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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905117/melanopsin-expression-in-the-cornea
#1
Anton Delwig, Shawnta Y Chaney, Andrea S Bertke, Jan Verweij, Susana Quirce, Delaine D Larsen, Cindy Yang, Ethan Buhr, Russell VAN Gelder, Juana Gallar, Todd Margolis, David R Copenhagen
A unique class of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in mammalian retinae has been recently discovered and characterized. These neurons can generate visual signals in the absence of inputs from rods and cones, the conventional photoreceptors in the visual system. These light sensitive ganglion cells (mRGCs) express the non-rod, non-cone photopigment melanopsin and play well documented roles in modulating pupil responses to light, photoentrainment of circadian rhythms, mood, sleep and other adaptive light functions...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901982/functional-peptidomics-stimulus-and-time-of-day-specific-peptide-release-in-the-mammalian-circadian-clock
#2
Norman Atkins, Shifang Ren, Nathan G Hatcher, Penny W Burgoon, Jennifer W Mitchell, Jonathan V Sweedler, Martha U Gillette
Daily oscillations of brain and body states are under complex temporal modulation by environmental light and the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock. To better understand mediators of differential temporal modulation, we characterize neuropeptide releasate profiles by non-selective capture of secreted neuropeptides in an optic nerve-horizontal SCN brain slice model. Releasates are collected following electrophysiological stimulation of the optic nerve/retinohypothalamic tract under conditions that alter the phase of SCN activity state...
June 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893687/nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-is-transported-into-mammalian-mitochondria
#3
Antonio Davila, Ling Liu, Karthikeyani Chellappa, Philip Redpath, Eiko Nakamaru-Ogiso, Lauren M Paolella, Zhigang Zhang, Marie E Migaud, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Joseph A Baur
Mitochondrial NAD levels influence fuel selection, circadian rhythms, and cell survival under stress. It has alternately been argued that NAD in mammalian mitochondria arises from import of cytosolic nicotinamide (NAM), nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), or NAD itself. We provide evidence that murine and human mitochondria take up intact NAD. Isolated mitochondria preparations cannot make NAD from NAM, and while NAD is synthesized from NMN, it does not localize to the mitochondrial matrix or effectively support oxidative phosphorylation...
June 12, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888643/rapid-response-and-slow-recovery-of-the-h3k4me3-epigenomic-marker-in-the-liver-after-light-mediated-phase-advances-of-the-circadian-clock
#4
Dmytro Grygoryev, Michael R Rountree, Furaha Rwatambuga, Anna Ohlrich, Ayaka Kukino, Matthew P Butler, Charles N Allen, Mitchell S Turker
Mammalian tissues display circadian rhythms in transcription, translation, and histone modifications. Here we asked how an advance of the light-dark cycle alters daily rhythms in the liver epigenome at the H3K4me3 (trimethylation of lysine 4 on histone 3) modification, which is found at active and poised gene promoters. H3K4me3 levels were first measured at 4 time points (zeitgeber time [ZT] 3, 8, 15, and 20) during a normal 12L:12D light-dark cycle. Peak levels were observed during the early dark phase at ZT15 and dropped to low levels around lights-on (ZT0) between ZT20 and ZT3...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877596/circadian-regulation-of-neutrophils-control-by-a-cell-autonomous-clock-or-systemic-factors
#5
REVIEW
Krisztina Ella, Attila Mócsai, Krisztina Káldi
The circadian time-measuring system enables the organism to anticipate and effectively respond to regular daily changes in the environment and is therefore a crucial factor of adaptation. A large body of epidemiological data underlines the circadian characteristics of human immune functions. Circadian control of neutrophil responsiveness contributes to daily changes in the pathology of both acute and chronic inflammation and may therefore time-dependently influence the outcome of therapeutic approaches. In the first section of this review we present the recent model of the mammalian molecular clock by introducing the main transcription-translation feedback loops and discussing the pace-setting role of post-translational modifications...
June 7, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848280/recent-findings-in-melatonin-research-and-their-relevance-to-the-cns
#6
Rudiger Hardeland
Several recent developments in melatonin research deserve attention and divulgation. The role of melatonin in the brain has been extended to its synthesis in the cerebellum as a response to inflammation, findings that exceed the earlier demonstration of aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase expression. The release of melatonin via the pineal recess into the third ventricle appears to be more important than previously believed and has been discussed as a strong direct signal to the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The mitochondrial role of melatonin has been substantially extended by the demonstration of the melatonin receptor MT1 in this organelle and evidence for melatonin synthesis in mammalian mitochondria, in addition to the previously shown uptake into these organelles...
