain individuals who are obese. There has been limited research about the predictive value of ICD-coded obesity for major chronic conditions at the population level. We tested the utility of ICD-coded obesity versus measured obesity for predicting incident major osteoporotic fracture (MOF), after adjusting for covariates (i.e., age and sex). In this historical cohort study (2001-2015), we selected 61,854 individuals aged 50 years and older from the Manitoba Bone Mineral Density Database, Canada...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214898/bio-width-index-a-novel-biomarker-for-prognostication-of-long-term-outcomes-in-patients-with-anaemia-and-heart-failure
#11
Muthiah Subramanian, Mukund A Prabhu, Selva Saravanan, Rajesh Thachathodiyl
BACKGROUND: The utility of biomarkers for prognostication of long term outcomes in patients with anaemia and heart failure(HF) is not well defined. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of a novel biomarker, bio-width index (BWI),to improve risk stratification in patients with anaemia and acutely decompensated heart failure(ADHF), in comparison to conventional markers, B-type natriuretic peptide(BNP) and red- cell distribution width(RDW). METHODS: Data from 1569 consecutive patients with ADHF treated at a multidisciplinary HF unit was analysed in this study...
December 7, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214305/cardiovascular-outcomes-according-to-urinary-albumin-and-kidney-disease-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-at-high-cardiovascular-risk-observations-from-the-savor-timi-53-trial
#12
Benjamin M Scirica, Ofri Mosenzon, Deepak L Bhatt, Jacob A Udell, Ph Gabriel Steg, Darren K McGuire, KyungAh Im, Estella Kanevsky, Christina Stahre, Mikaela Sjöstrand, Itamar Raz, Eugene Braunwald
Importance: An elevated level of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) is a marker of renal dysfunction and predictor of kidney failure/death in patients with type 2 diabetes. The prognostic use of UACR in established cardiac biomarkers is not well described. Objective: To evaluate whether UACR offers incremental prognostic benefit beyond risk factors and established plasma cardiovascular biomarkers. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (SAVOR-TIMI) 53 study was performed from May 2010 to May 2013 and evaluated the safety of saxagliptin vs placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes with overt cardiovascular disease or multiple risk factors...
December 6, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211884/impact-of-current-and-past-cancer-history-on-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-events-following-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-a-kumamoto-university-malignancy-and-atherosclerosis-kuma-study
#13
Noriaki Tabata, Daisuke Sueta, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Seiji Takashio, Yuichiro Arima, Satoshi Araki, Kenshi Yamanaga, Masanobu Ishii, Kenji Sakamoto, Hisanori Kanazawa, Koichiro Fujisue, Shinsuke Hanatani, Hirofumi Soejima, Seiji Hokimoto, Yasuhiro Izumiya, Sunao Kojima, Hiroshige Yamabe, Koichi Kaikita, Kenichi Tsujita
Background: As progress is made in successfully treating cancer, there is increasing need to focus on the risk and complexity of treating cardiovascular events in cancer survivors - thus, the field of onco-cardiology/cardio-oncology has emerged. We examined the differential incidence of cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with or without cancer. Methods and Results: Participants were divided into a non-cancer group and a cancer group, which consisted of patients who were receiving or had ever received cancer treatment...
December 1, 2017: European Heart Journal. Quality of Care & Clinical Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202601/hematological-parameters-outperform-plasma-markers-in-predicting-long-term-mortality-after-coronary-angiography
#14
Crystel M Gijsberts, Hester M den Ruijter, Dominique P V de Kleijn, Albert Huisman, Maarten Ten Berg, Mark de Groot, Richard H A van Wijk, Folkert W Asselbergs, Michiel Voskuil, Gerard Pasterkamp, Wouter W van Solinge, Imo E Hoefer
High-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) are predictors of coronary artery disease. Recently, routine hematological parameters emerged as mortality predictors. We examined the predictive value of hematological parameters (from the Utrecht Patient Oriented Database) and hsTnI and NT-pro-BNP for mortality in a coronary angiography population (Utrecht Coronary Biobank n = 1913). Using Cox regression, receiver operating characteristics, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and continuous net reclassification improvement (cNRI) analysis, we compared the predictive properties of hematological parameters with hsTnI and NT-pro-BNP for mortality...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197965/progress-of-statistical-analysis-in-biomedical-research-through-the-historical-review-of-the-development-of-the-framingham-score
#15
Aleksandra Ignjatović, Miodrag Stojanović, Zoran Milošević, Marija Anđelković Apostolović
BACKGROUND: The interest in developing risk models in medicine not only is appealing, but also associated with many obstacles in different aspects of predictive model development. Initially, the association of biomarkers or the association of more markers with the specific outcome was proven by statistical significance, but novel and demanding questions required the development of new and more complex statistical techniques. METHODS: Progress of statistical analysis in biomedical research can be observed the best through the history of the Framingham study and development of the Framingham score...
