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Peripheral clock

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933632/influence-of-light-and-food-on-the-circadian-clock-in-liver-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#1
Juan Hernández-Pérez, Jesús M Míguez, Fatemeh Naderi, José L Soengas, Marcos A López-Patiño
Several reports support the existence of multiple peripheral oscillators in fish, which may be able to modulate the rhythmic functions developed by those tissues hosting them. Thus, a circadian oscillator has been proposed to be located within fish liver. In this vertebrate group, the role played by the circadian system in regulating metabolic processes in liver is mostly unknown. We, therefore investigated the liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as a potential element participating in the regulation of circadian rhythms in fish by hosting a functional circadian oscillator...
September 21, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911177/deoxycorticosterone-salt-mediated-cardiac-inflammation-and-fibrosis-are-dependent-on-functional-clock-signaling-in-male-mice
#2
Elizabeth K Fletcher, James Morgan, David R Kennaway, Laura A Bienvenu, Amanda J Rickard, Lea M D Delbridge, Peter J Fuller, Colin D Clyne, Morag J Young
Activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) promotes inflammation, fibrosis, and hypertension. Clinical and experimental studies show that MR antagonists have significant therapeutic benefit for all-cause heart failure; however, blockade of renal MRs limits their widespread use. Identification of key downstream signaling mechanisms for the MR in the cardiovascular system may enable development of targeted MR antagonists with selectivity for pathological MR signaling and lower impact on physiological renal electrolyte handling...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903626/light-dominates-peripheral-circadian-oscillations-in-drosophila-melanogaster-during-sensory-conflict
#3
Ross E F Harper, Maite Ogueta, Peter Dayan, Ralf Stanewsky, Joerg T Albert
In Drosophila, as in other animals, the circadian clock is a singular entity in name and concept only. In reality, clock functions emerge from multiple processes and anatomical substrates. One distinction has conventionally been made between a central clock (in the brain) and peripheral clocks (e.g., in the gut and the eyes). Both types of clock generate robust circadian oscillations, which do not require external input. Furthermore, the phases of these oscillations remain exquisitely sensitive to specific environmental cues, such as the daily changes of light and temperature...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902123/bidirectional-regulation-of-circadian-disturbance-and-inflammation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
Xiaojing Liu, Ran Yu, Liangru Zhu, Xiaohua Hou, Kaifang Zou
BACKGROUND: Tight crosstalk between the circadian and immune systems has been reported in several inflammatory diseases. We hypothesized that circadian timekeeping was perturbed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and that the bidirectional regulation of circadian disturbance and inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. METHODS: Patients with ulcerative colitis (51) and Crohn's disease (39) and 42 healthy controls were recruited and their circadian gene expression levels evaluated...
October 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893605/oscillator-networks-with-tissue-specific-circadian-clocks-in-plants
#5
REVIEW
Keisuke Inoue, Takashi Araki, Motomu Endo
Many organisms rely on circadian clocks to synchronize their biological processes with the 24-hour rotation of the earth. In mammals, the circadian clock consists of a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral clocks in other tissues. The central clock is tightly coupled to synchronize rhythmicity and can organize peripheral clocks through neural and hormonal signals. In contrast to mammals, it has long been assumed that the circadian clocks in each plant cell is able to be entrained by external light, and they are only weakly coupled to each other...
September 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868166/day-time-isoflurane-administration-suppresses-circadian-gene-expressions-in-both-the-brain-and-a-peripheral-organ-liver
#6
Necati Gökmen, İbrahim Barış, Elvan Öçmen, Osman Yılmaz, Ali Günerli, İbrahim Halil Kavaklı
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of light and administration time of isoflurane on circadian gene expression in the brains and liver tissues of rats kept in light-dark cycle. METHODS: Seventy two 15-days-old rats pups were divided into four groups. All animals were exposed to 1.5% concentration of isoflurane or to 6 L min(-1) O2 for six hours between Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 0-ZT06 (day-time administration) or ZT12-ZT18 (night-time administration)...
August 2017: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862076/timing-the-microbes-the-circadian-rhythm-of-the-gut-microbiome
#7
Xue Liang, Garret A FitzGerald
The mammalian circadian clock system, which includes the master clock and peripheral clocks, times different biological processes in reaction to external cues, such as the light-dark cycle. However, the chronobiology of prokaryotic cells is less well understood, except for in cyanobacteria. The recent blooming of gut microbiome research has revealed a critical role for the trillions of microbes residing in the vertebrate gut in determining both health and disease in the host. The question of whether the gut microbiome exhibits circadian oscillation and how it synchronizes with the host circadian clock has attracted considerable interest...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844699/circadian-clocks-and-metabolism-implications-for-microbiome-and-aging
#8
REVIEW
Georgios K Paschos, Garret A FitzGerald
The circadian clock directs many aspects of metabolism, to separate in time opposing metabolic pathways and optimize metabolic efficiency. The master circadian clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus synchronizes to light, while environmental cues such as temperature and feeding, out of phase with the light schedule, may synchronize peripheral clocks. This misalignment of central and peripheral clocks may be involved in the development of disease and the acceleration of aging, possibly in a gender-specific manner...
