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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644786/potential-role-of-the-pancreatic-hormone-insulin-in-resetting-human-peripheral-clocks
#1
Jun Kajimoto, Ritsuko Matsumura, Koichi Node, Makoto Akashi
Mammalian circadian rhythms are phase-adjusted and amplified by external cues such as light and food. While the light input pathway via the central clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, has been well defined, the mechanism of feeding-induced circadian resetting remains undefined, particularly in humans. Animal studies have indicated that insulin, a pancreatic hormone that is secreted rapidly in response to feeding, is an input factor for a few peripheral clocks, such as liver and adipose tissue. In this study, using plucked and cultured hair follicles as a representative human peripheral clock, we examined the effect of insulin on circadian characteristics of clock gene expression...
April 11, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615925/on-variations-in-the-level-of-per-in-glial-clocks-of-drosophila-optic-lobe-and-its-negative-regulation-by-pdf-signaling
#2
Jolanta Górska-Andrzejak, Elżbieta M Chwastek, Lucyna Walkowicz, Kacper Witek
We show that the level of the core protein of the circadian clock Period (PER) expressed by glial peripheral oscillators depends on their location in the Drosophila optic lobe. It appears to be controlled by the ventral lateral neurons (LNvs) that release the circadian neurotransmitter Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF). We demonstrate that glial cells of the distal medulla neuropil (dMnGl) that lie in the vicinity of the PDF-releasing terminals of the LNvs possess receptors for PDF (PDFRs) and express PER at significantly higher level than other types of glia...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614021/non-metastatic-cutaneous-melanoma-induces-chronodisruption-in-central-and-peripheral-circadian-clocks
#3
Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro de Assis, Maria Nathália Moraes, Keila Karoline Magalhães-Marques, Gabriela Sarti Kinker, Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Ana Maria de Lauro Castrucci
The biological clock has received increasing interest due to its key role in regulating body homeostasis in a time-dependent manner. Cancer development and progression has been linked to a disrupted molecular clock; however, in melanoma, the role of the biological clock is largely unknown. We investigated the effects of the tumor on its micro- (TME) and macro-environments (TMaE) in a non-metastatic melanoma model. C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with murine B16-F10 melanoma cells and 2 weeks later the animals were euthanized every 6 h during 24 h...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596920/the-involvement-of-sympathetic-nervous-system-in-essence-of-chicken-facilitated-physiological-adaption-and-circadian-resetting
#4
Yinhua Ni, Lingyan Ma, Tao Wu, Ai Lin Lim, Wanjing Zhang, Luna Yang, Yoshihiro Nakao, Zhengwei Fu
AIM: The impact of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) on the regulation of circadian rhythm and physiological functions is still not clear. Previous studies have found that essence of chicken (EC) supplementation facilitated the physiological adaption and circadian resetting in rats subjected to jet lag. Herein, the effects of SNS on the circadian clock and the hypothesis that EC-induced acceleration of circadian resetting is dependent on the SNS are investigated. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats with superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx) were used to investigate the role of the SNS in circadian rhythm and physiological functions...
March 26, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588368/clock-phosphorylation-by-akt-regulates-its-nuclear-accumulation-and-circadian-gene-expression-in-peripheral-tissues
#5
Amelia K Luciano, Wenping Zhou, Jeans M Santana, Cleo Kyriakides, Heino Velazquez, William C Sessa
Circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) is a transcription factor which activates transcription of clock-controlled genes (CCG) by heterodimerizing with BMAL1 and binding to E-box elements on DNA. While several phosphorylation sites on CLOCK have already been identified, this study characterizes a novel phosphorylation site at Serine 845 (S836 in humans). Here we show that CLOCK is a novel AKT substrate in vitro and in cells, and this phosphorylation site is a negative regulator of CLOCK nuclear localization by acting as a binding site for 14-3-3 proteins...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561690/differential-roles-for-cryptochromes-in-the-mammalian-retinal-clock
#6
Jovi C Y Wong, Nicola J Smyllie, Gareth T Banks, Carina A Pothecary, Alun R Barnard, Elizabeth S Maywood, Aarti Jagannath, Steven Hughes, Gijsbertus T J van der Horst, Robert E MacLaren, Mark W Hankins, Michael H Hastings, Patrick M Nolan, Russell G Foster, Stuart N Peirson
Cryptochromes 1 and 2 (CRY1/2) are key components of the negative limb of the mammalian circadian clock. Like many peripheral tissues, Cry1 and -2 are expressed in the retina, where they are thought to play a role in regulating rhythmic physiology. However, studies differ in consensus as to their localization and function, and CRY1 immunostaining has not been convincingly demonstrated in the retina. Here we describe the expression and function of CRY1 and -2 in the mouse retina in both sexes. Unexpectedly, we show that CRY1 is expressed throughout all retinal layers, whereas CRY2 is restricted to the photoreceptor layer...
