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Respiratory infection

Sohail Ahmed Rajper, Sana Ullah, Zhongqiu Li
Air pollution causes severe physical and psychological health complications. Considering China's continuously-deteriorating air quality, this study aimed to assess the self-reported effects of air pollution on the behavior and physical health of the students of 13 densely populated cities, and their awareness, practices, and perception of air pollution and its associated public health risks. A detailed, closed-ended questionnaire was administered to 2100 students from 54 universities and schools across China...
2018: PloS One
Ashley Gionfriddo, Mika L Nonoyama, Peter C Laussen, Peter N Cox, Megan Clarke, Alejandro A Floh
OBJECTIVES: To promote standardization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention introduced a new ventilator-associated pneumonia classification, which was modified for pediatrics (pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia according to proposed criteria [PVAP]). We evaluated the frequency of PVAP in a cohort of children diagnosed with ventilator-associated pneumonia according to traditional criteria and compared their strength of association with clinically relevant outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Ana Carla Peixoto Guissoni, Célia Maria Almeida Soares, Kareem R Badr, Fabiola Sousa Ficcadori, Ana Flávia Alves Parente, Juliana Alves Parente, Lilian Cristina Baeza, Menira Souza, Divina das Dores de Paula Cardoso
Human Adenoviruses (HAdVs) are etiological agents of different syndromes such as gastroenteritis, cystitis, ocular, and respiratory diseases, and infection by these viruses may cause alterations in cellular homeostasis. The objective of the study was the proteomic analysis of A-549 cells infected with HAdV-40 using LC-MS. At 30 h of infection, the quantitative analysis revealed 336 differentially expressed proteins. From them, 206 were induced (up-regulated) and 130 were suppressed (down-regulated). The majority of up-regulated proteins were related to energy, cellular organization, stress response, and apoptosis pathways...
March 15, 2018: Virus Genes
Edward E Walsh, Lu Wang, Ann R Falsey, Xing Qiu, Anthony Corbett, Jeanne Holden-Wiltse, Thomas J Mariani, David J Topham, Mary T Caserta
Background: Maternally derived serum antibody and viral load are thought to influence disease severity in primary Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection. As part of the AsPIRES study of RSV pathogenesis we correlated various serum antibody concentrations and viral load with disease severity. Methods: Serum neutralizing titers and IgG to RSV F, Ga and Gb proteins, the CX3C region of G, and nasal viral load were measured in 139 full-term previously healthy infants with primary RSV infection and correlated with illness severity...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Alban Ramette, Ben D Spycher, Jingying Wang, Myrofora Goutaki, Caroline S Beardsmore, Claudia E Kuehni
We examined temporal dependencies between repeated assessments of respiratory infections and asthma in children in the Leicester Respiratory Cohort, Leicestershire, UK. Asthma (doctor diagnosis, health care visits, wheeze frequency) and respiratory infections (cold duration and frequency, cough with colds, ear infections) in the previous 12 months were assessed repeatedly at ages 1, 4, and 6 years for children born between April 1996 and April 1997. We determined associations between contemporaneous and lagged measures of asthma and respiratory infections using structural equation modelling...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Justin S Merkow, Erik J Nelson
BACKGROUND Providing anesthesia to immunocompromised patients introduces unique challenges, including difficulty in detecting respiratory infections. Detailed preoperative evaluation and preparation for perioperative complications is crucial. Human metapneumovirus is a common but lesser known respiratory virus that can lead to pneumonia and respiratory compromise and is challenging to detect in the immunocompromised patient. CASE REPORT We present a case of an immunocompromised individual scheduled for umbilical hernia repair who developed severe bronchospasm and intraoperative respiratory failure after induction of general anesthesia...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Jiwoon Jeong, Seeun Kim, Changhoon Park, Ikjae Kang, Kee Hwan Park, Hee Jin Ham, Chanhee Chae
The objective of this field study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of sows after vaccination with a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) subunit vaccine (PRRSFREE PRRS subunit vaccine, Reber Genetics, Taiwan, Republic of China) under field conditions. The study was performed in three farms with endemic infections with both PRRS virus (PRRSV)-1 and PRRSV-2, a situation representative of most Korean farms. Pregnant sows were immunised intramuscularly with 2.0 ml of the PRRS subunit vaccine at 58 and 79 days of gestation (eight and five weeks antepartum) according to the manufacturer's recommendation...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Record
Gimano D Amatngalim, Jasmijn A Schrumpf, Fernanda Dishchekenian, Tinne C J Mertens, Dennis K Ninaber, Abraham C van der Linden, Charles Pilette, Christian Taube, Pieter S Hiemstra, Anne M van der Does
Research question : It is currently unknown how cigarette smoke-induced airway remodelling affects highly expressed respiratory epithelial defence proteins and thereby mucosal host defence. Methods: Localization of a selected set of highly expressed respiratory epithelial host defence proteins was assessed in well-differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cell (PBEC) cultures. Next, PBEC were cultured at the air-liquid interface and during differentiation for 2-3 weeks daily exposed to whole cigarette smoke...
