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Respiratory infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646802/dampness-can-promote-the-influenza-a-virus-and-worsen-its-prognosis-by-upregulating-the-tlr7-signaling-pathway
#1
Deng Li, Xu Huachong, Pang Peng, Zheng Ke, Nie Jiao, Wu Xianlin, Yu Bin, Chen Jia, Chen Xiaoyin
Context • Outbreaks of the influenza A virus (IAV) are increasingly recognized as a global public health issue, affecting a large proportion of the world's population. A number of studies have provided epidemiologic evidence that dampness and mold are consistently associated with multiple allergic and respiratory effects, but they focused on dampness-related pathogenic microorganisms leading to allergy rather than the dampness itself. Objective • The current study intended to examine the effects of a damp environment on the promotion of the IAV and determine the adverse effects on its prognosis through upregulation of the toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7)-signaling pathway in the lung...
June 23, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646559/pandemic-h1n1-2009-influenza-a-virus-infection-associated-with-respiratory-signs-in-sloth-bears-melursus-ursinus
#2
N C Boedeker, M I Nelson, M L Killian, M K Torchetti, T Barthel, S Murray
In 2009, a pandemic influenza A virus (pH1N1) spread globally in humans and infected a broad range of captive animals with close human contact. In February 2014, a pH1N1 virus was isolated from a sloth bear with respiratory signs at a US zoo, demonstrating that recurring epidemics present an ongoing threat to animals, including threatened species. This is the first report of pH1N1 infection in sloth bears. To understand the sloth bear virus within the global context of pH1N1, phylogenetic trees were inferred including full-length sequences from available non-human, non-swine hosts, representing four families in the order Carnivora and one order of birds...
June 23, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646339/roles-of-non-coding-rnas-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-infection
#3
Ralph A Tripp, Abhijeet A Bakre
Analysis of host gene expression profiles following viral infections of target cells/tissues can reveal crucial insights into the host: virus interaction and enables the development of novel therapeutics and prophylactics. Regions of the host genome that do not code for protein, encode structural, and functional non-coding RNAs that are important not only in regulation of host gene expression but also may impact viral replication. This review summarizes the role of host non-coding RNAs during replication of multiple respiratory viruses with a focus on Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), an important pediatric pathogen...
June 24, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646236/rapamycin-adjuvant-and-exacerbation-of-severe-influenza-in-an-experimental-mouse-model
#4
Ching-Tai Huang, Chen-Yiu Hung, Tse-Ching Chen, Chun-Yen Lin, Yung-Chang Lin, Chia-Shiang Chang, Yueh-Chia He, Yu-Lin Huang, Avijit Dutta
Influenza virus infection often causes severe disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome. It is a common belief that overwhelming immune response contributes to the severe illness. Physicians and researchers have put forth immune modulation as salvage therapy for better recovery. However, empiric corticosteroid failed in both humans and animal models. Reported success with Rapamycin in humans prompted a comprehensive animal study and mechanistic dissection. Here we report the effect of Rapamycin alone or in combination with Oseltamivir for severe influenza in BALB/c mice...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646114/staphylococcus-aureus-strain-newman-photoinactivation-and-cellular-response-to-sunlight-exposure
#5
Jill S McClary, Lauren M Sassoubre, Alexandria B Boehm
Sunlight influences microbial water quality of surface waters. Previous studies have investigated photoinactivation mechanisms and cellular photostress responses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli and enterococci, but further work is needed to characterize photostress responses of bacterial pathogens. Here we investigate the photoinactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (strain Newman), a pigmented, waterborne pathogen of emerging concern. We measured photodecay using standard culture-based assays and cellular membrane integrity; and investigated photostress response by measuring the relative number of mRNA transcripts of select oxidative stress, DNA repair, and metabolism genes...
