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Integrated discrimination improvement

Ying Hu, Zhonghai Fang, Yichen Yang, Ting Fan, Ju Wang
Nicotine dependence is the primary addictive stage of cigarette smoking. Although a lot of studies have been performed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying nicotine dependence, our understanding on this disorder is still far from complete. Over the past decades, an increasing number of candidate genes involved in nicotine dependence have been identified by different technical approaches, including the genetic association analysis. In this study, we performed a comprehensive collection of candidate genes reported to be genetically associated with nicotine dependence...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Han-Gil Jeong, Beom Joon Kim, Jay Chol Choi, Keun-Sik Hong, Mi Hwa Yang, Cheolkyu Jung, Moon-Ku Han, Hee-Joon Bae
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The majority of ischemic stroke patients receiving endovascular recanalization therapy (EVT) experience variable changes of neurological severities during the hyperacute period. We hypothesized that the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score after EVT is a better prognostic factor compared with the initial NIHSS score or revascularization status. METHODS: We identified 566 stroke patients who received EVT at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between April 2008 and December 2015...
March 13, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Ulrike Schild, Claudia K Friedrich
It is a matter of debate, whether and how improved auditory discrimination abilities enable speeded speech comprehension in congenitally blind adults. Previous research concentrated on semantic and syntactic aspects of processing. Here we investigated phonologically mediated spoken word access processes by means of word onset priming. Blind adults and age- and gender-matched sighted adults listened to spoken word onsets (primes) followed by complete words (targets). Phonological overlap between primes and targets varied...
March 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Maria Viviana Carlino, Fiorella Paladino, Alfonso Sforza, Claudia Serra, Filomena Liccardi, Giovanni de Simone, Costantino Mancusi
BACKGROUND: Acute dyspnea is one of the main reasons for admission to Emergency Department (ED). Availability of ultraminiaturized pocket ultrasound devices (PUD) adds diagnostic power to the clinical examination. The aim of this study was to identify an integrated ultrasound approach for diagnosis of acute heart failure (acute HF), using PUD and combining evaluation from lung, heart and inferior vena cava (IVC). METHODS: We included 102 patients presenting to the ED of "Antonio Cardarelli" Hospital in Naples (Italy) for acute dyspnea (AD)...
March 9, 2018: Echocardiography
Giuseppe Corona, Renato Cannizzaro, Gianmaria Miolo, Laura Caggiari, Mariangela De Zorzi, Ombretta Repetto, Agostino Steffan, Valli De Re
A positive family history is a strong and consistently reported risk factor for gastric cancer (GC). So far, it has been demonstrated that serum pepsinogens (PGs), and gastrin 17 (G17) are useful for screening individuals at elevated risk to develop atrophic gastritis but they are suboptimal biomarkers to screen individuals for GC. The main purpose of this study was to investigate serum metabolomic profiles to find additional biomarkers that could be integrated with serum PGs and G17 to improve the diagnosis of GC and the selection of first-degree relatives (FDR) at higher risk of GC development...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ruxana T Sadikot
Recurrent tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a significant problem and is an important indicator of the effectiveness of TB control. Recurrence can occur by relapse or exogenous reinfection. Recurrence of TB is still a major problem in high-burden countries, where there is lack of resources and no special attention is being given to this issue. The rate of recurrence is highly variable and has been estimated to range from 4.9% to 47%. This variability is related to differences in regional epidemiology of recurrence and differences in the definitions used by the TB control programs...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Xiaowei Zhu, Lugang Yu, Hui Zhou, Qinhua Ma, Xiaohua Zhou, Ting Lei, Jiarong Hu, Wenxin Xu, Nengjun Yi, Shufeng Lei
BACKGROUND: Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However no study has yet systematically evaluated the association between AIP and obesity and its advantage in obesity prediction compared with conventional lipid components. METHODS: A total of 6465 participants aged over 30 years were included in this study. Blood lipid components including triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured, and AIP was calculated as log10 (TG/HDL-C)...