October 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821614/multiple-circadian-transcriptional-elements-cooperatively-regulate-cell-autonomous-transcriptional-oscillation-of-period3-a-mammalian-clock-gene
#9
Ritsuko Matsumura, Makoto Akashi
Cell-autonomous oscillation in clock gene expression drives circadian rhythms. The development of comprehensive analytical techniques, such as bioinformatics and ChIP-sequencing, has enabled the genome-wide identification of potential circadian transcriptional elements that regulate the transcriptional oscillation of clock genes. However, detailed analyses using traditional biochemical and molecular-biological approaches, such as binding and reporter assays, are still necessary to determine whether these potential circadian transcriptional elements are actually functional and how significantly they contribute to driving transcriptional oscillation...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817668/titanium-biomaterials-with-complex-surfaces-induced-aberrant-peripheral-circadian-rhythms-in-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#10
Nathaniel Hassan, Kirstin McCarville, Kenzo Morinaga, Cristiane M Mengatto, Peter Langfelder, Akishige Hokugo, Yu Tahara, Christopher S Colwell, Ichiro Nishimura
Circadian rhythms maintain a high level of homeostasis through internal feed-forward and -backward regulation by core molecules. In this study, we report the highly unusual peripheral circadian rhythm of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) induced by titanium-based biomaterials with complex surface modifications (Ti biomaterial) commonly used for dental and orthopedic implants. When cultured on Ti biomaterials, human BMSCs suppressed circadian PER1 expression patterns, while NPAS2 was uniquely upregulated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802039/circadian-reprogramming-in-the-liver-identifies-metabolic-pathways-of-aging
#11
Shogo Sato, Guiomar Solanas, Francisca Oliveira Peixoto, Leonardo Bee, Aikaterini Symeonidi, Mark S Schmidt, Charles Brenner, Selma Masri, Salvador Aznar Benitah, Paolo Sassone-Corsi
The process of aging and circadian rhythms are intimately intertwined, but how peripheral clocks involved in metabolic homeostasis contribute to aging remains unknown. Importantly, caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan in several organisms and rewires circadian metabolism. Using young versus old mice, fed ad libitum or under CR, we reveal reprogramming of the circadian transcriptome in the liver. These age-dependent changes occur in a highly tissue-specific manner, as demonstrated by comparing circadian gene expression in the liver versus epidermal and skeletal muscle stem cells...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799406/a-polymorphic-ggc-repeat-in-the-npas2-gene-and-its-association-with-melanoma
#12
Alessandra Franzoni, Elitza Markova-Car, Sanja Dević-Pavlić, Davor Jurišić, Cinzia Puppin, Catia Mio, Marila De Luca, Giulia Petruz, Giuseppe Damante, Sandra Kraljević Pavelić
Circadian clock regulation in mammals is controlled by feedback loops of a set of circadian genes. One of these circadian genes, NPAS2, encodes for a member of the bHLH-PAS class of transcription factors and is expressed in the forebrain and in some peripheral organs such as liver and skin. Other biological processes are also regulated by circadian genes. For example, NPAS2 is involved in cell proliferation, DNA damage repair and malignant transformation. Aberrant expression of clock genes has been previously observed in melanoma which led to our effort to sequence the NPAS2 promoter region in this cancer type...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797891/the-impact-of-peripheral-serotonin-on-leptin-brain-serotonin-axis-bone-metabolism-and-strength-in-growing-rats-with-experimental-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Dariusz Pawlak, Tomasz Domaniewski, Beata Znorko, Ewa Oksztulska-Kolanek, Paweł Lipowicz, Michał Doroszko, Malgorzata Karbowska, Krystyna Pawlak
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in decreased bone strength. Serotonin (5-HT) is one of the critical regulators of bone health, fulfilling distinct functions depending on its synthesis site: brain-derived serotonin (BDS) favors osteoblast proliferation, whereas gut-derived serotonin (GDS) inhibits it. We assessed the role of BDS and peripheral leptin in the regulation of bone metabolism and strength in young rats with 5/6 nephrectomy. BDS synthesis was accelerated during CKD progression. Decreased peripheral leptin in CKD rats was inversely related to BDS content in the hypothalamus, brainstem and frontal cortex...