June 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646038/aging-impairs-alveolar-macrophage-phagocytosis-and-increases-influenza-induced-mortality-in-mice
#6
Christine K Wong, Candice A Smith, Koji Sakamoto, Naftali Kaminski, Jonathan L Koff, Daniel R Goldstein
Influenza viral infections often lead to increased mortality in older people. However, the mechanisms by which aging impacts immunity to influenza lung infection remain unclear. We employed a murine model of influenza infection to identify these mechanisms. With aging, we found reduced numbers of alveolar macrophages, cells essential for lung homeostasis. We also determined that these macrophages are critical for influenza-induced mortality with aging. Furthermore, aging vastly alters the transcriptional profile and specifically downregulates cell cycling pathways in alveolar macrophages...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644565/long-term-risk-of-infection-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-on-anti-tnf-treatment-a-prospective-single-center-cohort-study-in-china
#7
Yue Li, Hui Jun Shu, Hong Lu, Hong Yang, Ji Li, Bei Tan, Jiaming Qian
BACKGROUND: Anti-TNF agents have demonstrated to greatly improve management strategies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Clinical trials and registry studies in Western countries have shown that infections and malignancy are the most concerned complications of anti-TNF treatment. However, data derived from clinical practice in China are limited. The aim of this study is to explore the long-term infection risk of infliximab (IFX) in treating patients with Crohn's disease (CD) from a tertiary IBD center in China...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644389/chronic-respiratory-infection-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-what-is-the-role-of-antibiotics
#8
REVIEW
Marc Miravitlles, Antonio Anzueto
Chronic infections are associated with exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The major objective of the management of these patients is the prevention and effective treatment of exacerbations. Patients that have increased sputum production, associated with purulence and worsening shortness of breath, are the ones that will benefit from antibiotic therapy. It is important to give the appropriate antibiotic therapy to prevent treatment failure, relapse, and the emergence of resistant pathogens...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644368/vitamin-d-deficiency-is-not-associated-with-growth-or-the-incidence-of-common-morbidities-among-tanzanian-infants
#9
Christopher R Sudfeld, Karim P Manji, Emily R Smith, Said Aboud, Rodrick Kisenge, Wafaie W Fawzi, Christopher P Duggan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and determine the association of vitamin D status with child growth and incidence of common morbidities among Tanzanian infants. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 581 Tanzanian infants born to HIV-uninfected mothers had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) assessed at 6 weeks and 6 months of age. Infants were seen at monthly clinic visits for growth monitoring until 18 months of age...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643489/comparison-of-the-luminex-xtag-respiratory-viral-panel-fast-v2-assay-with-anyplex-ii-rv16-detection-kit-and-advansure-rv-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-respiratory-viruses
#10
Dae Hyun Ko, Hyun Soo Kim, Jungwon Hyun, Han Sung Kim, Jae Seok Kim, Kyoung Un Park, Wonkeun Song
BACKGROUND: The accurate and rapid identification of the causative viruses is important for the timely diagnosis and management of respiratory infections. Multiplex molecular diagnostic techniques have been widely adopted to detect respiratory viruses. We compared the results of a newly upgraded, multiplex, molecular bead-based respiratory viral panel (RVP) assay with the results of Anyplex II RV16 detection kit and AdvanSure RV real-time RT-PCR assay. METHODS: We tested 254 respiratory specimens and cultured viral strains using the Luminex xTAG RVP Fast v2 assay (Luminex Molecular Diagnostics, Canada) and Anyplex II RV16 detection kit and compared the results...
September 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643373/cytomegalovirus-dna-is-highly-prevalent-in-the-blood-of-patients-with-asthma-and-is-associated-with-age-and-asthma-traits
#11
Marek L Kowalski, Aleksandra Wardzynska, Miroslawa Studzinska, Malgorzata Pawelczyk, Zbigniew Jan Lesnikowski, Edyta Paradowska
CMV IgG antibodies have been associated with inflammageing and immunosenescence. We aimed to assess the presence of CMV DNA in the blood of adult and elderly patients with bronchial asthma to establish potential association of CMV DNAemia with asthma and asthma characteristics. Eighty-five elderly asthmatics, 74 younger asthma patients and 114 age-matched controls were recruited. The CMV DNA was detected using commercial artus assay in 10.7% of asthma patients, but was negative in all control individuals. The secondary assay identified CMV DNA in 41...
June 22, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643313/-anastomotic-leakage-after-laparoscopic-assisted-radical-right-hemicolectomy-reason-analysis-and-management
#12
Xin Wu, Guole Lin, Huizhong Qiu, Yi Xiao, Bin Wu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical features, possible reasons and management of anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic-assisted radical right hemicolectomy. METHODS: Clinical data of 546 patients undergoing laparoscopic-assisted radical right hemicolectomy in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from October 2010 to September 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The occurrence of anastomotic leakage and its countermeasures were evaluated. RESULTS: Among 546 patients, 8(1...
June 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643291/-more-than-expectorant-new-scientific-data-on-ambroxol-in-the-context-of-the-treatment-of-bronchopulmonary-diseases
#13
Manuel Plomer, Justus de Zeeuw
BACKGROUND: Ambroxol has been established for decades in the treatment of acute and chronic respiratory diseases. In 2015, the European Medicines Agency reassessed the clinical benefit-risk ratio of the drug. OBJECTIVE: What new scientific data on ambroxol, which are relevant to the treatment of bronchopulmonary diseases, are available? METHOD: The review is based on a systematic literature research in medline with the search term "ambroxol" during the publication period 2006-2015...
