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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352469/amoxicillin-current-use-in-swine-medicine
#1
REVIEW
D G S Burch, D Sperling
Amoxicillin has become a major antimicrobial substance in pig medicine for the treatment and control of severe, systemic infections such as Streptococcus suis. The minimum inhibitory concentration 90% (MIC 90) is 0.06 μg amoxicillin/ml, and the proposed epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) is 0.5 μg/ml, giving only 0.7% of isolates above the ECOFF or of reduced susceptibility. Clinical breakpoints have not been set for amoxicillin against porcine pathogens yet, hence the use of ECOFFs. It has also been successfully used for bacterial respiratory infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352371/innate-and-adaptive-t-cells-in-influenza-disease
#2
REVIEW
Simone Nüssing, Sneha Sant, Marios Koutsakos, Kanta Subbarao, Thi H O Nguyen, Katherine Kedzierska
Influenza is a major global health problem, causing infections of the respiratory tract, often leading to acute pneumonia, life-threatening complications and even deaths. Over the last seven decades, vaccination strategies have been utilized to protect people from complications of influenza, especially groups at high risk of severe disease. While current vaccination regimens elicit strain-specific antibody responses, they fail to generate cross-protection against seasonal, pandemic and avian viruses. Moreover, vaccines designed to generate influenza-specific T-cell responses are yet to be optimized...
January 20, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352168/epigenetic-control-of-influenza-virus-role-of-h3k79-methylation-in-interferon-induced-antiviral-response
#3
Laura Marcos-Villar, Juan Díaz-Colunga, Juan Sandoval, Noelia Zamarreño, Sara Landeras-Bueno, Manel Esteller, Ana Falcón, Amelia Nieto
Influenza virus stablishes a network of virus-host functional interactions, which depends on chromatin dynamic and therefore on epigenetic modifications. Using an unbiased search, we analyzed the epigenetic changes at DNA methylation and post-translational histone modification levels induced by the infection. DNA methylation was unaltered, while we found a general decrease on histone acetylation, which correlates with transcriptional inactivation and may cooperate with the impairment of cellular transcription that causes influenza virus infection...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352084/detection-of-human-bocavirus-species-2-and-3-in-bivalve-shellfish-in-italy
#4
G La Rosa, G Purpari, A Guercio, S Di Bella, F Gucciardi, Y T R Proroga, M Pisanu, S Della Libera, M Iaconelli, E Suffredini
Human bocavirus (HBoV) has been shown to be a common cause of respiratory infections and gastroenteritis in children. Recently, HBoVs have been detected in sewage and river waters in Italy and worldwide. However, no studies are yet available on their presence in other water environments and in bivalve molluscs.In this study, 316 bivalve shellfish samples collected in three Italian regions over a six-year period (2012-2017) were analyzed by nested PCR and sequencing using broad-range primer pairs targeting the capsid proteins VP1/VP2 of HBoV...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351876/vital-signs-analysis-algorithm-detects-inflammatory-response-in-premature-infants-with-late-onset-sepsis-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#5
Leena B Mithal, Ram Yogev, Hannah L Palac, Daniel Kaminsky, Ilan Gur, Karen K Mestan
BACKGROUND: Nonspecific clinical signs and suboptimal diagnostic tests limit accurate identification of late onset sepsis (LOS) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants, resulting in significant morbidity and antibiotic overuse. An infant's systemic inflammatory response may be identified earlier than clinical suspicion through analysis of multiple vital signs by a computerized algorithm (RALIS). AIM: To evaluate the revised RALIS algorithm for detection of LOS and NEC in preterm infants...
January 16, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351747/combination-of-pelargonium-sidoides-and-coptis-chinensis-root-inhibits-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-mediated-inflammatory-response-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Sang Mi Park, Byung-Gu Min, Ji Yun Jung, Kyung Hwan Jegal, Chul Won Lee, Kwang Youn Kim, Young Woo Kim, Youn-Woong Choi, Il Je Cho, Sae Kwang Ku, Sang Chan Kim
BACKGROUND: Pelargonium sidoides (PS) and Coptis chinensis root (CR) have traditionally been used to treat various diseases, including respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, dysmenorrhea, and hepatic disorders. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of a combination of PS and CR in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The in vitro effects of PS + CR on the induction of inflammation-related proteins were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264...
