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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911383/parallel-measurement-of-circadian-clock-gene-expression-and-hormone-secretion-in-human-primary-cell-cultures
#1
Volodymyr Petrenko, Camille Saini, Laurent Perrin, Charna Dibner
Circadian clocks are functional in all light-sensitive organisms, allowing for an adaptation to the external world by anticipating daily environmental changes. Considerable progress in our understanding of the tight connection between the circadian clock and most aspects of physiology has been made in the field over the last decade. However, unraveling the molecular basis that underlies the function of the circadian oscillator in humans stays of highest technical challenge. Here, we provide a detailed description of an experimental approach for long-term (2-5 days) bioluminescence recording and outflow medium collection in cultured human primary cells...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907092/unconjugated-bile-acids-influence-expression-of-circadian-genes-a-potential-mechanism-for-microbe-host-crosstalk
#2
Kalaimathi Govindarajan, John MacSharry, Patrick G Casey, Fergus Shanahan, Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan
Disruptions to circadian rhythm in mice and humans have been associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The gut microbiota is known to be essential for the maintenance of circadian rhythm in the host suggesting a role for microbe-host interactions in the regulation of the peripheral circadian clock. Previous work suggested a role for gut bacterial bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in the regulation of host circadian gene expression. Here we demonstrate that unconjugated bile acids, known to be generated through the BSH activity of the gut microbiota, are potentially chronobiological regulators of host circadian gene expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889186/circadian-homeostasis-of-liver-metabolism-suppresses-hepatocarcinogenesis
#3
Nicole M Kettner, Horatio Voicu, Milton J Finegold, Cristian Coarfa, Arun Sreekumar, Nagireddy Putluri, Chinenye A Katchy, Choogon Lee, David D Moore, Loning Fu
Chronic jet lag induces spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in wild-type mice following a mechanism very similar to that observed in obese humans. The process initiates with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that progresses to steatohepatitis and fibrosis before HCC detection. This pathophysiological pathway is driven by jet-lag-induced genome-wide gene deregulation and global liver metabolic dysfunction, with nuclear receptor-controlled cholesterol/bile acid and xenobiotic metabolism among the top deregulated pathways...
November 14, 2016: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885006/mechanisms-linking-circadian-clocks-sleep-and-neurodegeneration
#4
REVIEW
Erik S Musiek, David M Holtzman
Disruptions of normal circadian rhythms and sleep cycles are consequences of aging and can profoundly affect health. Accumulating evidence indicates that circadian and sleep disturbances, which have long been considered symptoms of many neurodegenerative conditions, may actually drive pathogenesis early in the course of these diseases. In this Review, we explore potential cellular and molecular mechanisms linking circadian dysfunction and sleep loss to neurodegenerative diseases, with a focus on Alzheimer's disease...
November 25, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870848/genetically-blocking-the-zebrafish-pineal-clock-affects-circadian-behavior
#5
Zohar Ben-Moshe Livne, Shahar Alon, Daniela Vallone, Yared Bayleyen, Adi Tovin, Inbal Shainer, Laura G Nisembaum, Idit Aviram, Sima Smadja-Storz, Michael Fuentes, Jack Falcón, Eli Eisenberg, David C Klein, Harold A Burgess, Nicholas S Foulkes, Yoav Gothilf
The master circadian clock in fish has been considered to reside in the pineal gland. This dogma is challenged, however, by the finding that most zebrafish tissues contain molecular clocks that are directly reset by light. To further examine the role of the pineal gland oscillator in the zebrafish circadian system, we generated a transgenic line in which the molecular clock is selectively blocked in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland by a dominant-negative strategy. As a result, clock-controlled rhythms of melatonin production in the adult pineal gland were disrupted...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864077/trpv1-participates-in-the-activation-of-clock-molecular-machinery-in-the-brown-adipose-tissue-in-response-to-light-dark-cycle
#6
Maria Nathalia Moraes, Nathana Mezzalira, Leonardo Vinicius Monteiro de Assis, Michael Menaker, Ali Guler, Ana Maria L Castrucci
Transient receptor potential (TRPs) channels are involved in thermogenesis, and temperature and energy balance control. Mice lacking TrpV1 become more obese and develop insulin resistance when fed with high fat diet; however, a relationship between metabolic disorders, TRP channels, and clock genes is still unknown. Based on this, we hypothesized that TRPV1 channels would be involved in the synchronization of clock genes in the peripheral tissues. To address this question, we used wild type (WT) and TrpV1 knockout (KO) mice kept in constant darkness (DD) or in light-dark cycle (LD)...
November 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806419/-the-role-of-circadian-rhythms-in-aging-and-adhd
#7
A Popa-Wagner
The circadian rhythms coordinates the internal physiology to increase the homeostatic capacity thereby providing both a survival advantage to the system and an optimization of energy budgeting. Because multiple-oscillator circadian mechanisms are likely to play a role in regulating human health, and may contribute to the aging process, we give an overview of the relationship between the central clock in the hypothalamus and peripheral clocks for psychological health and aging.
