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Pedro J Rey, Inmaculada Cancio, Antonio J Manzaneda, Ana González-Robles, Francisco Valera, Teresa Salido, Julio M Alcántara
Global change drivers are currently affecting semiarid ecosystems. Because these ecosystems differ from others in biotic and abiotic filters, cues for plant regeneration and management derived from elsewhere may not be applicable to semiarid ecosystems. We sought to determine the extent to which regional variation in regeneration prospects of a long-lived semiarid keystone shrub depends on anthropogenic habitat degradation, plant-animal interactions and climate determinants. We investigated the regeneration ability (via population size structure, juvenile density and juvenile/adult ratio), fruit set and seed dispersal of Ziziphus lotus in 25 localities spanning the range of its threatened habitats in Spain...
June 22, 2018: Plant Biology
Jing Qian, Sy Han Chiou, Jacqueline E Maye, Folefac Atem, Keith A Johnson, Rebecca A Betensky
In several common study designs, regression modeling is complicated by the presence of censored covariates. Examples of such covariates include maternal age of onset of dementia that may be right censored in an Alzheimer's amyloid imaging study of healthy subjects, metabolite measurements that are subject to limit of detection censoring in a case-control study of cardiovascular disease, and progressive biomarkers whose baseline values are of interest, but are measured post-baseline in longitudinal neuropsychological studies of Alzheimer's disease...
June 22, 2018: Biometrics
Ndukaku Okorie
In this paper, I discuss the question of partiality and impartiality in the application of triage. Triage is a process in medical research which recommends that patients should be sorted for treatment according to the degree or severity of their injury. In employing the triage protocol, however, the question of partiality arises because socially vulnerable groups will be neglected since there is the likelihood that the social determinants of a patient's health may diminish her chance of survival. As a process that is based on the severity of a patient's injury, triage will be unfair, and hence negatively partial, to socially vulnerable people...
June 22, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Takahisa Kawamura, Hidefumi Kasai, Valentina Fermanelli, Toshiaki Takahashi, Yukinori Sakata, Toshiyuki Matsuoka, Mika Ishii, Yusuke Tanigawara
Post-marketing surveillance is useful to collect safety data in real-world clinical settings. In this study, we firstly applied the post-marketing real-world data on a mechanistic model analysis for neutropenic profiles of eribulin in patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer (RBC/MBC). Demographic and safety data were collected using an active surveillance method from eribulin-treated RBC/MBC patients. Changes in neutrophil counts over time were analyzed using a mechanistic pharmacodynamic model...
June 22, 2018: Cancer Science
Stefanie Franke, Christine Kalweit, Annelene Frey, Hanna Heddergott, Astrid-Christine Mitschke, Matthias Wehrmeyer, Nina Heinrichs, Christoph Kröger
AIM OF THE STUDY: Coping with psychological trauma plays a central role in victims of acts of violence. The Victim Reparation Law (in German: Opferentschädigungsgesetz, OEG) provides services for the reparation of participation. To further improve the care of the affected persons, the characteristics of the victims were determined in relation to the acts and the perpetrators. METHOD: 312 OEG-files of adult victims were sighted. On the basis of a system of categories, demographic data, trauma specific and health-related characteristics of the victims, relevant characteristics of the perpetrators and the violence, as well as predictors for the time difference between the violent act and the application were determined...