May 30, 2018: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784789/ck1%C3%AE-%C3%AE%C2%B5-protein-kinase-primes-the-per2-circadian-phosphoswitch
#7
Rajesh Narasimamurthy, Sabrina R Hunt, Yining Lu, Jean-Michel Fustin, Hitoshi Okamura, Carrie L Partch, Daniel B Forger, Jae Kyoung Kim, David M Virshup
Multisite phosphorylation of the PERIOD 2 (PER2) protein is the key step that determines the period of the mammalian circadian clock. Previous studies concluded that an unidentified kinase is required to prime PER2 for subsequent phosphorylation by casein kinase 1 (CK1), an essential clock component that is conserved from algae to humans. These subsequent phosphorylations stabilize PER2, delay its degradation, and lengthen the period of the circadian clock. Here, we perform a comprehensive biochemical and biophysical analysis of mouse PER2 (mPER2) priming phosphorylation and demonstrate, surprisingly, that CK1δ/ε is indeed the priming kinase...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782876/chloride-cotransporter-kcc2-is-essential-for-gabaergic-inhibition-in-the-scn
#8
A H O Olde Engberink, J H Meijer, S Michel
One of the principal neurotransmitters of the central nervous system is GABA. In the adult brain, GABA is predominantly inhibitory, but there is growing evidence indicating that GABA can shift to excitatory action depending on environmental conditions. In the mammalian central circadian clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) GABAergic activity shifts from inhibition to excitation when animals are exposed to long day photoperiod. The polarity of the GABAergic response (inhibitory versus excitatory) depends on the GABA equilibrium potential determined by the intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl- ]i )...
May 18, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778521/vasculature-on-the-clock-circadian-rhythm-and-vascular-dysfunction
#9
REVIEW
Sandra Crnko, Martin Cour, Linda W Van Laake, Sandrine Lecour
The master mammalian circadian clock (i.e. central clock), located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, orchestrates the synchronization of the daily behavioural and physiological rhythms to better adapt the organism to the external environment in an anticipatory manner. This central clock is entrained by a variety of signals, the best established being light and food. However, circadian cycles are not simply the consequences of these two cues but are generated by endogenous circadian clocks...
May 17, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750810/mtor-signaling-regulates-central-and-peripheral-circadian-clock-function
#10
Chidambaram Ramanathan, Nimish D Kathale, Dong Liu, Choogon Lee, David A Freeman, John B Hogenesch, Ruifeng Cao, Andrew C Liu
The circadian clock coordinates physiology and metabolism. mTOR (mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin) is a major intracellular sensor that integrates nutrient and energy status to regulate protein synthesis, metabolism, and cell growth. Previous studies have identified a key role for mTOR in regulating photic entrainment and synchrony of the central circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Given that mTOR activities exhibit robust circadian oscillations in a variety of tissues and cells including the SCN, here we continued to investigate the role of mTOR in orchestrating autonomous clock functions in central and peripheral circadian oscillators...
May 11, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746605/daily-variation-of-gene-expression-in-diverse-rat-tissues
#11
Panteleimon D Mavroudis, Debra C DuBois, Richard R Almon, William J Jusko
Circadian information is maintained in mammalian tissues by a cell-autonomous network of transcriptional feedback loops that have evolved to optimally regulate tissue-specific functions. An analysis of daily gene expression in different tissues, as well as an evaluation of inter-tissue circadian variability, is crucial for a systems-level understanding of this transcriptional circuitry. Affymetrix gene chip measurements of liver, muscle, adipose, and lung tissues were obtained from a rich time series light/dark experiment, involving 54 normal rats sacrificed at 18 time points within the 24-hr cycle...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729230/role-of-hypothalamus-in-aging-and-its-underlying-cellular-mechanisms
#12
REVIEW
Keetae Kim, Han Kyoung Choe
Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of several physiological functions that can cause various age-related disorders. Several factors have been identified as causes of aging to elucidate the decline in functions. Various aspects of physiological deterioration are controlled by the hypothalamus, a critical brain region that connects the neuroendocrine system to physiological functions. In addition, functional alterations in a set of agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, a set of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SST) neurons, a set of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) neurons, and a set of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons contribute to age-related physiological decline in energy metabolism, hormone regulation, circadian rhythm, and reproduction, respectively...
May 2, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727369/blue-light-enhances-bacterial-clearance-and-reduces-organ-injury-during-sepsis
#13
Anthony J Lewis, Xianghong Zhang, John E Griepentrog, Du Yuan, Richard D Collage, Paul K Waltz, Derek C Angus, Brian S Zuckerbraun, Matthew R Rosengart
OBJECTIVES: The physiology of nearly all mammalian organisms are entrained by light and exhibit circadian rhythm. The data derived from animal studies show that light influences immunity, and these neurophysiologic pathways are maximally entrained by the blue spectrum. Here, we hypothesize that bright blue light reduces acute kidney injury by comparison with either bright red or standard, white fluorescent light in mice subjected to sepsis. To further translational relevance, we performed a pilot clinical trial of blue light therapy in human subjects with appendicitis...
