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Respiratory infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144598/estimating-burden-of-influenza-associated-influenza-like-illness-and-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-at-public-health-care-facilities-in-romania-during-the-2011-12-2015-16-influenza-seasons
#1
Giedre Gefenaite, Adriana Pistol, Rodica Popescu, Odette Popovici, Daniel Ciurea, Christiaan Dolk, Mark Jit, Diane Gross
BACKGROUND: Influenza is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality, but there is limited information on reliable disease burden estimates, especially from middle-income countries in the WHO European Region. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of medically attended influenza-associated influenza-like illness (ILI) and hospitalizations due to severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) presenting to public health care facilities in Romania. PATIENTS/METHODS: Sentinel influenza surveillance data for ILI and SARI from 2011/12-2015/16, including virological data, was used to estimate influenza-associated ILI and SARI incidence/100000 and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)...
November 16, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144593/risk-factors-for-seasonal-influenza-virus-detection-in-stools-of-patients-consulting-in-general-practice-for-acute-respiratory-infections-in-france-2014-2016
#2
L Minodier, S Masse, L Capai, T Blanchon, P E Ceccaldi, S van der Werf, T Hanslik, N R Charrel, A Falchi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported detection of influenza RNA in stools of patients with seasonal influenza infection. While this detection may have a clinical significance, other factors may influence the stools positivity for influenza viruses. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate demographical, clinical and microbiological factors which could favour the presence of influenza viral RNA in the stools of patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection...
November 16, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144416/environmental-risks-associated-with-symptoms-of-acute-respiratory-infection-among-preschool-children-in-north-western-and-south-southern-nigeria-communities
#3
Oluwafunmilade A Adesanya, Chi Chiao
The exposure-disease-stress model places young children in their physical and social contexts and considers the extent and intensity of associational links to symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI), taking in to account a range of biological, social, and environment components. This study uses the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey to assess the individual and environmental risks present in the North-Western and South-Southern Nigerian communities and examines their associations with ARI symptoms...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144244/modes-of-infant-feeding-and-the-risk-of-childhood-asthma-a-prospective-birth-cohort-study
#4
Annika Klopp, Lorena Vehling, Allan B Becker, Padmaja Subbarao, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Diana L Lefebvre, Malcolm R Sears, Meghan B Azad
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether different modes of infant feeding are associated with childhood asthma, including differentiating between direct breastfeeding and expressed breast milk. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 3296 children in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort. The primary exposure was infant feeding mode at 3 months, reported by mothers and categorized as direct breastfeeding only, breastfeeding with some expressed breast milk, breast milk and formula, or formula only...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143683/the-progression-of-heartworm-associated-respiratory-disease-hard-in-spf-cats-18%C3%A2-months-after-dirofilaria-immitis-infection
#5
A Ray Dillon, Bryon L Blagburn, Michael Tillson, William Brawner, Betsy Welles, Calvin Johnson, Russell Cattley, Pat Rynders, Sharron Barney
BACKGROUND: Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) in cats is induced by the arrival and death of immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in the pulmonary system and is indistinguishable from mature adult heartworm infection. METHODS: A controlled, blind research study investigated the long-term (18 months post infection, PI) consequences of the inflammatory response associated with the death of immature adult heartworms in cats. Three groups of cats, 10 per group, were infected with 100 third-stage (L3) larvae by subcutaneous injection...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143661/heartworm-associated-respiratory-disease-hard-induced-by-immature-adult-dirofilaria-immitis-in-cats
#6
A Ray Dillon, Byron L Blagburn, Michael Tillson, William Brawner, Betsy Welles, Calvin Johnson, Russell Cattley, Pat Rynders, Sharron Barney
