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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223281/human-studies-on-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis
#1
REVIEW
Kamani Liyanarachchi, Richard Ross, Miguel Debono
The daily rhythm of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is regulated by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Cortisol, a glucocorticoid, acts as a secondary messenger between the central clock and the peripheral tissues. Changes in clock time, as seen in shift workers, alters the HPA axis and results in metabolic disturbances associated with ill health. Depression, anorexia nervosa and obstructive sleep apnoea, are associated with cortisol rhythm phase shifts and increased cortisol exposure...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219953/specific-retinal-phenotype-in-early-iqcb1-related-disease
#2
A Vincent, A AlAli, H MacDonald, C VandenHoven, E Héon
PurposeTo describe the ocular and systemic phenotype in IQCB1-related disease.MethodsFour cases (3 males, 1 female) with molecularly confirmed IQCB1-related disease underwent ophthalmological examination including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement, fundus evaluation, electroretinography (ERG), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Systemic evaluation including abdominal ultrasound was performed in all cases.ResultsBCVA ranged from perception of light (Case-2; 1 year) to 20/125 (Case-1; 9 years)...
December 8, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212892/the-underlying-genetics-of-drosophila-circadian-behaviors
#3
REVIEW
D Lorena Franco, Lia Frenkel, M Fernanda Ceriani
Life is shaped by circadian clocks. This review focuses on how behavioral genetics in the fruit fly unveiled what is known today about circadian physiology. We will briefly summarize basic properties of the clock and focus on some clock-controlled behaviors to highlight how communication between central and peripheral oscillators defines their properties.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203370/pregnancy-around-the-clock
#4
Anke Diemert, Petra Clara Arck
A recent study introduced the existence of an 'immune clock' in pregnancy; during the course of gestation, peripheral blood cells from pregnant women were analyzed by mass cytometry using a single-cell signaling-based elastic net algorithm. The insights will undoubtedly promote the testing of such a clock - possibly in synergy with other pacemakers - to potentially predict pregnancy complications.
December 1, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198725/circadian-clock-mediated-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#5
REVIEW
Lauren G Douma, Michelle L Gumz
Most bodily functions vary over the course of a 24 hour day. Circadian rhythms in body temperature, sleep-wake cycles, metabolism, and blood pressure (BP) are just a few examples. These circadian rhythms are controlled by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and peripheral clocks located throughout the body. Light and food cues entrain these clocks to the time of day and this synchronicity contributes to the regulation of a variety of physiological processes with effects on overall health...
November 30, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196219/diet-induced-insulin-resistance-state-disturbs-brain-clock-processes-and-alters-tuning-of-clock-outputs-in-the-sand-rat-psammomys-obesus
#6
Hanane Touati, Saliha Ouali-Hassenaoui, Aicha Dekar-Madoui, Etienne Challet, Paul Pévet, Patrick Vuillez
Reciprocal interactions closely connect energy metabolism with circadian rhythmicity. Altered clockwork and circadian desynchronization are often linked with impaired energy regulation. Conversely, metabolic disturbances have been associated with altered autonomic and hormonal rhythms. The effects of high-energy (HE) diet on the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) remain unclear.This question was addressed in the Sand rat (Psammomys obesus), a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) animal model...
November 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196049/chronic-glucocorticoid-treatment-induced-circadian-clock-disorder-leads-to-lipid-metabolism-and-gut-microbiota-alterations-in-rats
#7
Tao Wu, Luna Yang, Jianguo Jiang, Yinhua Ni, Jiawei Zhu, Xiaojun Zheng, Qi Wang, Xin Lu, Zhengwei Fu
AIM: Glucocorticoids (GCs), steroid hormones synthetized by the adrenal gland, are regulated by circadian cycles, and dysregulation of GC signaling can lead to the development of metabolic syndrome. The effects and potential mechanism of GCs in physiology were investigated in the present study. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were orally administered dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DEX, 0.01 and 0.05mg/kg body weight per day) for 7weeks. KEY FINDING: DEX treatment attenuated body weight gain and reduced food intake, whereas it induced the accumulation of fat...
November 28, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186676/the-circadian-clock-regulates-adipogenesis-by-a-per3-crosstalk-pathway-to-klf15
#8
Abhishek Aggarwal, Maria José Costa, Belén Rivero-Gutiérrez, Lijuan Ji, Stefanie L Morgan, Brian J Feldman
The generation of new adipocytes from precursor cells (adipogenesis) has implications for systemic metabolism and is a commonly used model for studying the process of cell differentiation in vitro. Previous studies from us and others suggested that the peripheral circadian clock can influence adipogenesis in vitro, but the mechanisms driving this activity and the relevance for adipogenesis in vivo are unknown. Here we reveal that mouse adipocyte precursor cells (APCs) contain a circadian clock that oscillates in vivo...
