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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821614/multiple-circadian-transcriptional-elements-cooperatively-regulate-cell-autonomous-transcriptional-oscillation-of-period3-a-mammalian-clock-gene
#1
Ritsuko Matsumura, Makoto Akashi
Cell-autonomous oscillation in clock gene expression drives circadian rhythms. The development of comprehensive analytical techniques, such as bioinformatics and ChIP-sequencing, has enabled the genome-wide identification of potential circadian transcriptional elements that regulate the transcriptional oscillation of clock genes. However, detailed analyses using traditional biochemical and molecular-biological approaches, such as binding and reporter assays, are still necessary to determine whether these potential circadian transcriptional elements are actually functional and how significantly they contribute to driving transcriptional oscillation...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816086/inducible-knockout-of-mouse-zfhx3-emphasizes-its-key-role-in-setting-the-pace-and-amplitude-of-the-adult-circadian-clock
#2
Ashleigh G Wilcox, Lucie Vizor, Michael J Parsons, Gareth Banks, Patrick M Nolan
The transcription factor zinc finger homeobox 3 (ZFHX3) plays a key role in coupling intracellular transcriptional-translational oscillations with intercellular synchrony in mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). However, like many key players in central nervous system function, ZFHX3 serves an important role in neurulation and neuronal terminal differentiation while retaining discrete additional functions in the adult SCN. Recently, using a dominant missense mutation in mouse Zfhx3, we established that this gene can modify circadian period and sleep in adult animals...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811909/a-fourth-subtype-of-retinoic-acid-receptor-related-orphan-receptors-is-activated-by-oxidized-all-trans-retinoic-acid-in-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#3
Kotowa Sakai, Haruka Fukushima, Yuya Yamamoto, Toshitaka Ikeuchi
BACKGROUND: The three known subtypes of the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) have been implicated in the control of immunity, brain function, and circadian rhythm in mammals. Here, we demonstrate by phylogenetic analysis that there were originally four subtypes of RORs in vertebrates. One of the novel ror paralogs, rord1 (rorca in the Ensembl database), is conserved among teleosts, but absent in mammals. Using medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a model teleost, we evaluated the expression pattern of this gene, its transactivational properties for endogenic chemicals, and its ability to activate the promoters of putative target genes...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794402/dec1-negatively-regulates-the-expression-of-cxcl10-and-ccl5-induced-by-poly-ic-in-normal-human-mesangial-cells
#4
Qiang Liu, Tadaatsu Imaizumi, Keishu Murakami, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yunyan Wu, Tadashi Yoshizawa, Satoko Morohashi, Hiroko Seino, Hiroshi Kijima
The functions of differentiated embryonic chondrocyte gene (DEC) 1, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, have been reported to be associated with the regulation of mammalian circadian rhythms, differentiation of chondrocytes and skeletal muscles, apoptosis, hypoxia-induced reactions and epithelial mesenchymal transition. Our previous report showed that another bHLH transcription factor DEC2 constitutes a negative feedback loop in Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)/interferon (IFN)-β-mediated inflammatory responses in human mesangial cells...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780783/implications-of-circadian-rhythm-in-dopamine-and-mood-regulation
#5
REVIEW
Jeongah Kim, Sangwon Jang, Han Kyoung Choe, Sooyoung Chung, Gi Hoon Son, Kyungjin Kim
Mammalian physiology and behavior are regulated by an internal time-keeping system, referred to as circadian rhythm. The circadian timing system has a hierarchical organization composed of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and local clocks in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral organs. The circadian clock molecular mechanism involves a network of transcription-translation feedback loops. In addition to the clinical association between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders, recent studies have suggested a molecular link between mood regulation and circadian rhythm...