March 5, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Tuncay Kırıs, Eyüp Avcı, Aykan Çelik
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether the addition of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to the MELD score enhances the prediction of mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed 846 consecutive patients with ACS undergoing PCI who were not receiving previous anticoagulant therapy. The patients were grouped as survivors or non-survivors...
March 2, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Hideki Wada, Tomotaka Dohi, Katsumi Miyauchi, Shitara Jun, Hirohisa Endo, Shinichiro Doi, Hirokazu Konishi, Ryo Naito, Shuta Tsuboi, Manabu Ogita, Takatoshi Kasai, Shinya Okazaki, Kikuo Isoda, Satoru Suwa, Hiroyuki Daida
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition has recently been reported to correlate with prognosis in patients with heart failure. However, the prognostic significance of nutritional status in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. The present study sought to examine the association between nutritional status assessed by the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stable CAD. METHODS: A total of 1988 patients with stable CAD who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 2000 and 2011 were examined...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Hee-Yeon Jung, Su Hee Kim, Hye Min Jang, Sukyung Lee, Yon Su Kim, Shin-Wook Kang, Chul Woo Yang, Nam-Ho Kim, Ji-Young Choi, Jang-Hee Cho, Chan-Duck Kim, Sun-Hee Park, Yong-Lim Kim
This study aimed to evaluate whether the combination of inflammatory markers could provide predictive powers for mortality in individual patients on dialysis and develop a predictive model for mortality according to dialysis modality. Data for inflammatory markers were obtained at the time of enrollment from 3,309 patients on dialysis from a prospective multicenter cohort. Net reclassification index (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were calculated. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to derive a prediction model of mortality and the integrated area under the curve (iAUC) was calculated to compare the predictive accuracy of the models...
2018: PloS One
Joni M Pirkola, Maija Konttinen, Tuomas V Kenttä, Lauri T A Holmström, M Juhani Junttila, Olavi H Ukkola, Heikki V Huikuri, Juha S Perkiömäki
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of T-wave morphology parameters in coronary artery disease in the current treatment era is not well established. METHODS: The Innovation to reduce Cardiovascular Complications of Diabetes at the Intersection (ARTEMIS) study included 1,946 patients with angiographically verified coronary artery disease (CAD). The study patients underwent thorough examinations including 12-lead digital electrocardiogram (ECG) at baseline. RESULTS: During a follow-up period of 73 ± 22 months, a total of 201 (10...
February 27, 2018: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
Bassem Farid, Paul Yielder, Michael Holmes, Heidi Haavik, Bernadette A Murphy
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test whether people with subclinical neck pain (SCNP) had altered visual, auditory, and multisensory response times, and whether these findings were consistent over time. METHODS: Twenty-five volunteers (12 SCNP and 13 asymptomatic controls) were recruited from a Canadian university student population. A 2-alternative forced-choice discrimination task with multisensory redundancy was used to measure response times to the presentation of visual (color filled circles), auditory (verbalization of the color words, eg, red or blue), and multisensory (simultaneous audiovisual) stimuli at baseline and 4 weeks later...
February 2018: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Maxime Cournot, Elena Burillo, Pierre-Jean Saulnier, Cynthia Planesse, Elise Gand, Michaela Rehman, Stéphanie Ragot, Philippe Rondeau, Aurélie Catan, Marie-Paule Gonthier, Eva Feigerlova, Olivier Meilhac, Samy Hadjadj
BACKGROUND: Despite pathophysiological relevance and promising experimental data, the usefulness of biomarkers of oxidative stress for cardiac risk prediction is unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the prognostic value of 6 biomarkers exploring different pathways of oxidative stress for predicting adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus beyond established risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: The SURDIAGENE (Survie, Diabete de type 2 et Genetique) prospective cohort study consecutively recruited 1468 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
February 25, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Andreas W Schoenenberger, André Moser, Dominic Bertschi, Peter Wenaweser, Stephan Windecker, Thierry Carrel, Andreas E Stuck, Stefan Stortecky
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate whether frailty improves mortality prediction in combination with the conventional scores. BACKGROUND: European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) or Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score have not been evaluated in combined models with frailty for mortality prediction after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: This prospective cohort comprised 330 consecutive TAVR patients ≥70 years of age...