May 4, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710712/melatonin-in-synaptic-impairments-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Yan Shi, Ying-Yan Fang, Yu-Ping Wei, Qian Jiang, Peng Zeng, Na Tang, Youming Lu, Qing Tian
Alzheimer's disease (AD) underlies dementia for millions of people worldwide with no effective treatment. The dementia of AD is thought stem from the impairments of the synapses because of their critical roles in cognition. Melatonin is a neurohormone mainly released by the pineal gland in a circadian manner and it regulates brain functions in various manners. It is reported that both the melatonin deficit and synaptic impairments are present in the very early stage of AD and strongly contribute to the progress of AD...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697372/coordination-of-robust-single-cell-rhythms-in-the-arabidopsis-circadian-clock-via-spatial-waves-of-gene-expression
#15
Peter D Gould, Mirela Domijan, Mark Greenwood, Isao T Tokuda, Hannah Rees, Laszlo Kozma-Bognar, Anthony Jw Hall, James Cw Locke
The Arabidopsis circadian clock orchestrates gene regulation across the day/night cycle. Although a multiple feedback loop circuit has been shown to generate the 24h rhythm, it remains unclear how robust the clock is in individual cells, or how clock timing is coordinated across the plant. Here we examine clock activity at the single cell level across Arabidopsis seedlings over several days under constant environmental conditions. Our data reveal robust single cell oscillations, albeit desynchronised. In particular, we observe two waves of clock activity; one going down, and one up the root...
April 26, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681926/photoperiod-induced-neuroplasticity-in-the-circadian-system
#16
REVIEW
Alessandra Porcu, Malini Riddle, Davide Dulcis, David K Welsh
Seasonal changes in light exposure have profound effects on behavioral and physiological functions in many species, including effects on mood and cognitive function in humans. The mammalian brain's master circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), transmits information about external light conditions to other brain regions, including some implicated in mood and cognition. Although the detailed mechanisms are not yet known, the SCN undergoes highly plastic changes at the cellular and network levels under different light conditions...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671706/circadian-regulation-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-retinal-photoreceptors
#17
Janet Ya-An Chang, Liheng Shi, Michael L Ko, Gladys Y-P Ko
Energy expenditure and metabolism in the vertebrate retina are under circadian control, as we previously reported that the overall retinal ATP content and various signaling molecules related to metabolism display daily or circadian rhythms. Changes in the fission and fusion process of mitochondria, the major organelles producing ATP, in retinal photoreceptors are largely dependent on light exposure, but whether mitochondrial dynamics in photoreceptors and retinal neurons are under circadian control is not clear...
April 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671262/developing-mammalian-cellular-clock-models-using-firefly-luciferase-reporter
#18
Chidambaram Ramanathan, Andrew C Liu
In mammals, many aspects of metabolic, physiological, and behavioral processes are regulated by endogenous circadian clocks. Oscillators of different tissue types share a common molecular mechanism at the cellular and molecular level which underlies the rhythmic expression of genes. Individual cells are the functional units for rhythm generation and cell-based clock models offer experimental tractability for discovery. Cellular clock models can be developed by introducing a noninvasive and readily detectable luciferase bioluminescence reporter as a rhythmic output, in which the promoter of a rhythmically expressed gene is fused with the firefly luciferase (Luc) gene...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644786/potential-role-of-the-pancreatic-hormone-insulin-in-resetting-human-peripheral-clocks
#19
Jun Kajimoto, Ritsuko Matsumura, Koichi Node, Makoto Akashi
Mammalian circadian rhythms are phase-adjusted and amplified by external cues such as light and food. While the light input pathway via the central clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, has been well defined, the mechanism of feeding-induced circadian resetting remains undefined, particularly in humans. Animal studies have indicated that insulin, a pancreatic hormone that is secreted rapidly in response to feeding, is an input factor for a few peripheral clocks, such as liver and adipose tissue. In this study, using plucked and cultured hair follicles as a representative human peripheral clock, we examined the effect of insulin on circadian characteristics of clock gene expression...
May 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643834/metabolic-impact-on-the-hypothalamic-kisspeptin-kiss1r-signaling-pathway
#20
REVIEW
Fazal Wahab, Bibi Atika, Farhad Ullah, Muhammad Shahab, Rüdiger Behr
A large body of data has established the hypothalamic kisspeptin (KP) and its receptor, KISS1R, as major players in the activation of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis at the time of puberty and maintenance of reproductive capacity in the adult. Due to its strategic location, this ligand-receptor pair acts as an integrator of cues from gonadal steroids as well as of circadian and seasonal variation-related information on the reproductive axis. Besides these cues, the activity of the hypothalamic KP signaling is very sensitive to the current metabolic status of the body...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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