October 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773695/rhythmic-oxygen-levels-reset-circadian-clocks-through-hif1%C3%AE
#8
Yaarit Adamovich, Benjamin Ladeuix, Marina Golik, Maarten P Koeners, Gad Asher
The mammalian circadian system consists of a master clock in the brain that synchronizes subsidiary oscillators in peripheral tissues. The master clock maintains phase coherence in peripheral cells through systemic cues such as feeding-fasting and temperature cycles. Here, we examined the role of oxygen as a resetting cue for circadian clocks. We continuously measured oxygen levels in living animals and detected daily rhythms in tissue oxygenation. Oxygen cycles, within the physiological range, were sufficient to synchronize cellular clocks in a HIF1α-dependent manner...
October 19, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771773/case-control-study-of-candidate-gene-methylation-and-adenomatous-polyp-formation
#9
M Alexander, J B Burch, S E Steck, C-F Chen, T G Hurley, P Cavicchia, N Shivappa, J Guess, H Zhang, S D Youngstedt, K E Creek, S Lloyd, K Jones, J R Hébert
PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and preventable forms of cancer but remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Colorectal adenomas are precursor lesions that develop in 70-90 % of CRC cases. Identification of peripheral biomarkers for adenomas would help to enhance screening efforts. This exploratory study examined the methylation status of 20 candidate markers in peripheral blood leukocytes and their association with adenoma formation. METHODS: Patients recruited from a local endoscopy clinic provided informed consent and completed an interview to ascertain demographic, lifestyle, and adenoma risk factors...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754233/os-33-09-association-of-clock-gene-polymorphism-with-insulin-resistance-in-hypertension-a-case-control-study
#10
Huan Wang, Hui Chen
OBJECTIVE: Circadian rhythm disruption is shown to be the cause of various health disorders. CLOCK and BMAL1, two core circadian transcription factors, were associated with the regulation of glucose homeostasis. This study evaluated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in CLOCK and BMAL1 gene and insulin resistance (IR) in hypertensive patients. DESIGN AND METHOD: We collected 334 outpatients with essential hypertension (EH), who have not taken any antihypertensive agents or stopped the medications for at least a week for this case-control study...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749086/the-functional-and-clinical-significance-of-the-24-h-rhythm-of-circulating-glucocorticoids
#11
Henrik Oster, Etienne Challet, Volker Ott, Emanuela Arvat, E Ronald de Kloet, Derk-Jan Dijk, Stafford Lightman, Alexandros Vgontzas, Eve Van Cauter
Adrenal glucocorticoids are major modulators of multiple functions, including energy metabolism, stress responses, immunity, and cognition. The endogenous secretion of glucocorticoids is normally characterized by a prominent and robust circadian (around 24 hours) oscillation, with a daily peak around the time of the habitual sleep-wake transition and minimal levels in the evening and early part of the night. It has been long recognized that this 24-h rhythm partly reflects the activity of a master circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus...
October 17, 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726011/analysis-of-spontaneous-activity-of-superficial-dorsal-horn-neurons-in-vitro-neuropathy-induced-changes
#12
Carolina Roza, Irene Mazo, Iván Rivera-Arconada, Elsa Cisneros, Ismel Alayón, José A López-García
The superficial dorsal horn contains large numbers of interneurons which process afferent and descending information to generate the spinal nociceptive message. Here, we set out to evaluate whether adjustments in patterns and/or temporal correlation of spontaneous discharges of these neurons are involved in the generation of central sensitization caused by peripheral nerve damage. Multielectrode arrays were used to record from discrete groups of such neurons in slices from control or nerve damaged mice. Whole-cell recordings of individual neurons were also obtained...
October 10, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725099/modulation-of-the-circadian-clock-by-glucocorticoid-receptor-isoforms-in-the-h295r-cell-line
#13
Zsolt Nagy, Alexa Marta, Henriett Butz, Istvan Liko, Karoly Racz, Attila Patocs
Peripheral clocks are set by different nervous, hormonal and metabolic stimuli, and regulate the circadian expression of several genes. We investigated whether a peripheral clock could be induced in the human adrenocortical cell line H295R and whether glucocorticoid receptor isoforms (GRα and GRß) are involved in this clock system. After synchronization of cells with serum shock, the rhythmic oscillation of clock genes PER1, PER2, REV-ERBα, and ARNTL was confirmed. In addition, H295R cells even without serum shock showed rhythmic expression of PER1, PER2, CRY1 and ARNTL...