March 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534090/asymmetric-expression-level-of-clock-genes-in-left-vs-right-nasal-mucosa-in-humans-with-and-without-allergies-and-in-rats-circadian-characteristics-and-possible-contribution-to-nasal-cycle
#7
Ha Kyun Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Jae Hyung Kim, Tae Hoon Kim, Sang Hag Lee
Numerous peripheral tissues possess self-sustaining daily biologic rhythms that are regulated at the molecular level by clock genes such as PER1, PER2, CLOCK, and BMAL1. Physiological function of nasal mucosa exhibits rhythmic variability to a day-night environmental cycle. Nevertheless, little is known of the expression and distribution pattern of clock genes in nasal mucosa. The present study investigates the expression level and distribution pattern of PER1, PER2, CLOCK, and BMAL1 genes in nasal mucosa of healthy controls, allergic rhinitis patients, and normal rats...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504913/circadian-succession-of-molecular-processes-in-living-tissues
#8
Abeer Fadda, Mohammed El Anbari, Andrey Ptitsyn
BACKGROUND: Oscillations of different origin, period and amplitude play an important role in the regulation of cellular processes. Most widely studied is the circadian or approximately daily variation in gene expression activity. Timing of gene expression is controlled by internal molecular clock keeping steady periodic expression. In this study, we shift attention towards a broad range of periodically expressed genes involved in multiple cellular functions which may or may not be under direct control of the intrinsic circadian clock...
February 13, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491838/iron-sulfur-and-molybdenum-cofactor-enzymes-regulate-the-drosophila-life-cycle-by-controlling-cell-metabolism
#9
Zvonimir Marelja, Silke Leimkühler, Fanis Missirlis
Iron sulfur (Fe-S) clusters and the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) are present at enzyme sites, where the active metal facilitates electron transfer. Such enzyme systems are soluble in the mitochondrial matrix, cytosol and nucleus, or embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane, but virtually absent from the cell secretory pathway. They are of ancient evolutionary origin supporting respiration, DNA replication, transcription, translation, the biosynthesis of steroids, heme, catabolism of purines, hydroxylation of xenobiotics, and cellular sulfur metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490014/the-circadian-clock-in-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue-mechanistic-endocrine-and-clinical-aspects
#10
Oren Froy, Marta Garaulet
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of illnesses, such as insulin resistance and hypertension and has become a serious public health problem. Mammals have developed a circadian clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) that responds to the environmental light-dark cycle. Clocks similar to the one located in the SCN are found in peripheral tissues, such as the kidney, liver and adipose tissue. The circadian clock regulates metabolism and energy homeostasis in peripheral tissues by mediating activity and/or expression of key metabolic enzymes and transport systems...
February 27, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466329/circadian-clock-neurons-constantly-monitor-environmental-temperature-to-set-sleep-timing
#11
Swathi Yadlapalli, Chang Jiang, Andrew Bahle, Pramod Reddy, Edgar Meyhofer, Orie T Shafer
Circadian clocks coordinate behaviour, physiology and metabolism with Earth's diurnal cycle. These clocks entrain to both light and temperature cycles, and daily environmental temperature oscillations probably contribute to human sleep patterns. However, the neural mechanisms through which circadian clocks monitor environmental temperature and modulate behaviour remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate how the circadian clock neuron network of Drosophila melanogaster processes changes in environmental temperature...
February 21, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463694/desynchrony-between-brain-and-peripheral-clocks-caused-by-ck1%C3%AE-%C3%AE%C2%B5-disruption-in-gaba-neurons-does-not-lead-to-adverse-metabolic-outcomes
#12
Vincent van der Vinne, Steven J Swoap, Thomas J Vajtay, David R Weaver
Circadian disruption as a result of shift work is associated with adverse metabolic consequences. Internal desynchrony between the phase of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and peripheral clocks is widely believed to be a major factor contributing to these adverse consequences, but this hypothesis has never been tested directly. A GABAergic Cre driver combined with conditional casein kinase mutations ( Vgat-Cre + CK1δ fl/fl ε fl/+ ) was used to lengthen the endogenous circadian period in GABAergic neurons, including the SCN, but not in peripheral tissues, to create a Discordant mouse model...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460036/the-mammalian-circadian-system-a-hierarchical-multi-oscillator-structure-for-generating-circadian-rhythm
#13
REVIEW
Sato Honma
The circadian nature of physiology and behavior is regulated by a circadian clock that generates intrinsic rhythms with a periodicity of approximately 24 h. The mammalian circadian system is composed of a hierarchical multi-oscillator structure, with the central clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus regulating the peripheral clocks found throughout the body. In the past two decades, key clock genes have been discovered in mammals and shown to be interlocked in transcriptional and translational feedback loops...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444258/modeling-the-influence-of-seasonal-differences-in-the-hpa-axis-on-synchronization-of-the-circadian-clock-and-cell-cycle
#14
Kamau Pierre, Rohit T Rao, Clara Hartmanshenn, Ioannis P Androulakis
Synchronization of biological functions to environmental signals enables organisms to anticipate and appropriately respond to daily external fluctuations and is critical to the maintenance of homeostasis. Misalignment of circadian rhythms with environmental cues is associated with adverse health outcomes. Cortisol, the downstream effector of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, facilitates synchronization of peripheral biological processes to the environment. Cortisol levels exhibit substantial seasonal rhythmicity, with peak levels occurring during the short-photoperiod winter months and reduced levels occurring in the long-photoperiod summer season...
