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Gulseren Aktas
In this study, in vitro synergism in combinations of agents as ceftriaxone/dalbavancin, ceftriaxone/linezolid and ceftriaxone/daptomycin against MRSA strains were investigated. Thirty clinical MRSA strains were tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of all antibiotics were determined using reference broth microdilution method. In-vitro activities of antibiotics combined against the strains were tested using two-dimensional checkerboard microdilution method. Results were interpreted as follows: synergy = FICI ≤0...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Vaishali Gaikwad, Tejash Gohel, Shrijeet Panickar, Vijay Chincholkar, Santosh Mangalkar
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infection, especially pneumonia, surgical site infections, blood stream infections, and continues to be a major cause of community-acquired infections. The emergence of penicillin resistance followed by the development and spread of strains resistant to the semisynthetic penicillins such as methicillin, oxacillin and nafcillin, macrolides, tetracycline, and aminoglycosides has made the treatment of staphylococcal infection a global challenge...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Daina Zeng, Dmitri Debabov, Theresa L Hartsell, Raul J Cano, Stacy Adams, Jessica A Schuyler, Ronald McMillan, John L Pace
The glycopeptide antimicrobials are a group of natural product and semisynthetic glycosylated peptides that show antibacterial activity against Gram-positive organisms through inhibition of cell-wall synthesis. This is achieved primarily through binding to the d-alanyl-d-alanine terminus of the lipid II bacterial cell-wall precursor, preventing cross-linking of the peptidoglycan layer. Vancomycin is the foundational member of the class, showing both clinical longevity and a still preferential role in the therapy of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and of susceptible Enterococcus spp...
September 23, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
John A Bosso, Anthony M Casapao, Jonathan Edwards, Kenneth Klinker, Christopher McCoy, David P Nicolau, Katherine K Perez, Andrew Marcarelli, Deeksha Dua
This article was written with the aim to establish a consensus clinical pathway for long-acting lipoglycopeptide antibiotics such as oritavancin (Orbactiv®) and dalbavancin (Dalvance®) for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). Seven infectious diseases pharmacy specialists from a variety of facilities across the United States (US) participated in a roundtable discussion to consider the use of newer single-dose long-acting lipoglycopeptides, and integrate them into clinical pathways for ABSSSI...
October 2016: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
S Esposito, S Bianchini
To review the topics of interest related to the use of dalbavancin in paediatric patients. PubMed was used to search for all of the studies published over the last 15 years using the key word "dalbavancin". A total of 36 manuscripts were selected, and due to the limited pediatric experience a further research was performed in order to identify clinical trials ongoing. Three studies that concerned children were found in This review considers also the manuscripts published on the adult population in order to highlight the gaps requiring further research at pediatric age...
August 25, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Daniel G Meeker, Karen E Beenken, Weston B Mills, Allister J Loughran, Horace J Spencer, William B Lynn, Mark S Smeltzer
We used in vitro and in vivo models of catheter-associated biofilm formation to compare the relative activity of antibiotics effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the specific context of an established biofilm. The results demonstrated that, under in vitro conditions, daptomycin and ceftaroline exhibited comparable activity relative to each other and greater activity than vancomycin, telavancin, oritavancin, dalbavancin, or tigecycline. This was true when assessed using established biofilms formed by the USA300 methicillin-resistant strain LAC and the USA200 methicillin-sensitive strain UAMS-1...
October 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Kimberly D Leuthner, Kristin A Buechler, David Kogan, Agafe Saguros, H Stephen Lee
Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) are a common disease causing patients to seek treatment through the health care system. With the continued increase of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens, these infections are becoming more difficult to successfully cure. Lipoglycopeptides have unique properties that allow the drug to remain active toward both common and challenging pathogens at the infected site for lengthy periods of time. Dalbavancin, a new lipoglycopeptide, provides two unique dosing regimens for the treatment of ABSSSI...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Dilip Nathwani, Matthew Dryden, Javier Garau
Skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common indication for antibiotic use in Europe and are associated with considerable morbidity. Treatment of SSTIs, occasionally complicated by infection with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, can be resource intensive and lead to high healthcare costs. For patients treated in an inpatient setting, once the acute infection has been controlled, a patient may be discharged on suitable oral antibiotic therapy or outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy. The recently confirmed efficacy of single-dose (e...
August 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
(no author information available yet)
Vancomycin and teicoplanin, two glycopeptides, are intravenous antibiotics of choice for severe cutaneous infections possibly due to Gram-positive bacteria resistant to other antibiotics. Dalbavancin, a new glycopeptide antibiotic closely related to teicoplanin, is authorised in the European Union for intravenous treatment of acute infections of the skin and soft tissues. Dalbavancin has not been assessed in patients with infections resistant to other glycopeptide antibiotics. Dalbavancin was similarly effective to comparator antibiotics, including vancomycin, in five trials including more than 2800 patients...
May 2016: Prescrire International
Javier Fernández, Kerryl E Greenwood-Quaintance, Robin Patel
The in vitro activity of dalbavancin was tested against biofilms of 171 staphylococci associated with prosthetic joint infection. Dalbavancin minimum biofilm bactericidal concentration (MBBC) values were: MBBC50 for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, 1μg/mL; MBBC90 for S. aureus, 2μg/mL; MBBC90 for S. epidermidis, 4μg/mL.