January 19, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351567/whole-thorax-irradiation-of-non-human-primates-induces-persistent-nuclear-damage-and-gene-expression-changes-in-peripheral-blood-cells
#7
Shanaz A Ghandhi, Helen C Turner, Igor Shuryak, Gregory O Dugan, J Daniel Bourland, John D Olson, Janet A Tooze, Shad R Morton, Ines Batinic-Haberle, J Mark Cline, Sally A Amundson
We investigated the cytogenetic and gene expression responses of peripheral blood cells of non-human primates (NHP, Macaca mulatta) that were whole-thorax irradiated with a single dose of 10 Gy. In this model, partial irradiation of NHPs in the thoracic region (Whole Thorax Lung Irradiation, WTLI) allows the study of late radiation-induced lung injury, while avoiding acute radiation syndromes related to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal injury. A transient drop in circulating lymphocytes and platelets was seen by 9 days, followed by elevations in respiratory rate, circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes at 60-100 days, corresponding to computed tomography (CT) and histologic evidence of pneumonitis, and elective euthanasia of four animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351447/cigarette-smoke-dampens-anti-viral-signaling-in-small-airway-epithelial-cells-by-disrupting-tlr3-cleavage
#8
Parker F Duffney, Claire E McCarthy, Aitor Nogales, Thomas H Thatcher, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
Cigarette smokers and people exposed to secondhand smoke are at an increased risk for pulmonary viral infections, yet the mechanism responsible for this heightened susceptibility is not understood. To understand the effect of cigarette smoke on susceptibility to viral infection we used an air-liquid interface culture system, and exposed primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) to whole cigarette smoke followed by treatment with the viral mimetic polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or influenza A virus (IAV)...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351441/vx-809-vx-770-treatment-reduces-inflammatory-response-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-primary-differentiated-cystic-fibrosis-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#9
Manon Ruffin, Lucie Roussel, Émilie Maillé, Simon Rousseau, Emmanuelle Brochiero
Cystic fibrosis patients exhibit chronic P. aeruginosa respiratory infections and sustained pro-inflammatory state favoring lung tissue damage and remodeling, ultimately leading to respiratory failure. Loss of CFTR function is associated with MAPK hyper-activation and increased cytokines expression, such as the interleukin 8 (CXCL8). Recently, new therapeutic strategies directly targeting the basic CFTR defect have been developed and ORKAMBI (Vx-809/Vx-770 combination) is the only FDA-approved treatment for CF patients homozygous for the F508del mutation...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351330/use-of-influenza-antivirals-in-patients-hospitalized-in-hong-kong-2000-2015
#10
Benjamin J Cowling, Celine S L Chui, Wey Wen Lim, Peng Wu, Christopher K M Hui, J S Malik Peiris, Esther W Chan
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe patterns in the usage of antivirals to treat influenza virus infection in hospitals in Hong Kong from 2000 through 2015. METHODS: We analyzed centralized electronic health records that included dispensation information and diagnosis codes. Information collected on admissions included patient age, sex, admission year and month, and medications dispensed, and were matched with the first 15 discharge diagnosis codes. We divided monthly admission episodes by relevant population denominators to obtain admission rates, and stratified analyses by drug type, age group, and diagnosis codes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351201/in-vivo-characterisation-of-five-strains-of-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-virus-1-subgenotype-1c
#11
Rebecca K Ambrose, Jennifer L Gravel, Margaret A Commins, Elizabeth V Fowler, Timothy J Mahony
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is strongly associated with several important diseases of cattle, such as bovine respiratory disease, diarrhoea and haemoragic lesions. To date many subgenotypes have been reported for BVDV-1, currently ranging from subgenotype 1a to subgenotype 1u. While BVDV-1 has a world-wide distribution, the subgenotypes have a more restricted geographical distribution. As an example, BVDV-1 subgenotypes 1a and 1b are frequently detected in North America and Europe, while the subgenotype 1c is rarely detected...
January 19, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350841/epidemiology-and-molecular-characterization-of-influenza-viruses-in-burkina-faso-sub-saharan-africa
#12
Armel M Sanou, Sampoko Carine M Wandaogo, Armel Poda, Laure Tamini, Anselme E Kyere, Tani Sagna, Macaire S Ouedraogo, Maude Pauly, Judith M Hübschen, Claude P Muller, Zekiba Tarnagda, Chantal J Snoeck
BACKGROUND: The importance of influenza viruses in respiratory infections in sub-Saharan Africa has been historically overlooked, including in Burkina Faso. This study therefore aimed at evaluating the prevalence and seasonal occurrence of influenza viruses in children under five years old, at risk of influenza-related complications, presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). The study also aimed at identifying the periods with increased influenza transmission for vaccination recommendations in Burkina Faso...
January 19, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350791/comparison-of-outpatient-medically-attended-and-community-level-influenza-like-illness-new-york-city-2013-2015
#13
Kate E Russell, Ashley Fowlkes, Melissa S Stockwell, Celibell Y Vargas, Lisa Saiman, Elaine L Larson, Philip LaRussa, Steve Di Lonardo, Michael Popowich, Kirsten St George, Andrea Steffens, Carrie Reed
BACKGROUND: Surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States is primarily conducted through medical settings despite a significant burden of non-medically attended ILI. OBJECTIVES: To assess consistency between surveillance for respiratory viruses in outpatient and community settings using ILI surveillance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project (IISP) and the Mobile Surveillance for Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) and Influenza-Like Illness in the Community (MoSAIC) Study...
