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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466329/circadian-clock-neurons-constantly-monitor-environmental-temperature-to-set-sleep-timing
#1
Swathi Yadlapalli, Chang Jiang, Andrew Bahle, Pramod Reddy, Edgar Meyhofer, Orie T Shafer
Circadian clocks coordinate behaviour, physiology and metabolism with Earth's diurnal cycle. These clocks entrain to both light and temperature cycles, and daily environmental temperature oscillations probably contribute to human sleep patterns. However, the neural mechanisms through which circadian clocks monitor environmental temperature and modulate behaviour remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate how the circadian clock neuron network of Drosophila melanogaster processes changes in environmental temperature...
February 21, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463694/desynchrony-between-brain-and-peripheral-clocks-caused-by-ck1%C3%AE-%C3%AE%C2%B5-disruption-in-gaba-neurons-does-not-lead-to-adverse-metabolic-outcomes
#2
Vincent van der Vinne, Steven J Swoap, Thomas J Vajtay, David R Weaver
Circadian disruption as a result of shift work is associated with adverse metabolic consequences. Internal desynchrony between the phase of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and peripheral clocks is widely believed to be a major factor contributing to these adverse consequences, but this hypothesis has never been tested directly. A GABAergic Cre driver combined with conditional casein kinase mutations ( Vgat-Cre + CK1δ fl/fl ε fl/+ ) was used to lengthen the endogenous circadian period in GABAergic neurons, including the SCN, but not in peripheral tissues, to create a Discordant mouse model...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460036/the-mammalian-circadian-system-a-hierarchical-multi-oscillator-structure-for-generating-circadian-rhythm
#3
REVIEW
Sato Honma
The circadian nature of physiology and behavior is regulated by a circadian clock that generates intrinsic rhythms with a periodicity of approximately 24 h. The mammalian circadian system is composed of a hierarchical multi-oscillator structure, with the central clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus regulating the peripheral clocks found throughout the body. In the past two decades, key clock genes have been discovered in mammals and shown to be interlocked in transcriptional and translational feedback loops...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444258/modeling-the-influence-of-seasonal-differences-in-the-hpa-axis-on-synchronization-of-the-circadian-clock-and-cell-cycle
#4
Kamau Pierre, Rohit T Rao, Clara Hartmanshenn, Ioannis P Androulakis
Synchronization of biological functions to environmental signals enables organisms to anticipate and appropriately respond to daily external fluctuations and is critical to the maintenance of homeostasis. Misalignment of circadian rhythms with environmental cues is associated with adverse health outcomes. Cortisol, the downstream effector of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, facilitates synchronization of peripheral biological processes to the environment. Cortisol levels exhibit substantial seasonal rhythmicity, with peak levels occurring during the short-photoperiod winter months and reduced levels occurring in the long-photoperiod summer season...
February 12, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430321/interaction-between-stress-responses-and-circadian-metabolism-in-metabolic-disease
#5
Zhao Yang, Hyunbae Kim, Arushana Ali, Ze Zheng, Kezhong Zhang
Circadian rhythms play crucial roles in orchestrating diverse physiological processes that are critical for health and disease. Dysregulated circadian rhythms are closely associated with various human metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Modern lifestyles are frequently associated with an irregular circadian rhythm, which poses a significant risk to public health. While the central clock has a set periodicity, circadian oscillators in peripheral organs, particularly in the liver, can be entrained by metabolic alterations or stress cues...