March 15, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Anushka C Galasiti Kankanamalage, Yunjeong Kim, Vishnu C Damalanka, Athri D Rathnayake, Anthony R Fehr, Nurjahan Mehzabeen, Kevin P Battaile, Scott Lovell, Gerald H Lushington, Stanley Perlman, Kyeong-Ok Chang, William C Groutas
There are currently no approved vaccines or small molecule therapeutics available for the prophylaxis or treatment of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections. MERS-CoV 3CL protease is essential for viral replication; consequently, it is an attractive target that provides a potentially effective means of developing small molecule therapeutics for combatting MERS-CoV. We describe herein the structure-guided design and evaluation of a novel class of inhibitors of MERS-CoV 3CL protease that embody a piperidine moiety as a design element that is well-suited to exploiting favorable subsite binding interactions to attain optimal pharmacological activity and PK properties...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Carol Kelly, James D Chalmers, Iain Crossingham, Nicola Relph, Lambert M Felix, David J Evans, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy may suppress bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, leading to fewer exacerbations, fewer symptoms, improved lung function, and improved quality of life...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Karen L Wozniak
The fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii can cause life-threatening infections in immune compromised and immune competent hosts. These pathogens enter the host via inhalation, and respiratory tract innate immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the first host cells they encounter. The interactions between Cryptococcus and innate immune cells play a critical role in the progression of disease in the host. This review will focus specifically on the interactions between Cryptococcus and dendritic cells (DCs), including recognition/processing by DCs, effects of immune mediators on DC recruitment and activity, and the potential for DC vaccination against cryptococcosis...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Hadil Ak AlOtair, Abdulaziz H Alzeer, Mohammed A Abdou, Shaden O Qasrawi
Central alveolar hypoventilation is rarely encountered. This case report describes a young woman who was recently diagnosed with hypertension and ischemic heart disease. She presented to the emergency room with hypercapnic respiratory failure, for which she was mechanically ventilated. This was preceded by an acute upper respiratory tract infection. She was initially suspected to have Guillain-Barré syndrome, but further investigations ruled out neuromuscular or autoimmune disorders. Sleep-related hypoventilation was suspected after she experienced recurrent apneas at night that resulted in re-intubation...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Jeffrey Earl Gotts, Lauren F Chun, Jason Abbott, Xiaohui Fang, Naoki Takasaki, Stephen L Nishimura, Matthew L Springer, Suzaynn F Schick, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay
Evidence is accumulating that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) increases the risk of developing Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). S. pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia, which in turn is the leading cause of ARDS. Chronic smokers have increased rates of pneumococcal colonization and develop more severe pneumococcal pneumonia than nonsmokers, yet mechanistic connections between CS exposure, bacterial pneumonia, and ARDS pathogenesis remain relatively unexplored. We exposed mice to 3 weeks of moderate whole-body CS or air, followed by intranasal inoculation with an invasive serotype of S...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Nongluk Sriwilaijaroen, Shin-Ichi Nakakita, Sachiko Kondo, Hirokazu Yagi, Koichi Kato, Takeomi Murata, Hiroaki Hiramatsu, Toshio Kawahara, Yohei Watanabe, Yasushi Kanai, Takao Ono, Jun Hirabayashi, Kazuhiko Matsumoto, Yasuo Suzuki
The rapidly evolvable influenza A virus has caused pandemics linked to millions of deaths in the past century. Influenza A viruses are categorized by H (hemagglutinin; HA) and N (neuraminidase; NA) proteins expressed on the viral envelope surface. Analyses of past pandemics suggest that the HA gene segment comes from a nonhuman virus, which is then introduced into an immunologically naïve human population with potentially devastating consequences. As a prerequisite for infection, the nonhuman HA molecules of H1-H16 viruses must be able to bind to specific sialyl receptors on the host cell surface along the human respiratory tract...