January 19, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350418/species-differences-in-circulation-and-inflammatory-responses-in-children-with-common-respiratory-adenovirus-infections
#14
Haruna Nakamura, Takao Fujisawa, Shigeru Suga, Kiyosu Taniguchi, Mizuho Nagao, Masahiro Ito, Hitoshi Ochiai, Masami Konagaya, Nozomu Hanaoka, Tsuguto Fujimoto
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) cause severe inflammatory respiratory infections, but previous epidemiological studies lacked analysis of the characteristics of the inflammation. METHODS: Consecutive patients <13 years old with acute febrile illness during a 2-year period were tested. HAdV strains were isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs, and molecular identification was performed by hexon, fiber and species-specific PCR methods. Blood inflammatory markers, including the white blood cell (WBC) count, CRP and 29 cytokines, were measured...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350153/trends-in-infectious-disease-mortality-south-korea-1983-2015
#15
Young June Choe, Seung-Ah Choe, Sung-Il Cho
We used national statistics from 1983-2015 to evaluate trends in mortality caused by infectious diseases in South Korea. Age-standardized mortality from infectious disease decreased from 43.5/100,000 population in 1983 to 16.5/100,000 in 1996, and then increased to 44.6/100,000 in 2015. Tuberculosis was the most common cause of death in 1983 and respiratory tract infections in 2015. We observed a significant decline in infant deaths caused by infectious diseases, but mortality in persons age >65 years increased from 135 deaths/100,000 population in 1996 to 307/100,000 in 2015...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350143/adenovirus-type-4-respiratory-infections-among-civilian-adults-northeastern-united-states-2011-20151
#16
Adriana E Kajon, Daryl M Lamson, Camden R Bair, Xiaoyan Lu, Marie L Landry, Marilyn Menegus, Dean D Erdman, Kirsten St George
Human adenovirus type 4 (HAdV-4) is most commonly isolated in military settings. We conducted detailed molecular characterization on 36 HAdV-4 isolates recovered from civilian adults with acute respiratory disease (ARD) in the northeastern United States during 2011-2015. Specimens came from college students, residents of long-term care facilities or nursing homes, a cancer patient, and young adults without co-morbidities. HAdV-4 genome types 4a1 and 4a2, the variants most frequently detected among US military recruits in basic training before the restoration of vaccination protocols, were isolated in most cases...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350142/lethal-respiratory-disease-associated-with-human-rhinovirus%C3%A2-c-in-wild-chimpanzees-uganda-2013
#17
Erik J Scully, Sarmi Basnet, Richard W Wrangham, Martin N Muller, Emily Otali, David Hyeroba, Kristine A Grindle, Tressa E Pappas, Melissa Emery Thompson, Zarin Machanda, Kelly E Watters, Ann C Palmenberg, James E Gern, Tony L Goldberg
We describe a lethal respiratory outbreak among wild chimpanzees in Uganda in 2013 for which molecular and epidemiologic analyses implicate human rhinovirus C as the cause. Postmortem samples from an infant chimpanzee yielded near-complete genome sequences throughout the respiratory tract; other pathogens were absent. Epidemiologic modeling estimated the basic reproductive number (R0) for the epidemic as 1.83, consistent with the common cold in humans. Genotyping of 41 chimpanzees and examination of 24 published chimpanzee genomes from subspecies across Africa showed universal homozygosity for the cadherin-related family member 3 CDHR3-Y529 allele, which increases risk for rhinovirus C infection and asthma in human children...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350071/disclosing-respiratory-coinfections-a-broad-range-panel-assay-for-avian-respiratory-pathogens-on-a-nanofluidic-pcr-platform
#18
Guillaume Croville, Charlotte Foret, Pauline Heuillard, Alexis Senet, Mattias Delpont, Mohammed Mouahid, Mariette F Ducatez, Faouzi Kichou, Jean-Luc Guerin
Respiratory syndromes (RS) are among the most significant pathological conditions in food animals and are caused by complex coactions of pathogens and environmental factors. In poultry, low pathogenic avian Influenza A viruses, metapneumoviruses, infectious bronchitis virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, Mycoplasma spp. Escherichia coli and/or Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) in turkeys, are considered as key co-infectious agents of respiratory syndromes. Aspergillus sp., Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum or Chlamydia psittaci may also be involved in respiratory outbreaks...
January 19, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349726/fungal-respiratory-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis-cf-recent-progress-and-future-research-agenda
#19
EDITORIAL
Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Françoise Symoens, Carsten Schwarz, Vishnu Chaturvedi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349092/cathepsin-b-plays-a-key-role-in-optimal-production-of-the-influenza-a-virus
#20
Macon D Coleman, Soon-Duck Ha, S M Mansour Haeryfar, Stephen Dominic Barr, Sung Ouk Kim
Background: Influenza A virus (IAV) is the etiologic agent of the febrile respiratory illness, commonly referred to as 'flu'. The lysosomal protease cathepsin B (CTSB) has shown to be involved in the lifecycle of various viruses. Here, we examined the role of CTSB in the IAV lifecycle. Methods: CTSB-deficient (CTSB-/-) macrophages and the human lung epithelial cell line A549 cells treated with CA-074Me were infected with the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 strain of IAV (IAV-PR8)...
2018: Journal of Virology & Antiviral Research
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