September 2017: Liver Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411926/cry1-deficiency-leads-to-testicular-dysfunction-and-altered-expression-of-genes-involved-in-cell-communication-chromatin-reorganization-spermatogenesis-and-immune-response-in-mouse-testis
#6
Chong Li, Shiwei Xiao, Jie Hao, Xiaogang Liao, Gang Li
Cryptochrome (Cry)1 is essential for generating circadian rhythm in central and many peripheral oscillators; however, its role in male reproduction remains unclear. We investigated this question using Cry1 knockout (KO) mice. We found that Cry1 is necessary for normal testicular function: Cry1 deficiency increased testicular germ cell apoptosis and decreased sperm count. A transcriptome analysis showed that the expression levels of 375 genes-including 12 encoding micro (mi)RNAs-were altered in the testis of Cry1 KO mice relative to wild-type controls...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396301/glucagon-and-or-igf-1-production-regulates-resetting-of-the-liver-circadian-clock-in-response-to-a-protein-or-amino-acid-only-diet
#7
Yuko Ikeda, Mayo Kamagata, Mizuho Hirao, Shinnosuke Yasuda, Shiho Iwami, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Miku Tsubosaka, Yuta Hattori, Ai Todoh, Konomi Tamura, Kazuto Shiga, Teiji Ohtsu, Shigenobu Shibata
The circadian system controls the behavior and multiple physiological functions. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) acts as the master pacemaker and regulates the circadian clocks of peripheral tissues. The SCN receives information regarding the light-dark cycle and is thus synchronized to the external 24-hour environment. In contrast, peripheral clocks, such as the liver clock, receive information from the SCN and other factors; in particular, food intake which leads to insulin secretion induces strong entrainment of the liver clock...
January 26, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385702/altered-circadian-timing-system-mediated-non-dipping-pattern-of-blood-pressure-and-associated-cardiovascular-disorders-in-metabolic-and-kidney-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Asadur Rahman, Arif Ul Hasan, Akira Nishiyama, Hiroyuki Kobori
The morning surge in blood pressure (BP) coincides with increased cardiovascular (CV) events. This strongly suggests that an altered circadian rhythm of BP plays a crucial role in the development of CV disease (CVD). A disrupted circadian rhythm of BP, such as the non-dipping type of hypertension (i.e., absence of nocturnal BP decline), is frequently observed in metabolic disorders and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The circadian timing system, controlled by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and/or by peripheral clocks in the heart, vasculature, and kidneys, modulates the 24 h oscillation of BP...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382695/regulation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-dynamics-and-pathology-by-the-circadian-clock
#9
Geraldine J Kress, Fan Liao, Julie Dimitry, Michelle R Cedeno, Garret A FitzGerald, David M Holtzman, Erik S Musiek
Nighttime restlessness and daytime drowsiness are common and early symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). This symptomology implicates dysfunctional biological timing, yet the role of the circadian system in AD pathogenesis is unknown. To evaluate the role of the circadian clock in amyloid-β (Aβ) dynamics and pathology, we used a mouse model of β-amyloidosis and disrupted circadian clock function either globally or locally in the brain via targeted deletion of the core clock gene Bmal1 Our results demonstrate that loss of central circadian rhythms leads to disruption of daily hippocampal interstitial fluid Aβ oscillations and accelerates amyloid plaque accumulation, whereas loss of peripheral Bmal1 in the brain parenchyma increases expression of Apoe and promotes fibrillar plaque deposition...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377796/a-low-power-wearable-stand-alone-tongue-drive-system-for-people-with-severe-disabilities
#10
Ali Jafari, Nathanael Buswell, Maysam Ghovanloo, Tinoosh Mohsenin
This paper presents a low-power stand-alone tongue drive system (sTDS) used for individuals with severe disabilities to potentially control their environment such as computer, smartphone, and wheelchair using their voluntary tongue movements. A low-power local processor is proposed, which can perform signal processing to convert raw magnetic sensor signals to user-defined commands, on the sTDS wearable headset, rather than sending all raw data out to a PC or smartphone. The proposed sTDS significantly reduces the transmitter power consumption and subsequently increases the battery life...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371216/bmal1-in-perivascular-adipose-tissue-regulates-resting-phase-blood-pressure-through-transcriptional-regulation-of-angiotensinogen
#11
Lin Chang, Wenhao Xiong, Xiangjie Zhao, Yanbo Fan, Yanhong Guo, Minerva Garcia-Barrio, Jifeng Zhang, Zhisheng Jiang, Jiandie D Lin, Y Eugene Chen
Background -The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), surrounding vessels, constitutes a distinct functional integral layer of the vasculature required to preserve vascular tone under physiological conditions. However, there is little information regarding the relationship between PVAT and blood pressure regulation, including its potential contributions to circadian blood pressure variation. Methods -Using unique brown adipocyte-specific aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (Bmal1) and angiotensinogen (Agt) knock out mice we determined the vasoactivity of homogenized PVAT in aortic rings and how brown-adipocyte peripheral expression of Bmal1 and Agt in PVAT regulate the amplitude of diurnal change in blood pressure in mice...