March 15, 2018: FEBS Journal
James C Barton, Jackson Clayborn Barton, Luigi F Bertoli
BACKGROUND: We sought to learn more about the utility and safety of implanted ports for monthly immunoglobulin G infusions in adults with primary immune deficiency. METHODS: We reviewed charts of adults who were referred to a single practice during the interval 2006-2016 for evaluation and management of frequent or severe upper and lower respiratory tract and other infections, subnormal total immunoglobulin G or immunoglobulin G subclasses, and suboptimal responses to polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccinations; were diagnosed to have primary immune deficiency; and were advised to undergo immunoglobulin G therapy...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Rikke Pilmann Laursen, Anni Larnkjaer, Christian Ritz, Iva Hojsak, Kim Michaelsen, Christian Mølgaard
AIM: We examined the frequency and potential risk factors for respiratory infections, diarrhoea and absences in infants during their first months in day care. METHODS: This prospective cohort study comprised 269 Danish infants aged 8-14 months and was part of a study that examined how probiotics affected absences from day care due to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The risk factors examined were the household, child characteristics and type of day care facility...
March 14, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Nazmi Narin, Ozge Pamukcu, Aydin Tuncay, Ali Baykan, Suleyman Sunkak, Onur Tasci, Kazim Uzum, Levent Saltık
Untreated ventricular septal defect (VSD) is an important cause of congestive heart failure in early infancy. Growth is impaired in this population, and surgical closure is challenging because of congestion in the lungs, making infants prone to respiratory infection, and because of their poor nutritional status. The aim of this study is to share our experience with percutaneous VSD closure in patients under 1 year of age. Patients with hemodynamically significant left-to-right shunt, less than 1 year of age, and with VSD diameter ≤ 6 mm were retrospectively included in the study between December 2014 and January 2017...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Manisha R Sajnani, D Sudarsanam, Ramesh J Pandit, Tejas Oza, Ankit T Hinsu, Subhash J Jakhesara, Siddhardha Solosanc, Chaitanya G Joshi, Vaibhav D Bhatt
The incidence and severity of respiratory diseases in commercial broiler chicken flocks have increased recently in India because of intensification of the broiler industry. Viral population are predominant in respiratory tract infections and they pose continuous economic burden to poultry industry by causing severe economic losses through decreased productivity [1], [2]. To understand viral metagenome of poultry associated with respiratory infections, we performed DNA virome sequencing and data analysis of broilers from 8 districts of Gujarat State in India...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Joyce Jones, Xiangjie Sun, Yunho Jang, Sharmi Thor, Jessica A Belser, Natosha Zanders, Hannah M Creager, Callie Ridenour, Li Wang, Thomas J Stark, Rebecca Garten, Li-Mei Chen, John Barnes, Terrence M Tumpey, David E Wentworth, Taronna R Maines, C Todd Davis
Influenza A(H1) viruses circulating in swine represent an emerging virus threat as zoonotic infections occur sporadically following exposure to swine. A fatal infection caused by an H1N1 variant (H1N1v) virus was detected in a patient with reported exposure to swine and who presented with pneumonia, respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest. To understand the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the virus, genome sequence analysis, antigenic characterization, and ferret pathogenesis and transmissibility experiments were performed...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Christian Viniol, Claus F Vogelmeier
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide. While COPD is a mainly chronic disease, a substantial number of patients suffer from exacerbations. Severe exacerbations are related to a significantly worse survival outcome. This review summarises the current knowledge on the different aspects of COPD exacerbations. The impact of risk factors and triggers such as smoking, severe airflow limitation, bronchiectasis, bacterial and viral infections and comorbidities is discussed...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
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