November 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176713/rapid-resetting-of-human-peripheral-clocks-by-phototherapy-during-simulated-night-shift-work
#9
Marc Cuesta, Philippe Boudreau, Nicolas Cermakian, Diane B Boivin
A majority of night shift workers have their circadian rhythms misaligned to their atypical schedule. While bright light exposure at night is known to reset the human central circadian clock, the behavior of peripheral clocks under conditions of shift work is more elusive. The aim of the present study was to quantify the resetting effects of bright light exposure on both central (plasma cortisol and melatonin) and peripheral clocks markers (clock gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs) in subjects living at night...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164122/changes-in-expression-of-the-clock-gene-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-patients-are-not-reverted-by-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-treatment
#10
Susana Moreira, Raquel Rodrigues, André B Barros, Nadja Pejanovic, Ana Neves-Costa, Dora Pedroso, Cláudia Pereira, Dina Fernandes, João Valença Rodrigues, Cristina Barbara, Luís Ferreira Moita
Purpose: Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease are strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), which causes substantial changes to normal circadian physiological functions, including metabolic pathways. Because core clock genes are known to be modulated by sleep/vigilance cycles, we asked whether the expression level of mRNA coding for clock genes is altered in non-treated OSAS patients and if it can be corrected by standard continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162648/biological-age-of-the-endometrium-using-dna-methylation
#11
Mia S Olesen, Anna Starnawska, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Alexandra P Bielfeld, Inge E Agerholm, Axel Forman, Michael T Overgaard, Mette Nyegaard
Age has a detrimental effect on reproduction and as an increasing number of women postpone motherhood, it is imperative to assess biological age in terms of fertility prognosis and optimizing fertility treatment individually. Horvath's epigenetic clock is a mathematical algorithm that calculates the biological age of human cells, tissues or organs based on DNA methylation levels. The clock however, was previously shown to be highly inaccurate for the human endometrium, most likely because of the hormonal responsive nature of this tissue...
November 21, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150901/expression-of-the-clock-gene-rev-erb%C3%AE-in-the-brain-controls-the-circadian-organization-of-food-intake-and-locomotor-activity-but-not-daily-variations-of-energy-metabolism
#12
Satish Sen, Stéphanie Dumont, Dominique Sage-Ciocca, Sophie Reibel, Paul de Goede, Andries Kalsbeek, Etienne Challet
The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is part of the molecular clock mechanism and thought to be involved in a variety of biological processes within metabolically active peripheral tissues as well. To investigate whether Rev-erbα (also known as Nr1d1) in the brain plays a role in the daily variations of energy metabolism, feeding behaviour and the sleep-wake cycle, we studied mice with global (GKO) or brain (BKO) deletion of Rev-erbα. Mice were studied both in a light-dark cycle and constant darkness, and 24-h variations of Respiratory quotient (RQ) and energy expenditure, as well as the temporal patterns of rest-activity and feeding behavior were recorded...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135686/cortical-correlates-of-binaural-temporal-processing-deficits-in-older-adults
#13
Ann Clock Eddins, David A Eddins
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate binaural temporal processing in young and older adults using a binaural masking level difference (BMLD) paradigm. Using behavioral and electrophysiological measures within the same listeners, a series of stimulus manipulations was used to evaluate the relative contribution of binaural temporal fine-structure and temporal envelope cues. We evaluated the hypotheses that age-related declines in the BMLD task would be more strongly associated with temporal fine-structure than envelope cues and that age-related declines in behavioral measures would be correlated with cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) measures...
November 9, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121225/time-dependent-glucocorticoid-administration-differently-affects-peripheral-circadian-rhythm-in-rats
#14
Tao Wu, Zhengwei Fu
There is a growing recognition that glucocorticoid (GC) acts as an internal timing signal for peripheral circadian oscillators. However, the transcription process of GC-related clock gene in the peripheral tissues is not fully understood. The present study was designed to explore the potential role of clock genes in the GC-induced peripheral circadian gene expression invivo. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that the transcript levels of Per1 and Dec1 were rapidly up-regulated within 0.5 and 1 h in the heart and kidney respectively after stimulation with dexamethasone (Dex)...