February 12, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430321/interaction-between-stress-responses-and-circadian-metabolism-in-metabolic-disease
#15
Zhao Yang, Hyunbae Kim, Arushana Ali, Ze Zheng, Kezhong Zhang
Circadian rhythms play crucial roles in orchestrating diverse physiological processes that are critical for health and disease. Dysregulated circadian rhythms are closely associated with various human metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Modern lifestyles are frequently associated with an irregular circadian rhythm, which poses a significant risk to public health. While the central clock has a set periodicity, circadian oscillators in peripheral organs, particularly in the liver, can be entrained by metabolic alterations or stress cues...
September 2017: Liver Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411926/cry1-deficiency-leads-to-testicular-dysfunction-and-altered-expression-of-genes-involved-in-cell-communication-chromatin-reorganization-spermatogenesis-and-immune-response-in-mouse-testis
#16
Chong Li, Shiwei Xiao, Jie Hao, Xiaogang Liao, Gang Li
Cryptochrome (Cry)1 is essential for generating circadian rhythm in central and many peripheral oscillators; however, its role in male reproduction remains unclear. We investigated this question using Cry1 knockout (KO) mice. We found that Cry1 is necessary for normal testicular function: Cry1 deficiency increased testicular germ cell apoptosis and decreased sperm count. A transcriptome analysis showed that the expression levels of 375 genes-including 12 encoding micro (mi)RNAs-were altered in the testis of Cry1 KO mice relative to wild-type controls...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396301/glucagon-and-or-igf-1-production-regulates-resetting-of-the-liver-circadian-clock-in-response-to-a-protein-or-amino-acid-only-diet
#17
Yuko Ikeda, Mayo Kamagata, Mizuho Hirao, Shinnosuke Yasuda, Shiho Iwami, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Miku Tsubosaka, Yuta Hattori, Ai Todoh, Konomi Tamura, Kazuto Shiga, Teiji Ohtsu, Shigenobu Shibata
The circadian system controls the behavior and multiple physiological functions. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) acts as the master pacemaker and regulates the circadian clocks of peripheral tissues. The SCN receives information regarding the light-dark cycle and is thus synchronized to the external 24-hour environment. In contrast, peripheral clocks, such as the liver clock, receive information from the SCN and other factors; in particular, food intake which leads to insulin secretion induces strong entrainment of the liver clock...
January 26, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385702/altered-circadian-timing-system-mediated-non-dipping-pattern-of-blood-pressure-and-associated-cardiovascular-disorders-in-metabolic-and-kidney-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Asadur Rahman, Arif Ul Hasan, Akira Nishiyama, Hiroyuki Kobori
The morning surge in blood pressure (BP) coincides with increased cardiovascular (CV) events. This strongly suggests that an altered circadian rhythm of BP plays a crucial role in the development of CV disease (CVD). A disrupted circadian rhythm of BP, such as the non-dipping type of hypertension (i.e., absence of nocturnal BP decline), is frequently observed in metabolic disorders and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The circadian timing system, controlled by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and/or by peripheral clocks in the heart, vasculature, and kidneys, modulates the 24 h oscillation of BP...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382695/regulation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-dynamics-and-pathology-by-the-circadian-clock
#19
Geraldine J Kress, Fan Liao, Julie Dimitry, Michelle R Cedeno, Garret A FitzGerald, David M Holtzman, Erik S Musiek
Nighttime restlessness and daytime drowsiness are common and early symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). This symptomology implicates dysfunctional biological timing, yet the role of the circadian system in AD pathogenesis is unknown. To evaluate the role of the circadian clock in amyloid-β (Aβ) dynamics and pathology, we used a mouse model of β-amyloidosis and disrupted circadian clock function either globally or locally in the brain via targeted deletion of the core clock gene Bmal1 Our results demonstrate that loss of central circadian rhythms leads to disruption of daily hippocampal interstitial fluid Aβ oscillations and accelerates amyloid plaque accumulation, whereas loss of peripheral Bmal1 in the brain parenchyma increases expression of Apoe and promotes fibrillar plaque deposition...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377796/a-low-power-wearable-stand-alone-tongue-drive-system-for-people-with-severe-disabilities
#20
Ali Jafari, Nathanael Buswell, Maysam Ghovanloo, Tinoosh Mohsenin
This paper presents a low-power stand-alone tongue drive system (sTDS) used for individuals with severe disabilities to potentially control their environment such as computer, smartphone, and wheelchair using their voluntary tongue movements. A low-power local processor is proposed, which can perform signal processing to convert raw magnetic sensor signals to user-defined commands, on the sTDS wearable headset, rather than sending all raw data out to a PC or smartphone. The proposed sTDS significantly reduces the transmitter power consumption and subsequently increases the battery life...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
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