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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671706/circadian-regulation-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-retinal-photoreceptors
#1
Janet Ya-An Chang, Liheng Shi, Michael L Ko, Gladys Y-P Ko
Energy expenditure and metabolism in the vertebrate retina are under circadian control, as we previously reported that the overall retinal ATP content and various signaling molecules related to metabolism display daily or circadian rhythms. Changes in the fission and fusion process of mitochondria, the major organelles producing ATP, in retinal photoreceptors are largely dependent on light exposure, but whether mitochondrial dynamics in photoreceptors and retinal neurons are under circadian control is not clear...
April 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671262/developing-mammalian-cellular-clock-models-using-firefly-luciferase-reporter
#2
Chidambaram Ramanathan, Andrew C Liu
In mammals, many aspects of metabolic, physiological, and behavioral processes are regulated by endogenous circadian clocks. Oscillators of different tissue types share a common molecular mechanism at the cellular and molecular level which underlies the rhythmic expression of genes. Individual cells are the functional units for rhythm generation and cell-based clock models offer experimental tractability for discovery. Cellular clock models can be developed by introducing a noninvasive and readily detectable luciferase bioluminescence reporter as a rhythmic output, in which the promoter of a rhythmically expressed gene is fused with the firefly luciferase (Luc) gene...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644786/potential-role-of-the-pancreatic-hormone-insulin-in-resetting-human-peripheral-clocks
#3
Jun Kajimoto, Ritsuko Matsumura, Koichi Node, Makoto Akashi
Mammalian circadian rhythms are phase-adjusted and amplified by external cues such as light and food. While the light input pathway via the central clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, has been well defined, the mechanism of feeding-induced circadian resetting remains undefined, particularly in humans. Animal studies have indicated that insulin, a pancreatic hormone that is secreted rapidly in response to feeding, is an input factor for a few peripheral clocks, such as liver and adipose tissue. In this study, using plucked and cultured hair follicles as a representative human peripheral clock, we examined the effect of insulin on circadian characteristics of clock gene expression...
April 11, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643834/metabolic-impact-on-the-hypothalamic-kisspeptin-kiss1r-signaling-pathway
#4
REVIEW
Fazal Wahab, Bibi Atika, Farhad Ullah, Muhammad Shahab, Rüdiger Behr
A large body of data has established the hypothalamic kisspeptin (KP) and its receptor, KISS1R, as major players in the activation of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis at the time of puberty and maintenance of reproductive capacity in the adult. Due to its strategic location, this ligand-receptor pair acts as an integrator of cues from gonadal steroids as well as of circadian and seasonal variation-related information on the reproductive axis. Besides these cues, the activity of the hypothalamic KP signaling is very sensitive to the current metabolic status of the body...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614896/modeling-strengthens-molecular-link-between-circadian-polymorphisms-and-major-mood-disorders
#5
Amanda R Liberman, Lumbardh Halitjaha, Ahmet Ay, Krista K Ingram
Anxiety and other mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and seasonal affective disorder (SAD), affect nearly one-fifth of the global population and disproportionately affect young adults. Individuals affected by mood disorders are frequently plagued by sleep and circadian problems, and recent genetic studies provide ample support for the association of circadian and sleep syndromes with depression and anxiety. Mathematical modeling has been crucial in understanding some of the essential features of the mammalian circadian clock and is now a vital tool for dissecting how circadian genes regulate the molecular mechanisms that influence mood...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599747/circadian-and-metabolic-perspectives-in-the-role-played-by-nadph-in-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Isabel Méndez, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Physiological activity in healthy conditions requires a coordinated interaction between the molecular circadian clock and the network of biochemical pathways. An important metabolic parameter in the interface between these two entities is the redox state. Among the redox coenzymes that regulate the fluxes of enzymatic reactions is the NADP+ /NADPH pair. Indeed, the main biosynthetic pathways need NADPH to serve as an electron donor for cellular anabolic transformations. The existence of a metabolic circadian clock is well established, and it was first identified in mammalian red blood cells...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593785/circadian-regulation-of-hippocampal-dependent-memory-circuits-synapses-and-molecular-mechanisms
#7
REVIEW
Kaitlin H Snider, Kyle A Sullivan, Karl Obrietan
Circadian modulation of learning and memory efficiency is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon, occurring in organisms ranging from invertebrates to higher mammalian species, including humans. While the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus functions as the master mammalian pacemaker, recent evidence suggests that forebrain regions, including the hippocampus, exhibit oscillatory capacity. This finding, as well as work on the cellular signaling events that underlie learning and memory, has opened promising new avenues of investigation into the precise cellular, molecular, and circuit-based mechanisms by which clock timing impacts plasticity and cognition...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578371/extra-view-sirt1-acts-as-a-gatekeeper-of-replication-initiation-to-preserve-genomic-stability
#8
Koichi Utani, Mirit I Aladjem
Since the discovery of a yeast gene silencing modifier (Silent Information Modifier 2, SIR2) and its role in maintaining genomic stability more than two decades ago, SIR2 homologs (sirtuins) were identified in diverse species. Sirtuins are protein deacetylases that play diverse roles in proper cellular metabolism including cell cycle progression and maintenance of genomic stability. In yeast, SIR2 interacts with replication origins and protein complexes that affect both replication origin usage and gene silencing...