August 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Dalia Deak, Kevin Outterson, John H Powers, Aaron S Kesselheim
A weak antibiotic pipeline and the increase in drug-resistant pathogens have led to calls for more new antibiotics. Eight new antibiotics were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) between January 2010 and December 2015: ceftaroline, fidaxomicin, bedaquiline, dalbavancin, tedizolid, oritavancin, ceftolozane-tazobactam, and ceftazidime-avibactam. This study evaluates the development course and pivotal trials of these antibiotics for their innovativeness, development process, documented patient outcomes, and cost...
September 6, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Andrew W Hahn, Rupali Jain, David H Spach
Antimicrobial drug-resistance continues to force adaptation in our clinical practice. We explore new evidence regarding adjunctive antibiotic therapy for skin and soft tissue abscesses as well as duration of therapy for intra-abdominal abscesses. As new evidence refines optimal practice, it is essential to support clinicians in adopting practice patterns concordant with evidence-based guidelines. We review a simple approach that can 'nudge' clinicians towards concordant practices. Finally, the use of novel antimicrobials will play an increasingly important role in contemporary therapy...
July 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
Michael D Huband, Mariana Castanheira, David J Farrell, Robert K Flamm, Ronald N Jones, Helio S Sader, Rodrigo E Mendes
The in vitro activity of dalbavancin was evaluated against 9303 Staphylococcus aureus and 2670 streptococci, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates, collected from hospitalised patients in Europe and surrounding regions from 2011 to 2013. Dalbavancin recently received approval for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency. Bacterial identification was confirmed by standard microbiological methods (including MALDI-TOF), and susceptibility testing was performed by reference broth microdilution methods...
June 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Rosanna Li, Michael D Nailor
The FDA guidance published in 2013 provided requirements for conducting ABSSSI trials. In 2014, dalbavancin, oritavancin, and tedizolid were introduced into the market after phase III noninferiority clinical trials against vancomycin (for the lipoglycopeptides) and linezolid (for tedizolid), demonstrating clinical efficacy for the treatment of ABSSSI. Great interest exists for these agents because of the postulated financial impact. Due to favorable pharmacokinetics which allow for less frequent medication administration and shorter treatment durations, these agents may prove to reduce hospital admissions and length of stay...
March 2016: Connecticut Medicine
A Russo, E Concia, F Cristini, F G De Rosa, S Esposito, F Menichetti, N Petrosillo, M Tumbarello, M Venditti, P Viale, C Viscoli, M Bassetti
In 2013 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued recommendations and guidance on developing drugs for treatment of skin infection using a new definition of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infection (ABSSSI). The new classification includes cellulitis, erysipelas, major skin abscesses and wound infection with a considerable extension of skin involvement, clearly referring to a severe subset of skin infections. The main goal of the FDA was to better identify specific infections where the advantages of a new antibiotic could be precisely estimated through quantifiable parameters, such as improvement of the lesion size and of systemic signs of infection...
April 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Adam Belley, David Lalonde Seguin, Francis Arhin, Greg Moeck
Antibacterial agents that kill nondividing bacteria may be of utility in treating persistent infections. Oritavancin and dalbavancin are bactericidal lipoglycopeptides that are approved for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections in adults caused by susceptible Gram-positive pathogens. Using time-kill methodology, we demonstrate that oritavancin exerts bactericidal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates that are maintained in a nondividing state in vitro, whereas dalbavancin and the glycopeptide vancomycin do not...
July 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Alison S VanEperen, John Segreti
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be an important pathogen worldwide, with high prevalence of infection in both community and hospital settings. Timely and appropriate choice of empirical therapy in the setting of MRSA infection is imperative due to the high rate of associated morbidity and mortality with MRSA infections. Initial choices should be made based on the site and severity of the infection, most notably moderate skin and soft tissue infections which may be treated with oral antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, doxycycline/minocycline, linezolid) in the outpatient setting, versus choice of parenteral therapy in the inpatient setting of more invasive or severe disease...
June 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Ronald N Jones, Jason E Schuchert, Rodrigo E Mendes
Dalbavancin, a novel lipoglycopeptide, was approved for use in 2014 by regulatory agencies in the United States and Europe for the treatment of skin and skin structure infections. The activity of dalbavancin was also widely assessed by determination of its activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates collected from patients on six continents monitored during two time intervals (2011 to 2013 and 2014). A total of 18,186 pneumococcal isolates were obtained from 49 nations and submitted to a monitoring laboratory as part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program for reference susceptibility testing...
June 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Matthew P Crotty, Tamara Krekel, C A Burnham, David J Ritchie
The growing problem of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), has reached a critical state. Tedizolid phosphate, dalbavancin, and oritavancin have recently been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and represent the next generation of oxazolidinones and lipoglycopeptides. All three agents exhibit in vitro activity and clinical efficacy against MRSA...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Nan Zhou, Ting Pan, Junsong Zhang, Qianwen Li, Xue Zhang, Chuan Bai, Feng Huang, Tao Peng, Jianhua Zhang, Chao Liu, Liang Tao, Hui Zhang
Ebola virus infection can cause severe hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality in humans. The outbreaks of Ebola viruses in 2014 represented the most serious Ebola epidemics in history and greatly threatened public health worldwide. The development of additional effective anti-Ebola therapeutic agents is therefore quite urgent. In this study, via high throughput screening of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, we identified that teicoplanin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, potently prevents the entry of Ebola envelope pseudotyped viruses into the cytoplasm...
April 22, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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