August 7, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794907/rai1-overexpression-promotes-altered-circadian-gene-expression-and-dyssomnia-in-potocki-lupski-syndrome
#14
Sureni V Mullegama, Joseph T Alaimo, Michael D Fountain, Brooke Burns, Amanda Hebert Balog, Li Chen, Sarah H Elsea
Retinoic acid induced 1 ( RAI1 ) encodes a dosage-sensitive gene that when haploinsufficient results in Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) and when overexpressed results in Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS). Phenotypic and molecular evidence illustrates that haploinsufficiency of RAI1 disrupts circadian rhythm through the dysregulation of the master circadian regulator, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput ( CLOCK) , and other core circadian components, contributing to prominent sleep disturbances in SMS. However, the phenotypic and molecular characterization of sleep features in PTLS has not been elucidated...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781048/drosophila-cry-entrains-clocks-in-body-tissues-to-light-and-maintains-passive-membrane-properties-in-a-non-clock-body-tissue-independent-of-light
#15
Parul Agrawal, Jerry H Houl, Kushan L Gunawardhana, Tianxin Liu, Jian Zhou, Mark J Zoran, Paul E Hardin
Circadian (∼24 hr) clocks regulate daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior via cell-autonomous transcriptional feedback loops. In Drosophila, the blue-light photoreceptor CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) synchronizes these feedback loops to light:dark cycles by binding to and degrading TIMELESS (TIM) protein. CRY also acts independently of TIM in Drosophila to alter potassium channel conductance in arousal neurons after light exposure, and in many animals CRY acts independently of light to repress rhythmic transcription...
August 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780783/implications-of-circadian-rhythm-in-dopamine-and-mood-regulation
#16
REVIEW
Jeongah Kim, Sangwon Jang, Han Kyoung Choe, Sooyoung Chung, Gi Hoon Son, Kyungjin Kim
Mammalian physiology and behavior are regulated by an internal time-keeping system, referred to as circadian rhythm. The circadian timing system has a hierarchical organization composed of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and local clocks in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral organs. The circadian clock molecular mechanism involves a network of transcription-translation feedback loops. In addition to the clinical association between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders, recent studies have suggested a molecular link between mood regulation and circadian rhythm...
July 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775376/altered-circadian-feeding-behavior-and-improvement-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-tac1-deficient-mice
#17
C A Maguire, S León, R S Carroll, U B Kaiser, V M Navarro
BACKGROUND: Metabolic function is regulated by the interplay of central and peripheral factors that ultimately regulate food intake and energy expenditure. The tachykinin substance P (SP) has been identified as a novel regulator of energy balance, however, the mechanisms underlying this effect are ill-defined and conflicting data regarding the role of SP on food intake have been reported by different groups. OBJECTIVE: To further characterize the metabolic role of the Tac1 gene products (SP and neurokinin A (NKA)) in mice through a series of genetic, metabolic and behavioral studies in Tac1 deficient mice...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755004/a-simple-method-using-ex-vivo-culture-of-hair-follicle-tissue-to-investigate-intrinsic-circadian-characteristics-in-humans
#18
Ai Yamaguchi, Ritsuko Matsumura, Takashi Matsuzaki, Wataru Nakamura, Koichi Node, Makoto Akashi
Almost all organisms maintain a circadian clock from birth to death to synchronize their own physiology and behavior with the earth's rotation. Because the in vivo evaluation of human circadian characteristics is labor-intensive, in vitro or ex vivo approaches could provide advantages. In this study, to enable the simple and non-invasive evaluation of autonomous circadian oscillation, we established a method for monitoring clock gene expression by performing ex vivo culture of whole hair root tissue. This method is extremely simple and imposes little burden on subjects...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747460/carbon-monoxide-preserves-circadian-rhythm-to-reduce-the-severity-of-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-mice
#19
Nils Schallner, Judith-Lisa Lieberum, David Gallo, Robert H LeBlanc, Patrick M Fuller, Khalid A Hanafy, Leo E Otterbein
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with a temporal pattern of stroke incidence. We hypothesized that natural oscillations in gene expression controlling circadian rhythm affect the severity of neuronal injury. We moreover predict that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1/Hmox1) and its product carbon monoxide (CO) contribute to the restoration of rhythm and neuroprotection. METHODS: Murine SAH model was used where blood was injected at various time points of the circadian cycle...
September 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739049/polyporus-and-bupleuri-radix-effectively-alter-peripheral-circadian-clock-phase-acutely-in-male-mice
#20
Hiroaki Motohashi, Haruna Sukigara, Yu Tahara, Keisuke Saito, Mayu Yamazaki, Takuya Shiraishi, Yosuke Kikuchi, Atsushi Haraguchi, Shigenobu Shibata
In mammals, daily physiological events are precisely regulated by an internal circadian clock system. An important function of this system is to readjust the phase of the clock daily. In Japan, traditional herb medicines, so-called crude drugs (Shoyaku), are widely used for many diseases, and some are reported to affect circadian clock impairment, suggesting that some of them might have an ability to modify clock gene expression rhythms. Therefore, from selected 40 crude drugs, finding candidates that control the circadian clock phases was the first purpose of this study...
July 2017: Nutrition Research
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