BACKGROUND: A controlled, blind research study was conducted to define the initial inflammatory response and lung damage associated with the death of immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in cats as compared with cats developing adult heartworm infections and cats on preventive medication. METHODS: Three groups of cats were utilized, 10 per group. All cats were infected with 100 third-stage (L3) larvae by subcutaneous injection. Group A cats were treated topically with selamectin (Revolution®; Zoetis) per label directions at 28 days post infection (PI) and once monthly for 8 months...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143659/effect-of-heartworm-disease-and-heartworm-associated-respiratory-disease-hard-on-the-right-ventricle-of-cats
#7
Randolph L Winter, A Ray Dillon, Russell C Cattley, Byron L Blagburn, D Michael Tillson, Calvin M Johnson, William R Brawner, Elizabeth G Welles, Sharon Barney
BACKGROUND: Dirofilaria immitis infection occurs in dogs and cats, both of which species are clinically affected by mature adult infections. Cats are uniquely affected by immature-adult infections with an inflammatory pulmonary disease called Heartworm-Associated Respiratory Disease (HARD). D. immitis infection causes pulmonary parenchymal and vascular pathology in the dog and cat. Dogs develop pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale, whereas the development of pulmonary hypertension is rare in the cat...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143657/clinical-benefits-of-incorporating-doxycycline-into-a-canine-heartworm-treatment-protocol
#8
C Thomas Nelson, Elizabeth S Myrick, Thomas A Nelson
BACKGROUND: The objective of heartworm treatment is to improve the clinical condition of the patient and to eliminate pre-cardiac, juvenile, and adult worm stages with minimal complications. Pulmonary thromboembolisms are an inevitable consequence of worm death and can result in severe pulmonary reactions and even death of the patient. To minimize these reactions, various treatment protocols involving melarsomine, the only adulticidal drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDA), in conjunction with macrocyclic lactone heartworm preventives and glucocorticosteroids have been advocated...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143505/-inhaled-antibiotics-for-the-management-of-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#9
Gregory Berra, Émilie Chappuis-Gisin, Paola M Soccal, Jérôme Plojoux
Bronchiectasis is irreversible bronchial dilatation associated with chronic respiratory symptoms. Management is aimed at reducing symptoms and slowing the progression of the disease by interrupting the vicious circle: bronchial infection, inflammation, altered mucociliary clearance, lung destruction. Unlike the literature on inhaled antibiotics in cystic fibrosis, literature data are limited and of low quality for bronchiectasis of other causes. However, new recommendations from the European Respiratory Society propose the conditional use of inhaled antibiotics to prevent repeated infectious exacerbations and to eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization...
November 15, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143492/molecular-epidemiological-survey-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-bovine-influenza-d-virus-in-japan
#10
H Mekata, M Yamamoto, S Hamabe, H Tanaka, T Omatsu, T Mizutani, B M Hause, T Okabayashi
The influenza D virus, a new member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, is predominantly found in cattle. Although viral pathology and clinical disease in cattle appear mild, this virus plays an important role as a trigger of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD is a costly illness worldwide. Thus, epidemiological surveys of the influenza D virus are necessary. Here, we conducted a molecular epidemiological survey for the influenza D virus in healthy and respiratory-diseased cattle in Japan. We found that 2.1% (8/377) of the cattle were infected with influenza D...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143374/asthma-and-lung-function-in-adulthood-after-a-viral-wheezing-episode-in-early-childhood
#11
Katri Backman, Hertta Ollikainen, Eija Piippo-Savolainen, Kirsi Nuolivirta, Matti Korppi
BACKGROUND: Viral etiology of infection has a significant role in the long-term outcome of early-childhood wheezing. OBJECTIVE: This study examines asthma and lung function in adulthood after early-childhood wheezing induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV). METHODS: A total of 100 children were hospitalized for a wheezing episode at less than 24 months of age from 1992 to 1993 in Kuopio University Hospital (Finland)...
November 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143192/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-and-severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-current-therapeutic-options-and-potential-targets-for-novel-therapies
#12
REVIEW
Julie Dyall, Robin Gross, Jason Kindrachuk, Reed F Johnson, Gene G Olinger, Lisa E Hensley, Matthew B Frieman, Peter B Jahrling
No specific antivirals are currently available for two emerging infectious diseases, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). A literature search was performed covering pathogenesis, clinical features and therapeutics, clinically developed drugs for repurposing and novel drug targets. This review presents current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of the SARS and MERS coronaviruses. The rationale for and outcomes with treatments used for SARS and MERS is discussed...
