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Hematologic malignancy

Pasquale Niscola, Paolo de Fabritiis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Sinem Civriz Bozdağ, Meltem Kurt Yüksel, Taner Demirer
Stem cells can be either totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent or unipotent. Totipotent cells have the capability to produce all cell types of the developing organism, including both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. The Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC) are the first defined adult stem cells (ASC) that give rise to all blood cells and immune system. Use of HSCs for treatment of hematologic malignancies, which is also called bone marrow (BM) transplantation or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) transplantation is the pioneer of cellular therapy and translational research...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Cédric Rossi, Marie-Lorraine Chrétien, René-Olivier Casasnovas
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are an emerging class of therapeutic agents that bring new opportunities for the treatment of hematological malignancies by meeting unmet medical needs. These drugs consist of a cytotoxic agent connected by a linker to a human, humanized, or chimeric antibody targeting a surface antigen specifically expressed by tumor cells. These ADCs are being developed to specifically deliver the cytotoxic agent into tumor cells. The cytotoxic payload is released from the ADC after internalization and cleavage of the linker, ultimately triggering the death of the cancer cell...
March 20, 2018: Targeted Oncology
Jerome Gnanaraj, Aric Parnes, Charles W Francis, Ronald S Go, Clifford M Takemoto, Shahrukh K Hashmi
Pancytopenia is a relatively common phenomenon encountered in clinical practice. The evaluation of a patient with pancytopenia requires a comprehensive approach and identifying the underlying cause can be challenging given the wide range of etiologies including drugs, autoimmune conditions, malignancies, infections, hemophagocytosis, and inheritable conditions. Recent advances in molecular hematology which include genomic profiling and next-generation sequencing have helped gain major insights into various hematological conditions and can guide diagnosing specific diseases in a shorter time at lower costs...
March 5, 2018: Blood Reviews
Mahasweta Gooptu, Haesook T Kim, Vincent T Ho, Edwin P Alyea, John Koreth, Philippe Armand, Jerome Ritz, Sarah Nikiforow, Brett E Glotzbecker, Prashant Nageshwar, Robert J Soiffer, Joseph H Antin, Corey S Cutler
INTRODUCTION: With improvement in transplantation practices in the modern era, non-relapse mortality (NRM) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has improved, while disease relapse rates have remained unchanged. Survival outcomes are therefore driven by NRM in the modern era. Myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens are used to maximize disease control and facilitate engraftment; however their use is often limited by toxicity. The commonly used MAC regimens incorporate either chemotherapy plus total body irradiation (TBI) or combination chemotherapy...
March 16, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Raja Muhammad Rashid, Zahid Nabi, Ahmad Zaki Ansari, Quratul-Ain Qaiser
BACKGROUND: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is primarily characterized by immune-mediated destruction of platelets in circulation. Major treatment options range from careful observation, steroids, immunosuppressive medications, immunoglobulins to splenectomy. Interestingly and rarely, ITP has also been reported after solid organ transplantation in patients receiving immunosuppressive medications. While the incidence of new onset ITP after solid organ transplant is comparatively well documented, new onset ITP after renal transplant has only been reported in two patients...
March 20, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Nan Chen, Xiaoyu Li, Navin K Chintala, Zachary E Tano, Prasad S Adusumilli
Uniform and strong expression of CD19, a cell surface antigen, on cells of B-cell lineage is unique to hematologic malignancies. Tumor-associated antigen (TAA) targets in solid tumors exhibit heterogeneity with regards to intensity and distribution, posing a challenge for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. Novel CAR designs, such as dual TAA-targeted CARs, tandem CARs, and switchable CARs, in conjunction with inhibitory CARs, are being investigated as means to overcome antigen heterogeneity. In addition to heterogeneity in cancer-cell antigen expression, the key determinants for antitumor responses are CAR expression levels and affinity in T cells...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Amir S Steinberg, Anish B Parikh, Sara Kim, Damaris Peralta-Hernandez, Talaat Aggour, Luis Isola
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic stewardship is an integral aspect of hospital care, limiting the potential for resistance while working to minimize waste. A similar system is needed in oncology, given the rapid proliferation of new therapies and the challenges of navigating a complicated reimbursement environment. A "cancer therapy stewardship program" has never been described in the literature. Here, we detail our efforts to design and implement such a program and share lessons learned to inform future projects...
March 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Aleksandar Stepanovic, Marina Nikitovic
Glioblastoma is the most frequent primary malignant brain tumor in adults. With the number of symptoms and signs, it belongs to diseases where a lot of treatment modalities are often applied. A standard treatment for patients with glioblastoma includes surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Each type of treatment has its own toxicity. Temozolomide is an oral alkylating cytotoxic drug and like any other alkylating agent can induce side effects. Although temozolomide is generally a well tolerated drug, with rare severe toxic effects, sometimes certain toxicities can overcome the life risk of the underlying malignancy...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Osnat Bairey, Tali Siegal
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare and aggressive brain tumor. The prognosis is poor, with high rates of relapse and disease progression after treatment. In addition, PCNSL affects a largely older population, so that a significant proportion of patients are ineligible for intensive therapies and high-dose chemotherapy. The elderly patients are also susceptible to the accelerated and detrimental cognitive side effects of whole-brain irradiation which is an alternative consolidation to high-dose chemotherapy...