June 22, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Dâmarys Kohlbeck de Melo Neu Ribeiro, Maria Helena Lenardt, Tânia Maria Lourenço, Susanne Elero Betiolli, Marcia Daniele Seima, Carlos Alberto Guimarães
OBJECTIVES: To analyze in scientific publications how the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) has been employed to evaluate the elderly. METHODS: Integrative review of periodical publications between 2011 and 2015, available online in full-text in Portuguese, English and Spanish. RESULTS: 129 articles were found; after the application of the criteria, they resulted in 21. The studies were categorized into two groups: A) follow or compare scores in FIM (cohort studies, case-control, clinical trials), focusing on rehabilitation, evaluation of programs and changes in the functional level after procedures/interventions; and B) measure/associate the functionality of the elderly (cross-sectional studies), focused on evaluation protocols in elderly health and associations to the caregiver burden, hospital stay, balance, satisfaction with life, cognition and clinical/socio-demographic aspects...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Silvana Bastos Cogo, Valéria Lerch Lunardi, Alberto Manuel Quintana, Nara Marilene Oliveira Girardon-Perlini, Rosemary Silva da Silveira
To know the advantages related to the applicability of the advance directives of will in the hospital context from the perspective of nurses, doctors and family members. Qualitative, descriptive and exploratory study with semi structured interviews carried out from October to November 2014, with nurses, doctors and family members of patients in the final stage. Afterwards, a discursive textual analysis was carried out. Four categories emerged: respect for patient's autonomy; support in confrontation of conflicts with and from family members; reduction of conflicts in the team about treatments and conducts; disclosure and instrumentation for application of the Advance Directives of Will...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Ana Cleide Silva Rabelo, Fabíola Vládia Feire Silva Souza, Lúcia de Fátima da Silva
OBJECTIVE: To know the contribution of Watson's theory to nursing care for cardiac patients in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. METHODS: This is a qualitative study based on the research-care method conducted with ten patients who underwent cardiac surgery in a specialised hospital from June to August 2013, in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Data were submitted to content analysis based on the Clinical Caritas Process. RESULTS: The results led to four thematic categories: Awareness of being cared for by another being, System of beliefs and subjectivity, Relation of support and trust, and Expression of feelings...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Isolina Maria Alberto Fruet, Graziele de Lima Dalmolin, Edison Luiz Devos Barlem, Rosangela Marion da Silva, Rafaela Andolhe
OBJECTIVE: To verify the applicability of the adapted Moral Distress Scale in the nursing setting of the hemato-oncology sector of a university hospital. METHOD: Cross-sectional study conducted with 46 nursing workers of a university hospital in the southern region of Brazil with data collected between December 2014 and March 2015 by means of the adapted Moral Distress Scale. Factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Eric C Leuthardt, Gloria Guzman, S Kathleen Bandt, Carl Hacker, Ananth K Vellimana, David Limbrick, Mikhail Milchenko, Pamela Lamontagne, Benjamin Speidel, Jarod Roland, Michelle Miller-Thomas, Abraham Z Snyder, Daniel Marcus, Joshua Shimony, Tammie L S Benzinger
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an important tool for pre-surgical evaluation of eloquent cortex. Classic task-based paradigms require patient participation and individual imaging sequence acquisitions for each functional domain that is being assessed. Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI), however, enables functional localization without patient participation and can evaluate numerous functional domains with a single imaging session. To date, post-processing of this resting state data has been resource intensive, which limits its widespread application for routine clinical use...
2018: PloS One
Tobias Johannes Brix, Philipp Bruland, Saad Sarfraz, Jan Ernsting, Philipp Neuhaus, Michael Storck, Justin Doods, Sonja Ständer, Martin Dugas
INTRODUCTION: A required step for presenting results of clinical studies is the declaration of participants demographic and baseline characteristics as claimed by the FDAAA 801. The common workflow to accomplish this task is to export the clinical data from the used electronic data capture system and import it into statistical software like SAS software or IBM SPSS. This software requires trained users, who have to implement the analysis individually for each item. These expenditures may become an obstacle for small studies...
2018: PloS One
Dee Luo, Penny Wang, Fengxin Lu, Josephine Elias, Jeffrey A Sparks, Yvonne C Lee
BACKGROUND: Mobile health applications (apps) have the potential to help individuals with chronic illnesses learn about, monitor, and manage their condition, but these apps are largely unexamined, with the state and direction of development unclear. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review of publicly available apps, directed toward individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); described their current features; and determined areas of unmet need. METHODS: We searched the iTunes and Google Play App Stores for the term "arthritis" and reviewed the descriptions of these apps for specific mentions of RA...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Jamie W Sleigh, Susana Vacas, Alana M Flexman, Pekka O Talke
BACKGROUND: The depth of dexmedetomidine-induced sedation is difficult to assess without arousing the patient. We evaluated frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) as an objective measure of dexmedetomidine-induced sedation. Our aims were to characterize the response patterns of EEG during a wide range of dexmedetomidine-induced sedation and to determine which spectral power best correlated with assessed levels of dexmedetomidine-induced sedation. METHODS: Sedline EEG sensor was positioned on the forehead of 16 volunteers...