November 15, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142383/assessment-of-doripenem-meropenem-and-imipenem-against-respiratory-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeroginosa-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-north-india
#13
Arti Negi, Mridu Anand, Avinash Singh, Awadhesh Kumar, Chinmoy Sahu, Kashi Nath Prasad
Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading pathogen causing healthcare-associated infections, particularly in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. The development of carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa infections is worrisome. Data specifically comparing the susceptibility of the three available carbapenems are lacking in the Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the three commonly used carbapenems- imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem against, 435 P...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142211/the-microbiota-protects-against-respiratory-infection-via-gm-csf-signaling
#14
Rebecca L Brown, Richard P Sequeira, Thomas B Clarke
The microbiota promotes resistance to respiratory infection, but the mechanistic basis for this is poorly defined. Here, we identify members of the microbiota that protect against respiratory infection by the major human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We show that the microbiota enhances respiratory defenses via granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling, which stimulates pathogen killing and clearance by alveolar macrophages through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142177/perinatal-exposure-to-tetrabromobisphenol-a-tbbpa-a-brominated-flame-retardant-exacerbated-the-pneumonia-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-infected-offspring-mice
#15
Wataru Watanabe, Akihiko Hirose, Tomomi Takeshita, Seiko Hashiguchi, Kentaro Sakata, Katsuhiko Konno, Aki Miyauchi, Toshi Akashi, Hiroki Yoshida, Chihiro Sugita, Masahiko Kurokawa
To investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a brominated flame retardant, on the immune system, a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection mouse model was utilized. Female mice were exposed to TBBPA mixed with the diet from 10 days after conception to weaning on postnatal day 21. Offspring mice were infected intranasally with A2 strain of RSV. Although no general toxicological sign was observed, the pulmonary viral titers of offspring mice exposed to 0.1% TBBPA were significantly increased compared with the control on day 5 post-infection...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142080/human-parechovirus-an-increasingly-recognized-cause-of-sepsis-like-illness-in-young-infants
#16
REVIEW
Laudi Olijve, Lance Jennings, Tony Walls
Human parechovirus (HPeV) is increasingly being recognized as a potentially severe viral infection in neonates and young infants. HPeV belongs to the family Picornaviridae and is currently divided into 19 genotypes. HPeV-1 is the most prevalent genotype and most commonly causes gastrointestinal and respiratory disease. HPeV-3 is clinically the most important genotype due to its association with severe disease in younger infants, which may partly be explained by its distinct virological properties. In young infants, the typical clinical presentation includes fever, severe irritability, and rash, often leading to descriptions of "hot, red, angry babies...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142077/syndromic-panel-based-testing-in-clinical-microbiology
#17
REVIEW
Poornima Ramanan, Alexandra L Bryson, Matthew J Binnicker, Bobbi S Pritt, Robin Patel
The recent development of commercial panel-based molecular diagnostics for the rapid detection of pathogens in positive blood culture bottles, respiratory specimens, stool, and cerebrospinal fluid has resulted in a paradigm shift in clinical microbiology and clinical practice. This review focuses on U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved/cleared multiplex molecular panels with more than five targets designed to assist in the diagnosis of bloodstream, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal, or central nervous system infections...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141926/ectopic-acth-syndrome-complicated-by-multiple-opportunistic-infections-treated-with-percutaneous-ablation-of-the-adrenal-glands
#18
Chrystal Chan, James Mark Roberts
Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-related Cushing's syndrome can lead to multiple complications including severe immunosuppression. If the ACTH-secreting tumour cannot be found, definitive treatment is surgical adrenalectomy, typically followed by glucocorticoid replacement. Here, we present a case of fulminant respiratory failure secondary to coinfection with Pneumocystis jirovecii and cytomegalovirus in a patient with ectopic ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome with occult primary. Due to significant deconditioning, she was unable to undergo definitive adrenalectomy and instead underwent percutaneous microwave ablation of the adrenal glands...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141025/suppression-of-inflammatory-and-infection-responses-in-lung-macrophages-by-eucalyptus-oil-and-its-constituent-1-8-cineole-role-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-trem-1-and-nlrp3-the-map-kinase-regulator-mkp-1-and-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#19
Niket Yadav, Harish Chandra
Eucalyptus oil (EO) used in traditional medicine continues to prove useful for aroma therapy in respiratory ailments; however, there is a paucity of information on its mechanism of action and active components. In this direction, we investigated EO and its dominant constituent 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) using the murine lung alveolar macrophage (AM) cell line MH-S. In an LPS-induced AM inflammation model, pre-treatment with EO significantly reduced (P ≤0.01or 0.05) the pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1 (α and β), and NO, albeit at a variable rate and extent; 1,8-cineole diminished IL-1 and IL-6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140992/transcriptome-profile-of-lung-dendritic-cells-after-in-vitro-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-infection
#20
Maren Julia Pröll, Christiane Neuhoff, Karl Schellander, Muhammad Jasim Uddin, Mehmet Ulas Cinar, Sudeep Sahadevan, Xueqi Qu, Md Aminul Islam, Mikhael Poirier, Marcel A Müller, Christian Drosten, Dawit Tesfaye, Ernst Tholen, Christine Große-Brinkhaus
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious disease that leads to high financial and production losses in the global swine industry. The pathogenesis of this disease is dependent on a multitude of factors, and its control remains problematic. The immune system generally defends against infectious diseases, especially dendritic cells (DCs), which play a crucial role in the activation of the immune response after viral infections. However, the understanding of the immune response and the genetic impact on the immune response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) remains incomplete...
2017: PloS One
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