March 11, 2018: Blood Reviews
D Díaz-Díaz, M Villanova Martínez, E Palencia Herrejón
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors influencing in-hospital mortality among cancer patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). DESIGN: A retrospective observational study was carried out. SETTING: The ICU of a community hospital. PATIENTS: Adults diagnosed with solid or hematological malignancies admitted to the ICU, excluding those admitted after scheduled surgery and those with an ICU stay of under 24h. INTERVENTIONS: Review of clinical data...
March 15, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
Subramaniyan Ramanathan, Vikram Dogra
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current role of percutaneous testicular biopsy in the diagnosis of focal testicular lesions. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous testicular biopsy can be either fine needle aspiration biopsy or trucut core needle biopsy. It is a well-tolerated and effective procedure useful in small testicular lesions, multifocal lesions, hematological malignancies, and focal lesions in single testis.
March 17, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Xin-Yu Yao, Jing-Dong Zhou, Jing Yang, Wei Zhang, Ji-Chun Ma, Xiang-Mei Wen, Dong-Ming Yao, Zi-Jun Xu, De-Hong Wu, Pin-Fang He, Jun Qian, Jiang Lin
BACKGROUND: Somatic mutations in SETBP1 gene have recently been detected in hematologic malignancies. The present study aimed to explore the frequency and clinical correlations of SETBP1 mutations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). METHODS: In this study, we used high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) to detect the SETBP1 mutations in a cohort of 363 patients with AML or MDS. RESULTS: A total of 1...
March 7, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Somedeb Ball, Kenneth Nugent
Microparticles (MP) are submicron vesicles released from various cells in response to activation, injury or apoptosis. They contain different structural and functional proteins and RNAs, which contribute to physiological intercellular "crosstalk" and to the pathogenesis of various diseases including cancer. In hematological malignancies, these MPs participate in the initiation and propagation of thrombosis through different pathways. They have a role in the angiogenesis, malignant cell survival and metastasis...
March 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Rosa Ruchlemer, Michal Amit-Kohn, Ariella Tvito, Irena Sindelovsky, Ari Zimran, David Raveh-Brawer
PURPOSE: Bone loss-osteopenia and osteoporosis-is a recognized consequence of solid tumors in adults, of pediatric hematological malignancies, and of the treatment for these diseases, but little research has been published on the adverse effects of hematological malignancies on the bone in adults. The aim of this study is to identify hematological diseases that are associated with the highest prevalence and severity of osteoporosis. METHODS: We evaluated DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in a cross-section of 181 adult patients with hematological neoplasms, excluding multiple myeloma...
March 16, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
David Wu, Adam Waalkes, Kelsi Penewit, Stephen J Salipante
BACKGROUND: Genomic chimerism, the co-occurrence of cells from different genetic origins, provides important diagnostic information in diverse clinical contexts, including graft injury detection and longitudinal surveillance of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients, but existing assays are limiting. Here we applied single-molecule molecular inversion probes (smMIPs), a high-throughput sequencing technology combining multiplexed target capture with read quantification mediated by unique molecular identifiers, to detect chimerism based on the presence or absence of polymorphic genomic loci...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Ombretta Annibali, Mariasanta Napolitano, Giuseppe Avvisati, Sergio Siragusa
Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) frequently complicates the course of hematologic malignancies (HM) and its incidence is similar to that observed in high-risk solid tumors. Despite that, pharmacologic prophylaxis and treatment of VTE in patients with HM is challenging, mainly because a severe thrombocytopenia frequently complicates the course of treatments or may be present since diagnosis, thus increasing the risk of bleeding. Therefore, in this setting, safe and effective methods of VTE prophylaxis and treatment have not been well defined and hematologists generally refer to guidelines produced for cancer patients that give indications on anticoagulation in patients with thrombocytopenia...
April 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Marco Guarene, Carla Badulli, Anna L Cremaschi, Ilaria Sbarsi, Rosalia Cacciatore, Carmine Tinelli, Annamaria Pasi, Paola Bergamaschi, Cesare G Perotti
INTRODUCTION: Allele-level donor-recipient match at HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C and HLA-DRB1 loci impacts the outcome after cord blood transplantation for hematologic malignancies and modifies the strategy of donor selection. High definition of both class I and II HLA loci at time of listing is a way to improve the attractiveness of cord blood bank inventories, reducing the time for donor search and procurement and simplifying donor choice, in particular, for patients of non-European heritage...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Milad Moloudizargari, Esmaeil Mortaz, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Ian M Adcock, Frank A Redegeld, Johan Garssen
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have well established anti-cancer properties. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are among this biologically active family of macromolecules for which various anti-cancer effects have been explained. These PUFAs have a high safety profile and can induce apoptosis and inhibit growth of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo , following a partially selective manner. They also increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents by increasing the sensitivity of different cell lines to specific anti-neoplastic drugs...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Yaming Xi, Zhuanzhen Ma, Hao Zhang, Maowen Yuan, Lina Wang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the cytotoxic effect and multi-drug resistance (MDR) of Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) on K562/A02 cells, and understand its underlying molecular pathways. K562/A02 cells were treated with TcdA at different concentrations for 24, 48 and 72 h, and the inhibition effect and drug resistance of TcdA on K562/A02 cell proliferation was assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium colorimetric assay. Furthermore, cell cycle-apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression was determined by western blot analysis and caspase-3 activity was measured using a caspase-3 activity kit...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
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