March 26, 2018: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572261/clock-dependent-chromatin-topology-modulates-circadian-transcription-and-behavior
#9
Jérôme Mermet, Jake Yeung, Clémence Hurni, Daniel Mauvoisin, Kyle Gustafson, Céline Jouffe, Damien Nicolas, Yann Emmenegger, Cédric Gobet, Paul Franken, Frédéric Gachon, Félix Naef
The circadian clock in animals orchestrates widespread oscillatory gene expression programs, which underlie 24-h rhythms in behavior and physiology. Several studies have shown the possible roles of transcription factors and chromatin marks in controlling cyclic gene expression. However, how daily active enhancers modulate rhythmic gene transcription in mammalian tissues is not known. Using circular chromosome conformation capture (4C) combined with sequencing (4C-seq), we discovered oscillatory promoter-enhancer interactions along the 24-h cycle in the mouse liver and kidney...
March 23, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567492/paternal-cocaine-disrupts-offspring-circadian-clock-function-in-a-sex-dependent-manner-in-mice
#10
Alexandra M Yaw, Robert W Woodruff, Rebecca A Prosser, J David Glass
The present study is the first to explore the multigenerational effects of mammalian paternal cocaine intake on offspring (F1) circadian clock regulation. Parental cocaine use poses significant health risks to the offspring, through both maternal and paternal drug influences. With respect to the latter, recent evidence suggests that a paternal mode of cocaine inheritance involves epigenetic germ line actions that can ultimately disrupt offspring behavior. Based on our previous report in mice that free-running circadian period (tau) is chronically lengthened following withdrawal from long term cocaine treatment, the present study was undertaken to explore potential epigenetic effects of paternal exposure to cocaine over the ∼40 day murine spermatogenic cycle on F1 circadian regulatory functions...
March 19, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561690/differential-roles-for-cryptochromes-in-the-mammalian-retinal-clock
#11
Jovi C Y Wong, Nicola J Smyllie, Gareth T Banks, Carina A Pothecary, Alun R Barnard, Elizabeth S Maywood, Aarti Jagannath, Steven Hughes, Gijsbertus T J van der Horst, Robert E MacLaren, Mark W Hankins, Michael H Hastings, Patrick M Nolan, Russell G Foster, Stuart N Peirson
Cryptochromes 1 and 2 (CRY1/2) are key components of the negative limb of the mammalian circadian clock. Like many peripheral tissues, Cry1 and -2 are expressed in the retina, where they are thought to play a role in regulating rhythmic physiology. However, studies differ in consensus as to their localization and function, and CRY1 immunostaining has not been convincingly demonstrated in the retina. Here we describe the expression and function of CRY1 and -2 in the mouse retina in both sexes. Unexpectedly, we show that CRY1 is expressed throughout all retinal layers, whereas CRY2 is restricted to the photoreceptor layer...
March 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557749/novel-treatment-strategies-for-the-nervous-system-circadian-clock-genes-non-coding-rnas-and-forkhead-transcription-factors
#12
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: With the global increase in life span expectancy, neurodegenerative disorders continue to affect an ever increasing number of individuals throughout the world. New treatment strategies for neurodegenerative diseases are desperately required given the lack of current treatment modalities. METHODS: Here we examine novel strategies for neurodegenerative disorders that include circadian clock genes, non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNAs), and the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs)...
March 19, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556064/an-evolutionary-hotspot-defines-functional-differences-between-cryptochromes
#13
Clark Rosensweig, Kimberly A Reynolds, Peng Gao, Isara Laothamatas, Yongli Shan, Rama Ranganathan, Joseph S Takahashi, Carla B Green
Mammalian circadian clocks are driven by a transcription/translation feedback loop composed of positive regulators (CLOCK/BMAL1) and repressors (CRYPTOCHROME 1/2 (CRY1/2) and PER1/2). To understand the structural principles of regulation, we used evolutionary sequence analysis to identify co-evolving residues within the CRY/PHL protein family. Here we report the identification of an ancestral secondary cofactor-binding pocket as an interface in repressive CRYs, mediating regulation through direct interaction with CLOCK and BMAL1...