July 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770653/simple-lighting-manipulations-facilitate-behavioral-entrainment-of-mice-to-18-h-days
#6
Thijs J Walbeek, Michael R Gorman
In an invariantly rhythmic world, a robust and stable mammalian circadian clock is presumed to confer fitness advantages. In shift-work or after rapid transmeridian travel, however, a stable clock might be maladaptive and a more flexibly resettable clock may have advantages. The rate at which rodents can adjust to simulated time zone travel and the range of entrainment can be markedly increased through simple light manipulations, namely, by exposing animals to extremely dim light (<0.01 lux) at night or by bifurcating rhythms under 24-h light-dark-light-dark (LDLD) cycles...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758193/melanopsin-ganglion-cell-outer-retinal-dendrites-morphologically-distinct-and-asymmetrically-distributed-in-the-mouse-retina
#7
Katelyn B Sondereker, Jessica R Onyak, Shakib W Islam, Christopher L Ross, Jordan M Renna
A small population of retinal ganglion cells express the photopigment melanopsin and function as autonomous photoreceptors. They encode global luminance levels critical for light-mediated non-image forming visual processes including circadian rhythms and the pupillary light reflex. There are five melanopsin ganglion cell subtypes (M1-M5). M1 and displaced M1 (M1d) cells have dendrites that ramify within the outermost layer of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). It was recently discovered that some melanopsin ganglion cells extend dendrites into the outer retina...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751364/circadian-repressors-cry1-and-cry2-broadly-interact-with-nuclear-receptors-and-modulate-transcriptional-activity
#8
Anna Kriebs, Sabine D Jordan, Erin Soto, Emma Henriksson, Colby R Sandate, Megan E Vaughan, Alanna B Chan, Drew Duglan, Stephanie J Papp, Anne-Laure Huber, Megan E Afetian, Ruth T Yu, Xuan Zhao, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans, Katja A Lamia
Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) regulate physiology by sensing lipophilic ligands and adapting cellular transcription appropriately. A growing understanding of the impact of circadian clocks on mammalian transcription has sparked interest in the interregulation of transcriptional programs. Mammalian clocks are based on a transcriptional feedback loop featuring the transcriptional activators circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) and brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1), and transcriptional repressors cryptochrome (CRY) and period (PER)...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721811/moving-to-the-rhythm-with-clock-circadian-genes-autophagy-mtor-and-sirt1-in-degenerative-disease-and-cancer
#9
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: The mammalian circadian clock and its associated clock genes are increasingly be recognized as critical components for a number of physiological and disease processes that extend beyond hormone release, thermal regulation, and sleep-wake cycles. New evidence suggests that clinical behavior disruptions that involve prolonged shift work and even space travel may negatively impact circadian rhythm and lead to multi-system disease. METHODS: In light of the significant role circadian rhythm can hold over the body's normal physiology as well as disease processes, we examined and discussed the impact circadian rhythm and clock genes hold over lifespan, neurodegenerative disorders, and tumorigenesis...
July 17, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715496/transition-of-phase-response-properties-and-singularity-in-the-circadian-limit-cycle-of-cultured-cells
#10
Satoshi Koinuma, Hiroshi Kori, Isao T Tokuda, Kazuhiro Yagita, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi
The circadian system has been regarded as a limit cycle oscillator constructed by the integrated interaction of clock genes and proteins. Here, we investigated a mammalian circadian oscillation geometrically before and after a perturbation. We detected the singular point and transition from a type 1 to type 0 phase response curve (PRC) and determined the embedding dimension to show how many variables are needed to describe the limit cycle oscillation and relaxation process after a perturbation. As a perturbation, forskolin (FK) was administered to Rat-1 cells expressing the Per2::luc gene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694769/hypothalamic-integration-of-metabolic-endocrine-and-circadian-signals-in-fish-involvement-in-the-control-of-food-intake
#11
REVIEW
María J Delgado, José M Cerdá-Reverter, José L Soengas
The regulation of food intake in fish is a complex process carried out through several different mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS) with hypothalamus being the main regulatory center. As in mammals, a complex hypothalamic circuit including two populations of neurons: one co-expressing neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and the second one population co-expressing pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is involved in the integration of information relating to food intake control...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649427/global-rise-of-potential-health-hazards-caused-by-blue-light-induced-circadian-disruption-in-modern-aging-societies
#12
REVIEW
Megumi Hatori, Claude Gronfier, Russell N Van Gelder, Paul S Bernstein, Josep Carreras, Satchidananda Panda, Frederick Marks, David Sliney, Charles E Hunt, Tsuyoshi Hirota, Toshiharu Furukawa, Kazuo Tsubota
Mammals receive light information through the eyes, which perform two major functions: image forming vision to see objects and non-image forming adaptation of physiology and behavior to light. Cone and rod photoreceptors form images and send the information via retinal ganglion cells to the brain for image reconstruction. In contrast, nonimage-forming photoresponses vary widely from adjustment of pupil diameter to adaptation of the circadian clock. nonimage-forming responses are mediated by retinal ganglion cells expressing the photopigment melanopsin...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637769/potential-contribution-of-tandem-circadian-enhancers-to-nonlinear-oscillations-in-clock-gene-expression
#13
Isao T Tokuda, Akihiko Okamoto, Ritsuko Matsumura, Toru Takumi, Makoto Akashi
Limit-cycle oscillations require the presence of nonlinear processes. Although mathematical studies have long suggested that multiple nonlinear processes are required for autonomous circadian oscillation in clock gene expression, the underlying mechanism remains controversial. Here we show experimentally that cell-autonomous circadian transcription of a mammalian clock gene requires a functionally interdependent tandem E-box motif; the lack of either of the two E-boxes results in arrhythmic transcription. Although previous studies indicated the role of the tandem motifs in increasing circadian amplitude, enhancing amplitude does not explain the mechanism for limit-cycle oscillations in transcription...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625476/feedback-loops-interlocked-at-competitive-binding-sites-amplify-and-facilitate-genetic-oscillations
#14
Koichiro Uriu, Hajime Tei
Positive and negative feedback loops are often present in regulatory networks for genetic oscillations. Relative time scales and integration of these feedback loops are key to robust oscillations in expression levels. Using examples from the circadian clock and synthetic genetic oscillators, we study positive and negative feedback loops interlocked at competitive binding sites. In the mammalian circadian clock, a key clock gene Bmal1 is regulated by the activator ROR and the repressor REV-ERB. Conversely, Bmal1 activates both of them, forming interlocked feedback loops...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622766/translational-contributions-to-tissue-specificity-in-rhythmic-and-constitutive-gene-expression
#15
Violeta Castelo-Szekely, Alaaddin Bulak Arpat, Peggy Janich, David Gatfield
BACKGROUND: The daily gene expression oscillations that underlie mammalian circadian rhythms show striking differences between tissues and involve post-transcriptional regulation. Both aspects remain poorly understood. We have used ribosome profiling to explore the contribution of translation efficiency to temporal gene expression in kidney and contrasted our findings with liver data available from the same mice. RESULTS: Rhythmic translation of constantly abundant messenger RNAs (mRNAs) affects largely non-overlapping transcript sets with distinct phase clustering in the two organs...