December 2, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197152/the-national-burden-of-influenza-associated-severe-acute-respiratory-illness-hospitalization-in-rwanda-2012-2014
#16
José Nyamusore, Joseph Rukelibuga, Mwumvaneza Mutagoma, Andrew Muhire, Alice Kabanda, Thelma Williams, Angela Mutoni, Julius Kamwesiga, Thierry Nyatanyi, Jared Omolo, Adeline Kabeja, Jean Baptiste Koama, Agrippine Mukarurangwa, Jeanne d'Arc Umuringa, Carolina Granados, Michel Gasana, Ann Moen, Stefano Tempia
BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza-associated hospitalization are severely limited in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the national number of influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalization in Rwanda. METHODS: We multiplied the influenza virus detection rate from influenza surveillance conducted at 6 sentinel hospitals by the national number of respiratory hospitalization obtained from passive surveillance after adjusting for underreporting and reclassification of any respiratory hospitalizations as SARI during 2012-2014...
December 2, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187666/impact-of-objective-malnutrition-status-on-the-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease-following-endovascular-therapy
#17
Miyuki Yokoyama, Tetsu Watanabe, Yoichiro Otaki, Ken Watanabe, Taku Toshima, Takayuki Sugai, Tetsuya Takahashi, Daisuke Kinoshita, Harutoshi Tamura, Satoshi Nishiyama, Hiroki Takahashi, Takanori Arimoto, Tetsuro Shishido, Sou Yamauchi, Tamon Yamanaka, Takuya Miyamoto, Isao Kubota
BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an athero-occlusive disease and a known risk factor for cardiovascular events. The controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score and geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) are objective tools for evaluating malnutrition and are reportedly associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with fatal diseases. However, the effect of malnutrition on the clinical outcomes in patients with PAD remains unclear.Methods and Results:We enrolled 357 patients with PAD who underwent endovascular therapy...
November 30, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187389/value-of-excess-pressure-integral-for-predicting-15-year-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-mortalities-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients
#18
Jui-Tzu Huang, Hao-Min Cheng, Wen-Chung Yu, Yao-Ping Lin, Shih-Hsien Sung, Jiun-Jr Wang, Chung-Li Wu, Chen-Huan Chen
BACKGROUND: The excess pressure integral (XSPI), derived from analysis of the arterial pressure curve, may be a significant predictor of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. We comprehensively investigated the prognostic value of XSPI for predicting long-term mortality in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing regular hemodialysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 267 uremic patients (50.2% female; mean age 54.2±14.9 years) receiving regular hemodialysis for more than 6 months were enrolled...
November 29, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185869/development-and-validation-of-a-novel-integrated-clinical-genomic-risk-group-classification-for-localized-prostate-cancer
#19
Daniel E Spratt, Jingbin Zhang, María Santiago-Jiménez, Robert T Dess, John W Davis, Robert B Den, Adam P Dicker, Christopher J Kane, Alan Pollack, Radka Stoyanova, Firas Abdollah, Ashley E Ross, Adam Cole, Edward Uchio, Josh M Randall, Hao Nguyen, Shuang G Zhao, Rohit Mehra, Andrew G Glass, Lucia L C Lam, Jijumon Chelliserry, Marguerite du Plessis, Voleak Choeurng, Maria Aranes, Tyler Kolisnik, Jennifer Margrave, Jason Alter, Jennifer Jordan, Christine Buerki, Kasra Yousefi, Zaid Haddad, Elai Davicioni, Edouard J Trabulsi, Stacy Loeb, Ashutosh Tewari, Peter R Carroll, Sheila Weinmann, Edward M Schaeffer, Eric A Klein, R Jeffrey Karnes, Felix Y Feng, Paul L Nguyen
Purpose It is clinically challenging to integrate genomic-classifier results that report a numeric risk of recurrence into treatment recommendations for localized prostate cancer, which are founded in the framework of risk groups. We aimed to develop a novel clinical-genomic risk grouping system that can readily be incorporated into treatment guidelines for localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Two multicenter cohorts (n = 991) were used for training and validation of the clinical-genomic risk groups, and two additional cohorts (n = 5,937) were used for reclassification analyses...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178508/predictive-accuracy-of-combined-genetic-and-environmental-risk-scores
#20
Frank Dudbridge, Nora Pashayan, Jian Yang
The substantial heritability of most complex diseases suggests that genetic data could provide useful risk prediction. To date the performance of genetic risk scores has fallen short of the potential implied by heritability, but this can be explained by insufficient sample sizes for estimating highly polygenic models. When risk predictors already exist based on environment or lifestyle, two key questions are to what extent can they be improved by adding genetic information, and what is the ultimate potential of combined genetic and environmental risk scores? Here, we extend previous work on the predictive accuracy of polygenic scores to allow for an environmental score that may be correlated with the polygenic score, for example when the environmental factors mediate the genetic risk...
November 26, 2017: Genetic Epidemiology
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