March 19, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555746/mtor-signaling-in-vip-neurons-regulates-circadian-clock-synchrony-and-olfaction
#14
Dong Liu, Adam Stowie, Nuria de Zavalia, Tanya Leise, Salil Saurav Pathak, Lester R Drewes, Alec J Davidson, Shimon Amir, Nahum Sonenberg, Ruifeng Cao
Mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling controls cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism in dividing cells. Less is known regarding its function in postmitotic neurons in the adult brain. Here we created a conditional mTOR knockout mouse model to address this question. Using the Cre-LoxP system, the mTOR gene was specifically knocked out in cells expressing Vip (vasoactive intestinal peptide), which represent a major population of interneurons widely distributed in the neocortex, suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), olfactory bulb (OB), and other brain regions...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540683/the-choroid-plexus-is-an-important-circadian-clock-component
#15
Jihwan Myung, Christoph Schmal, Sungho Hong, Yoshiaki Tsukizawa, Pia Rose, Yong Zhang, Michael J Holtzman, Erik De Schutter, Hanspeter Herzel, Grigory Bordyugov, Toru Takumi
Mammalian circadian clocks have a hierarchical organization, governed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus. The brain itself contains multiple loci that maintain autonomous circadian rhythmicity, but the contribution of the non-SCN clocks to this hierarchy remains unclear. We examine circadian oscillations of clock gene expression in various brain loci and discovered that in mouse, robust, higher amplitude, relatively faster oscillations occur in the choroid plexus (CP) compared to the SCN...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537336/the-prokineticins-neuromodulators-and-mediators-of-inflammation-and-myeloid-cell-dependent-angiogenesis
#16
Lucia Negri, Napoleone Ferrara
The mammalian prokineticins family comprises two conserved proteins, EG-VEGF/PROK1 and Bv8/PROK2, and their two highly related G protein-coupled receptors, PKR1 and PKR2. This signaling system has been linked to several important biological functions, including gastrointestinal tract motility, regulation of circadian rhythms, neurogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer progression, hematopoiesis, and nociception. Mutations in PKR2 or Bv8/PROK2 have been associated with Kallmann syndrome, a developmental disorder characterized by defective olfactory bulb neurogenesis, impaired development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons, and infertility...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534992/the-cryptochrome-inhibitor-ks15-enhances-e-box-mediated-transcription-by-disrupting-the-feedback-action-of-a-circadian-transcription-repressor-complex
#17
Jaebong Jang, Sooyoung Chung, Youjeong Choi, Hye Young Lim, Yeongeon Son, Sung Kook Chun, Gi Hoon Son, Kyungjin Kim, Young-Ger Suh, Jong-Wha Jung
AIMS: We have previously identified a chemical scaffold possessing 2-ethoxypropanoic acid (designated as KS15) that directly binds to the C-terminal region of cryptochromes (CRYs: CRY1 and CRY2) and enhances E-box-mediated transcription. However, it is still unclear how KS15 impairs the feedback actions of the CRYs and which chemical moieties are functionally important for its actions. MAIN METHODS: The E-box-mediated transcriptional activities were mainly used to examine the effects of KS15 and its derivatives...
March 10, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518061/potential-roles-of-dec-and-bmal1-genes-in-interconnecting-circadian-clock-and-energy-metabolism
#18
REVIEW
Fuyuki Sato, Akira Kohsaka, Ujjal K Bhawal, Yasuteru Muragaki
The daily rhythm of mammalian energy metabolism is subject to the circadian clock system, which is made up of the molecular clock machinery residing in nearly all cells throughout the body. The clock genes have been revealed not only to form the molecular clock but also to function as a mediator that regulates both circadian and metabolic functions. While the circadian signals generated by clock genes produce metabolic rhythms, clock gene function is tightly coupled to fundamental metabolic processes such as glucose and lipid metabolism...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511120/campr-a-single-wavelength-fluorescent-sensor-for-cyclic-amp
#19
Christopher R Hackley, Esteban O Mazzoni, Justin Blau
Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors enable cell-specific measurements of ions and small molecules in real time. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is one of the most important signaling molecules in virtually all cell types and organisms. We describe cAMPr, a new single-wavelength cAMP sensor. We developed cAMPr in bacteria and embryonic stem cells and validated the sensor in mammalian neurons in vitro and in Drosophila circadian pacemaker neurons in intact brains. Comparison with other single-wavelength cAMP sensors showed that cAMPr improved the quantitative detection of cAMP abundance...
March 6, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487148/regulation-of-circadian-behavior-by-astroglial-micrornas-in-drosophila
#20
Samantha You, Tudor A Fulga, David Van Vactor, F Rob Jackson
We describe a genome-wide microRNA (miRNA)-based screen to identify brain glial cell functions required for circadian behavior. To identify glial miRNAs that regulate circadian rhythmicity, we employed a collection of "miR-sponges" to inhibit miRNA function in a glia-specific manner. Our initial screen identified 20 glial miRNAs that regulate circadian behavior. We studied two miRNAs, miR-263b and miR-274, in detail and found that both function in adult astrocytes to regulate behavior. Astrocyte-specific inhibition of miR-263b or miR-274 in adults acutely impairs circadian locomotor activity rhythms with no effect on glial or clock neuronal cell viability...
March 2018: Genetics
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