June 16, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592378/no-fad-no-cry-redox-and-circadian-rhythms
#16
David Pritchett, Akhilesh B Reddy
There is growing evidence of reciprocal interactions between the endogenous circadian clock and subcellular redox pathways. Recently, researchers at the University of California unearthed another possible link between redox metabolism and the mammalian circadian clock: the redox cofactor FAD stabilises the clock protein cryptochrome (CRY), modifying rhythmic clock gene expression.
June 4, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591634/a-cell-autonomous-mammalian-12%C3%A2-hr-clock-coordinates-metabolic-and-stress-rhythms
#17
Bokai Zhu, Qiang Zhang, Yinghong Pan, Emily M Mace, Brian York, Athanasios C Antoulas, Clifford C Dacso, Bert W O'Malley
Besides circadian rhythms, oscillations cycling with a 12 hr period exist. However, the prevalence, origin, regulation, and function of mammalian 12 hr rhythms remain elusive. Utilizing an unbiased mathematical approach identifying all superimposed oscillations, we uncovered prevalent 12 hr gene expression and metabolic rhythms in mouse liver, coupled with a physiological 12 hr unfolded protein response oscillation. The mammalian 12 hr rhythm is cell autonomous, driven by a dedicated 12 hr pacemaker distinct from the circadian clock, and can be entrained in vitro by metabolic and ER stress cues...
June 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585704/the-regulations-and-role-of-circadian-clock-and-melatonin-in-uterine-receptivity-and-pregnancy-an-immunological-perspective
#18
Gene Chi Wai Man, Tao Zhang, Xiaoyan Chen, Jianzhang Wang, Fangrong Wu, Yingyu Liu, Chi Chiu Wang, Ying Cheong, Tin Chiu Li
During normal pregnancy, the mechanism by which the fetus escapes immunological rejection by the maternal womb remains elusive. Given the biological complexities, the immunological mechanism is unlikely to be simply an allograft response in acceptance or rejection of the early pregnancy. Circadian clock responsible for the mammalian circadian rhythm is an endogenously generated rhythm associated with almost all physiological processes including reproduction. There is now growing evidence to suggest that the circadian clocks are intricately linked to the immune system and pregnancy...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583847/timeless-confers-cisplatin-resistance-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-by-activating-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-and-promoting-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#19
Sai-Lan Liu, Huan-Xin Lin, Chu-Yong Lin, Xiao-Qing Sun, Li-Ping Ye, Fang Qiu, Wen Wen, Xin Hua, Xian-Qiu Wu, Jun Li, Li-Bing Song, Ling Guo
This study investigated the expression, clinicopathological significance and mechanism of action of TIMELESS, a mammalian homolog of a Drosophila circadian rhythm gene, in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed TIMELESS was upregulated in NPC cell lines (n = 8 vs. NP69 cells), and freshly-frozen (n = 6) and paraffin-embedded human NPC specimens (n = 108 vs. normal samples/non-tumor cells). TIMELESS expression was associated with T category (P = 0...
June 3, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553258/an-overview-of-monthly-rhythms-and-clocks
#20
REVIEW
Florian Raible, Hiroki Takekata, Kristin Tessmar-Raible
Organisms have evolved to cope with geophysical cycles of different period lengths. In this review, we focus on the adaptations of animals to the lunar cycle, specifically, on the occurrence of biological rhythms with monthly (circalunar) or semi-monthly (circasemilunar) period lengths. Systematic experimental investigation, starting in the early twentieth century, has allowed scientists to distinguish between mythological belief and scientific facts concerning the influence of the lunar cycle on animals. These studies revealed that marine animals of various taxa exhibit circalunar or circasemilunar reproductive rhythms...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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