January 25, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370529/temporal-expression-of-clock-genes-in-central-and-peripheral-tissues-of-spotted-munia-under-varying-light-conditions-evidence-for-circadian-regulation-of-daily-physiology-in-a-non-photoperiodic-circannual-songbird-species
#12
Neha Agarwal, Ila Mishra, Sangeeta Rani, Vinod Kumar
We investigated if the duration and/or frequency of the light period affect 24-h rhythm of circadian clock genes in central and peripheral tissues of a non-photoperiodic songbird, the spotted munia (Lonchura punctulata), in which a circannual rhythm regulates the reproductive cycle. We monitored activity-rest pattern and measured 24-h mRNA oscillation of core clock (Bmal1, Clock, Per2, Cry1 and Cry2) and clock-controlled (E4bp4, Rorα and Rev-erbα) genes in the hypothalamus, retina, liver and gut of spotted munia subjected to an aberrant light-dark (LD) cycle (3...
January 25, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367468/dna-methylation-signatures-reflect-aging-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#13
Rohit Loomba, Yevgeniy Gindin, Zhaoshi Jiang, Eric Lawitz, Stephen Caldwell, C Stephen Djedjos, Ren Xu, Chuhan Chung, Robert P Myers, G Mani Subramanian, Zachary Goodman, Michael Charlton, Nezam H Afdhal, Anna Mae Diehl
A DNA methylation (DNAm) signature (the "Horvath clock") has been proposed as a measure of human chronological and biological age. We determined peripheral blood DNAm in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and assessed whether accelerated aging occurs in these patients. DNAm signatures were obtained in patients with biopsy-proven NASH and stage 2-3 fibrosis. The DNAm profile from one test and two validation cohorts served as controls. Age acceleration was calculated as the difference between DNAm age and the predicted age based on the linear model derived from controls...
January 25, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362450/gut-microbiota-derived-short-chain-fatty-acids-induce-circadian-clock-entrainment-in-mouse-peripheral-tissue
#14
Yu Tahara, Mayu Yamazaki, Haruna Sukigara, Hiroaki Motohashi, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Hiroki Miyakawa, Atsushi Haraguchi, Yuko Ikeda, Shinji Fukuda, Shigenobu Shibata
Microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and organic acids produced by the fermentation of non-digestible fibre can communicate from the microbiome to host tissues and modulate homeostasis in mammals. The microbiome has circadian rhythmicity and helps the host circadian clock function. We investigated the effect of SCFA or fibre-containing diets on circadian clock phase adjustment in mouse peripheral tissues (liver, kidney, and submandibular gland). Initially, caecal SCFA concentrations, particularly acetate and butyrate, induced significant day-night differences at high concentrations during the active period, which were correlated with lower caecal pH...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356345/four-days-of-simulated-shift-work-reduces-insulin-sensitivity-in-humans
#15
R Bescos, M J Boden, M L Jackson, A J Trewin, E C Marin, I Levinger, A Garnham, D S Hiam, F Falcao-Tebas, F Conte, J A Owens, D J Kennaway, G K McConell
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of four consecutive simulated night shifts on glucose homeostasis, mitochondrial function and central and peripheral rhythmicity compared with a simulated day shift schedule. METHODS: Seventeen healthy adults (8M:9F) matched for sleep, physical activity, and dietary/fat intake participated in this study (night shift work n= 9; day shift work n= 8). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity before and after 4 nights of shift work were measured by an intravenous glucose tolerance test and a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, respectively...