February 26, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Junko Tamaki, Masayuki Iki, Yuho Sato, Renaud Winzenrieth, Etsuko Kajita, Sadanobu Kagamimori
This study examined whether bone microarchitecture determined by Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) is associated with the risk of major osteoporotic fractures independent of FRAX® in Japanese women. Participants included 1541 women aged ≥ 40 at baseline. Major osteoporotic fractures during a 10-year follow-up period were documented by the Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis Cohort Study. TBS and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) were calculated for the same spinal regions at baseline. To compare the predictive ability of FRAX® model when used alone versus in combination with TBS, Akaike information criterion (AIC), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were calculated...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Neda Lovričević, Ðilda Pečarić, Josip Pečarić
Motivated by the method of interpolating inequalities that makes use of the improved Jensen-type inequalities, in this paper we integrate this approach with the well known Zipf-Mandelbrot law applied to various types of f -divergences and distances, such are Kullback-Leibler divergence, Hellinger distance, Bhattacharyya distance (via coefficient), [Formula: see text]-divergence, total variation distance and triangular discrimination. Addressing these applications, we firstly deduce general results of the type for the Csiszár divergence functional from which the listed divergences originate...
2018: Journal of Inequalities and Applications
Sudipta Chattopadhyay, Anish George, Joseph John, Thozukat Sathyapalan
AIMS: We evaluate prevalence of new abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) in post-MI survivors without known diabetes (DM) if guidelines are followed and compare the ability of admission (APG), fasting (FPG) and 2-h post-load plasma glucose (2h-PG) to predict prognosis. METHODS: A total of 674 patients were followed up for 4 years for incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) of cardiovascular death, non-fatal re-infarction or non-haemorrhagic stroke. Ability of models including APG, FPG and 2h-PG to predict MACE was compared...
February 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos, Inés Gómez-Acebo, Camilo Palazuelos, Pablo Fernández-Navarro, Jone M Altzibar, Carmen González-Donquiles, Eva Ardanaz, Mariona Bustamante, Jessica Alonso-Molero, Carmen Vidal, Juan Bayo-Calero, Adonina Tardón, Dolores Salas, Rafael Marcos-Gragera, Víctor Moreno, Paz Rodriguez-Cundin, Gemma Castaño Vinyals, María Ederra, Laura Vilorio-Marqués, Pilar Amiano, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Nuria Aragonés, Manolis Kogevinas, Marina Pollán, Javier Llorca
A breast-risk score, published in 2016, was developed in white-American women using 92 genetic variants (GRS92), modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. With the aim of validating the score in the Spanish population, 1,732 breast cancer cases and 1,910 controls were studied. The GRS92, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factor scores were estimated via logistic regression. SNPs without available genotyping were simulated as in the aforementioned 2016 study. The full model score was obtained by combining GRS92, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factor scores...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alejandro Bustamante, MingMing Ning, Teresa García-Berrocoso, Anna Penalba, Cristina Boada, Alba Simats, Jorge Pagola, Marc Ribó, Carlos Molina, Eng Lo, Joan Montaner
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) in relation to arterial recanalization in patients treated with IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and in relation to futile recanalization in patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy. METHODS: Acute ischemic stroke patients (n = 108) with documented arterial occlusions treated with IV-tPA were selected. ADAMTS13 activity was measured by ELISA in samples collected before treatment...
February 14, 2018: Neurology
Ferdinand Vogt, Susanne Wicklein, Markus Gosch, Jürgen Jessl, Wolfgang Hitzl, Theodor Fischlein, Matthias Pauschinger, Steffen Pfeiffer, Dennis Eckner
Background: Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that can influence mortality and functional recovery after treatment of severe aortic stenosis (AS). The integration of standardized geriatric assessment (GA) in clinical practice is limited by a lack of consensus on how to measure it. Objectives: This study aims to compare the incremental predictive value of different frailty scales to predict the outcomes following surgical aortic valve replacement, transcatheter aortic valve implantation, and conservative treatment of severe AS...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
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