June 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643204/host-factors-in-coronavirus-replication
#14
Adriaan H de Wilde, Eric J Snijder, Marjolein Kikkert, Martijn J van Hemert
Coronaviruses are pathogens with a serious impact on human and animal health. They mostly cause enteric or respiratory disease, which can be severe and life threatening, e.g., in the case of the zoonotic coronaviruses causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in humans. Despite the economic and societal impact of such coronavirus infections, and the likelihood of future outbreaks of additional pathogenic coronaviruses, our options to prevent or treat coronavirus infections remain very limited...
June 23, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643188/impact-of-appropriateness-of-empiric-therapy-on-outcomes-in-community-onset-bacteremia-by-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebisella-pneumoniae-definitively-treated-with-carbapenems
#15
E-J Joo, D A Park, N R Lee, S-Y Moon, J-K Choi, J-H Ko, K R Peck
Despite a significant increase of bloodstream infection caused by extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the community-setting, information regarding clinical outcomes of inappropriate empiric therapy (IAT) in patients with those infections is limited. A multicenter-retrospective cohort study was conducted in four hospitals. A total of 249 adults were identified to have community-onset bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and definitively treated with carbapenems...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642611/engineered-newcastle-disease-virus-expressing-the-f-and-g-proteins-of-ampv-c-confers-protection-against-challenges-in-turkeys
#16
Haixia Hu, Jason P Roth, Laszlo Zsak, Qingzhong Yu
Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) infects the respiratory and reproductive tracts of domestic poultry, resulting in substantial economic losses for producers. Live attenuated vaccines appear to be the most effective in countries where the disease is prevalent. However, reversion to virulence has been demonstrated in several studies. Therefore, the development of a stable and safe next generation vaccine against the AMPV disease is needed. In the present study, we generated a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectoring the fusion (F) protein and glycoprotein (G) genes of AMPV subtype-C (AMPV-C) as a bivalent vaccine candidate using reverse genetics technology...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641682/health-effects-of-airline-cabin-environments-in-simulated-8-hour-flights
#17
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Commercial air travel is usually without health incidents. However, there is a view that cabin environments may be detrimental to health, especially flights of 8 h or more. Concerns have been raised about deep vein thrombosis, upper respiratory tract infections, altitude sickness, and toxins from the engines. METHODS: Passenger cabin simulators were used to achieve a comparative observational study with 8-h flights at pressures equivalent to terrestrial altitudes of ground, 4000, 6000, and 8000 ft...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641373/estimating-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-in-the-test-negative-design-using-alternative-control-groups-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Shuo Feng, Benjamin J Cowling, Heath Kelly, Sheena G Sullivan
One important assumption in case-control studies is that control selection should be independent of exposure. Nevertheless, it has been hypothesized that virus interference might lead to a correlation between receipt of influenza vaccination and increased risk of infection with other respiratory viruses. We investigated if such a phenomenon might affect a commonly used study design to estimate influenza vaccination effectiveness (VE). We searched publications in Medline, PubMed and Web of Science. Twelve studies were identified reporting VE estimates using the test-negative design by three alternative control groups: (1) all patients testing negative for influenza, VEFLU-, (2) patients who tested positive for other respiratory viruses, VEORV+, or (3) patients who tested negative for all viruses tested, VEPAN-...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640678/hurricane-sandy-new-jersey-mortality-rates-in-the-following-month-and-quarter
#19
Soyeon Kim, Prathit A Kulkarni, Mangala Rajan, Pauline Thomas, Stella Tsai, Christina Tan, Amy Davidow
OBJECTIVES: To describe changes in mortality after Hurricane Sandy made landfall in New Jersey on October 29, 2012. METHODS: We used electronic death records to describe changes in all-cause and cause-specific mortality overall, in persons aged 76 years or older, and by 3 Sandy impact levels for the month and quarter following Hurricane Sandy compared with the same periods in earlier years adjusted for trends. RESULTS: All-cause mortality increased 6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2%, 11%) for the month, 5%, 8%, and 12% by increasing Sandy impact level; and 7% (95% CI = 5%, 10%) for the quarter, 5%, 8%, and 15% by increasing Sandy impact level...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640662/using-probiotics-in-clinical-practice-where-are-we-now-a-review-of-existing-meta-analyses
#20
Mariangela Rondanelli, Milena Anna Faliva, Simone Perna, Attilio Giacosa, Gabriella Peroni, Anna Maria Castellazzi
The scientific literature has demonstrated that probiotics have a broad spectrum of activity, although often the results are contradictory. This study provides a critical overview of the current meta-analyses that have evaluated the efficacy of probiotics in physiological and pathological conditions, such as metabolic disease, antibiotic-associated and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, IBS, constipation, IBD, chemotherapy-associated diarrhea, respiratory tract infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, NAFLD, liver encephalopathy, periodontitis, depression, vaginosis, urinary tract infections, pancreatitis, incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, hospital infection and stay in ICU, mortality of post-trauma patients, necrotising enterocolitis in premature infants...
June 22, 2017: Gut Microbes
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