January 22, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353016/pyrosequencing-analysis-of-methylation-levels-of-clock-genes-in-leukocytes-from-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#16
Wei Mao, Chunsong Zhao, Hui Ding, Kuo Liang, Jinhua Xue, Piu Chan, Yanning Cai
DNA methylation of neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) and cryptochrome circadian clock 1 (CRY1) promoters may be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is no simple and cost-effective method to quantify DNA methylation in these regions. Additionally, it is not clear whether DNA methylation of NPAS2 and CRY1 promoters is altered in peripheral blood of PD patients, especially newly diagnosed drug-naïve PD patients, and thus can be used as a PD biomarker. In the present study, we utilized bisulfite pyrosequencing assays to examine DNA methylation levels of six CpG sites in the NPAS2 promoter and five CpG sites in the CRY1 promoter...
January 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348553/night-eating-model-shows-time-specific-depression-like-behavior-in-the-forced-swimming-test
#17
Atsushi Haraguchi, Miyabi Fukuzawa, Shiho Iwami, Yutaro Nishimura, Hiroaki Motohashi, Yu Tahara, Shigenobu Shibata
The circadian clock system is associated with feeding and mood. Patients with night eating syndrome (NES) delay their eating rhythm and their mood declines during the evening and night, manifesting as time-specific depression. Therefore, we hypothesized that the NES feeding pattern might cause time-specific depression. We established new NES model by restricted feeding with high-fat diet during the inactive period under normal-fat diet ad libitum. The FST (forced swimming test) immobility time in the NES model group was prolonged only after lights-on, corresponding to evening and early night for humans...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321394/-chrono-nutrition-and-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid
#18
Shigenobu Shibata, Akiko Furutani
Circadian clock system has been widely maintained in many spices from prokaryote to mammals. "Circadian" means "approximately day" in Latin, thus circadian rhythm means about 24 hour rhythms. The earth revolves once every 24 hours, and our circadian system has been developed for adjusting to this 24 hour cycles, to get sun light information for getting their foods or for alive in birds or mammals. We have two different circadian systems so-called main oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and local oscillator located in the various peripheral organ tissues such as liver, kidney and skeletal muscle...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305918/circadian-modification-network-of-a-core-clock-driver-bmal1-to-harmonize-physiology-from-brain-to-peripheral-tissues
#19
Teruya Tamaru, Ken Takamatsu
Circadian clocks dictate various physiological functions by brain SCN (a central clock) -orchestrating the temporal harmony of peripheral clocks of tissues/organs in the whole body, with adaptability to environments by resetting their timings. Dysfunction of this circadian adaptation system (CAS) occasionally causes/exacerbates diseases. CAS is based on cell-autonomous molecular clocks, which oscillate via a core transcriptional/translational feedback loop with clock genes/proteins, e.g., BMAL1: CLOCK circadian transcription driver and CRY1/2 and PER1/2 suppressors, and is modulated by various regulatory loops including clock protein modifications...
January 3, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302752/the-role-of-the-circadian-clock-system-in-physiology
#20
REVIEW
Violetta Pilorz, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Henrik Oster
Life on earth is shaped by the 24-h rotation of our planet around its axes. To adapt behavior and physiology to the concurring profound but highly predictable changes, endogenous circadian clocks have evolved that drive 24-h rhythms in invertebrate and vertebrate species. At the molecular level, circadian clocks comprised a set of clock genes organized in a system of interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loops. A ubiquitous network of cellular central and peripheral tissue clocks coordinates physiological functions along the day through activation of tissue-specific transcriptional programs...
February 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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