November 7, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106991/regulation-of-vascular-function-and-blood-pressure-by-circadian-variation-in-redox-signalling
#15
REVIEW
Glenn C Rodrigo, Karl E Herbert
There is accumulating evidence that makes the link between the circadian variation in blood pressure and circadian variations in vascular contraction. The importance of vascular endothelium-derived redox-active and redox-derived species in the signalling pathways involved in controlling vascular smooth muscle contraction are well known, and when linked to the circadian variations in the processes involved in generating these species, suggests a cellular mechanism for the circadian variations in blood pressure that links directly to the peripheral circadian clock...
October 26, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097992/circadian-and-metabolic-effects-of-light-implications-in-weight-homeostasis-and-health
#16
REVIEW
Santiago A Plano, Leandro P Casiraghi, Paula García Moro, Natalia Paladino, Diego A Golombek, Juan J Chiesa
Daily interactions between the hypothalamic circadian clock at the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peripheral circadian oscillators regulate physiology and metabolism to set temporal variations in homeostatic regulation. Phase coherence of these circadian oscillators is achieved by the entrainment of the SCN to the environmental 24-h light:dark (LD) cycle, coupled through downstream neural, neuroendocrine, and autonomic outputs. The SCN coordinate activity and feeding rhythms, thus setting the timing of food intake, energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and active and basal metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082039/laser-peripheral-iridotomy-versus-trabeculectomy-as-an-initial-treatment-for-primary-angle-closure-glaucoma
#17
Yan Yun Chen, Su Jie Fan, Yuan Bo Liang, Shi Song Rong, Hai Lin Meng, Xing Wang, Ravi Thomas, Ning Li Wang
PURPOSE: To compare laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) with trabeculectomy as an initial treatment for primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) with peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) ≥ 6 clock hours. METHODS: Patients were drawn from two randomized controlled trials. 38 eyes of 38 patients (PAS ≥ 6 clock hours) were treated with LPI (group 1) while 111 eyes of 111 PACG patients (PAS ≥ 6 clock hours) underwent primary trabeculectomy (group 2). All patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination at baseline and at postoperative visits and were followed up for a minimum of one year...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061320/arginine-vasopressin-signaling-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-on-the-resilience-of-circadian-clock-to-jet-lag
#18
Yoshiaki Yamaguchi
Almost all organisms on Earth have an internal biological clock, known as the circadian clock. This clock system drives robust oscillations in metabolism, physiology, and behavior, such as hormone secretions, blood pressure, and sleep/wake cycles, with a period of approximately 24h. In mammals, circadian rhythms are generated by a timing system comprised of a master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus, which orchestrates the clocks in the peripheral tissues. Jet lag, caused by an abrupt change of environmental light-dark cycles, induces a temporal misalignment of the output signal from SCN...
October 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056415/is-exercise-a-viable-therapeutic-intervention-to-mitigate-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-insulin-resistance-induced-by-sleep-loss
#19
REVIEW
Nicholas J Saner, David J Bishop, Jonathan D Bartlett
Sleep loss has emerged as a risk factor comparable to that of physical inactivity for the development of insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is a concern as it was estimated in 2012 that approximately 70 million adults in the United States are sleeping less than 6 h each night, and the average nightly sleep duration of a representative sample of the U.S. adult population is reported to be significantly less than in previous decades. The underlying mechanisms responsible for chronic sleep loss induced insulin resistance include modifications in the regulation of hormone secretion, peripheral clock gene regulation, and the cellular signaling processes associated with regulating mitochondrial respiratory function...
January 19, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032081/protein-malnutrition-after-weaning-disrupts-peripheral-clock-and-daily-insulin-secretion-in-mice
#20
Patricia Cristine Borck, Thiago Martins Batista, Jean Franciesco Vettorazzi, Rafael Ludemann Camargo, Antonio Carlos Boschero, Elaine Vieira, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro
Changes in nutritional state may alter circadian rhythms through alterations in expression of clock genes. Protein deficiency has a profound effect on body metabolism, but the effect of this nutrient restriction after weaning on biological clock has not been explored. Thus, this study aims to investigate whether the protein restriction affects the daily oscillation in the behavior and metabolic rhythms, as well as expression of clock genes in peripheral tissues. Male C57BL/6 J mice, after weaning, were fed a normal-protein (NP) diet or a low-protein (LP) diet for 8 weeks...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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