October 8, 2016: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703199/l-ornithine-affects-peripheral-clock-gene-expression-in-mice
#14
Takafumi Fukuda, Atsushi Haraguchi, Mari Kuwahara, Kaai Nakamura, Yutaro Hamaguchi, Yuko Ikeda, Yuko Ishida, Guanying Wang, Chise Shirakawa, Yoko Tanihata, Kazuaki Ohara, Shigenobu Shibata
The peripheral circadian clock is entrained by factors in the external environment such as scheduled feeding, exercise, and mental and physical stresses. In addition, recent studies in mice demonstrated that some food components have the potential to control the peripheral circadian clock during scheduled feeding, although information about these components remains limited. l-Ornithine is a type of non-protein amino acid that is present in foods and has been reported to have various physiological functions...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702781/differential-phasing-between-circadian-clocks-in-the-brain-and-peripheral-organs-in-humans
#15
Jacob J Hughey, Atul J Butte
The daily timing of mammalian physiology is coordinated by circadian clocks throughout the body. Although measurements of clock gene expression indicate that these clocks in mice are normally in phase with each other, the situation in humans remains unclear. We used publicly available data from five studies, comprising over 1000 samples, to compare the phasing of circadian gene expression in human brain and human blood. Surprisingly, after controlling for age, clock gene expression in brain was phase-delayed by ~8...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690690/dissociation-of-molecular-and-endocrine-circadian-rhythms-in-male-mice-lacking-bmal1-in-the-adrenal-cortex
#16
Rebecca Dumbell, Alexei Leliavski, Olga Matveeva, Christopher Blaum, Anthony H Tsang, Henrik Oster
The circadian rhythm of glucocorticoids affects diverse physiological systems, including stress responses and the coordination of rhythmic functions in peripheral and central tissues. Circadian clocks are considered to be important coordinators of glucocorticoid release and loss of the core clock component BMAL1 leads to ablation of behavioural and physiological rhythms, hypocortisolism, impaired ACTH and behavioural stress responses. Transplantation and conditional clock gene knock-down studies in mice suggest an important role of local adrenocortical clock function in this context...
October 3, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686098/rev-erb%C3%AE-influences-stability-and-nuclear-localization-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor
#17
Takashi Okabe, Rohit Chavan, Sara S Fonseca Costa, Andrea Brenna, Jürgen A Ripperger, Urs Albrecht
REV-ERBα (Nr1d1) is a nuclear receptor that is part of the circadian clock mechanism and regulates metabolism and inflammatory processes. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, Nr3c1) influences similar processes, but is not part of the circadian clock although glucocorticoid signaling affects resetting of the circadian clock in peripheral tissues. Because of their similar impact on physiological processes we studied the interplay between these two nuclear receptors. We found that REV-ERBα binds to the C-terminal part and GR to the N-terminal part of HSP90, a chaperone responsible for the activation of proteins to ensure survival of a cell...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668547/ultradian-feeding-in-mice-not-only-affects-the-peripheral-clock-in-the-liver-but-also-the-master-clock-in-the-brain
#18
Satish Sen, Hélène Raingard, Stéphanie Dumont, Andries Kalsbeek, Patrick Vuillez, Etienne Challet
Restricted feeding during the resting period causes pronounced shifts in a number of peripheral clocks, but not the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). By contrast, daily caloric restriction impacts also the light-entrained SCN clock, as indicated by shifted oscillations of clock (PER1) and clock-controlled (vasopressin) proteins. To determine if these SCN changes are due to the metabolic or timing cues of the restricted feeding, mice were challenged with an ultradian 6-meals schedule (1 food access every 4 h) to abolish the daily periodicity of feeding...
September 26, 2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664156/role-of-circadian-gene-clock-during-differentiation-of-mouse-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Chao Lu, Yang Yang, Ran Zhao, Bingxuan Hua, Chen Xu, Zuoqin Yan, Ning Sun, Ruizhe Qian
Biological rhythms controlled by the circadian clock are absent in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, they start to develop during the differentiation of pluripotent ESCs to downstream cells. Conversely, biological rhythms in adult somatic cells disappear when they are reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These studies indicated that the development of biological rhythms in ESCs might be closely associated with the maintenance and differentiation of ESCs. The core circadian gene Clock is essential for regulation of biological rhythms...
November 2016: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661138/mechanisms-of-hormonal-regulation-of-the-peripheral-circadian-clock-in-the-colon
#20
Lenka Polidarová, Pavel Houdek, Martin Sládek, Zuzana Novosadová, Jiří Pácha, Alena Sumová
Colonic function is controlled by an endogenous clock that allows the colon to optimize its function on the daytime basis. For the first time, this study provided evidence that the clock is synchronized by rhythmic hormonal signals. In rat colon, adrenalectomy decreased and repeated applications of dexamethasone selectively rescued circadian rhythm in the expression of the clock gene Per1. Dexamethasone entrained the colonic clock in explants from mPer2(Luc) mice in vitro. In contrast, pinealectomy had no effect on the rat colonic clock, and repeated melatonin injections were not able to rescue the clock in animals maintained in constant light...
September 23, 2016: Chronobiology International
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