June 20, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Liqiu Zhang, Hee-Jeong Jang, Sung Jae Yoo, Sanghyun Cho, Ji Hye Won, Lichun Liu, Sungho Park
Site-selective synthesis of nanostructures is an important topic in the nanoscience community. Normally, the difference between seeds and deposition atoms in terms of crystallinity triggers the deposition atoms to grow initially at the specific site of nucleation. It is more challenging to control the deposition site of atoms that have the same composition as the seeds because the atoms tend to grow epitaxially, covering the whole surface of the seed nanoparticles. Gold (Au) nano-octahedrons used as seeds in this study possess obvious hierarchical surface energies depending on whether they are at vertices, edges, or terraces...
June 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Qianli Huang, Xuezhong Li, Tarek A Elkhooly, Xujie Liu, Ranran Zhang, Hong Wu, Qingling Feng, Yong Liu
The implant materials with both osteogenic and anti-bacterial properties are promising for orthopedic and dental applications. Moreover, the inflammatory response induced by biomaterials has been recently recognized as one of the critical factors in determining implantation fate. A new generation of implant materials should have modulatory effects on the local inflammatory environment such that it favors osteogenesis and osteointegration instead of being bio-inert. In this study, the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technique was employed to fabricate Cu-containing ceramic coatings on titanium substrates...
June 19, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Enza Fazio, Antonio Speciale, Salvatore Spadaro, Martina Bonsignore, Francesco Cimino, Mariateresa Cristani, Domenico Trombetta, Antonella Saija, Fortunato Neri
Tailored colloids of uniformly sized and engineered molybdenum oxide nanoparticles were produced, for the first time, by pulsed laser ablation in water. This green technique ensures the formation of contaminant-free nanostructures and the absence of by-products, very useful issues in biological applications. A selective tuning of MoO chemical bonding configurations and a suitable control of nanoparticles size distributions were achieved during the ablation processes by varying the water temperature and by applying an external electric field...
June 18, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Stephani L Stancil, Leon van Haandel, Susan Abdel-Rahman, Robin E Pearce
An ultra-performance liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantitation of metronidazole and 2-hydroxymetronidazole in human plasma was developed and validated. Metronidazole and 2-hydroxymetronidazole were extracted from a small volume of human plasma (10 μL) by hydrophilic lipophilic balanced solid phase extraction on 96-well μ-elution plates. Chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (1.7 μm, 2.1 × 100 mm) using gradient elution with a blend of 0...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
K A Corcoran, A Z Mundorff, D A White, W L Emch
Unmarked graves are difficult to locate once the ground surface no longer shows visible evidence of disturbance, posing significant challenges to missing person investigations. This research evaluates the use of terrestrial LIDAR point data for measuring localized elevation change at human grave surfaces. Three differently sized human graves, one control-pit, and surrounding undisturbed ground, were scanned four times between February 2013 and November 2014 using a tripod-mounted terrestrial laser scanner. All the disturbed surfaces exhibited measurable and localized elevation change, allowing for separation of disturbed and undisturbed ground...
June 19, 2018: Forensic Science International
Kangxin Xiao, Huan Liu, Yang Li, Linlin Yi, Xiuju Zhang, Hongyun Hu, Hong Yao
For efficient hydrothermal treatment of biomass, this study aims to figure out the correlations between complex chemical constitution of orange peel (OraPeel) as typical bio-waste and the physicochemical structure of its derived hydrochar, which could be utilized to adjust hydrochar properties for specific applications (e.g., adsorbent, fuel) by regulating respective proportions of each component in bio-waste. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin were used as the control variables of feedstocks composition in this work...
June 15, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Yue Yi, Beizhen Xie, Ting Zhao, Hong Liu
Microbial fuel cell based biosensors (MFC-biosensors) utilize anode biofilms as biological recognition elements to monitor biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and biotoxicity. However, the relatively poor sensitivity constrains the application of MFC-biosensors. To address this limitation, this study provided a systematic comparison of sensitivity between the MFC-biosensors constructed with two inocula. Higher biomass density and viability were both observed in the anode biofilm of the mixed culture MFC, which resulted in better sensitivity for BOD assessment...
June 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
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