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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801530/rhythmic-behavior-is-controlled-by-the-srm160-splicing-factor-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Esteban J Beckwith, Carlos E Hernando, Sofía Polcowñuk, Agustina P Bertolin, Estefania Mancini, M Fernanda Ceriani, Marcelo J Yanovsky
Circadian clocks organize the metabolism, physiology, and behavior of organisms throughout the day-night cycle by controlling daily rhythms in gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. While many transcription factors underlying circadian oscillations are known, the splicing factors that modulate these rhythms remain largely unexplored. A genome-wide assessment of the alterations of gene expression in a null mutant of the alternative splicing regulator SR-related matrix protein of 160 kD (SRm160) revealed the extent to which alternative splicing impacts on behavior-related genes...
August 11, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781048/drosophila-cry-entrains-clocks-in-body-tissues-to-light-and-maintains-passive-membrane-properties-in-a-non-clock-body-tissue-independent-of-light
#2
Parul Agrawal, Jerry H Houl, Kushan L Gunawardhana, Tianxin Liu, Jian Zhou, Mark J Zoran, Paul E Hardin
Circadian (∼24 hr) clocks regulate daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior via cell-autonomous transcriptional feedback loops. In Drosophila, the blue-light photoreceptor CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) synchronizes these feedback loops to light:dark cycles by binding to and degrading TIMELESS (TIM) protein. CRY also acts independently of TIM in Drosophila to alter potassium channel conductance in arousal neurons after light exposure, and in many animals CRY acts independently of light to repress rhythmic transcription...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750752/aging-and-circadian-dysfunction-increase-alcohol-sensitivity-and-exacerbate-mortality-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Aliza K De Nobrega, Alana P Mellers, Lisa C Lyons
Alcohol abuse is a rising problem in middle-aged and older individuals resulting in serious health, family and economic consequences. Effective treatment necessitates the identification of factors influencing alcohol toxicity with aging. We investigated the interaction between aging, alcohol toxicity and circadian function using Drosophila as a model system. We found as wild type flies age, sensitivity to alcohol increases and circadian regulation of alcohol-induced behaviors weakens. Decreased circadian modulation is correlated with significantly greater alcohol sensitivity during the subjective day...
July 25, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743754/sik3-hdac4-signaling-regulates-drosophila-circadian-male-sex-drive-rhythm-via-modulating-the-dn1-clock-neurons
#4
Shinsuke Fujii, Patrick Emery, Hubert Amrein
The physiology and behavior of many organisms are subject to daily cycles. In Drosophila melanogaster the daily locomotion patterns of single flies are characterized by bursts of activity at dawn and dusk. Two distinct clusters of clock neurons-morning oscillators (M cells) and evening oscillators (E cells)-are largely responsible for these activity bursts. In contrast, male-female pairs of flies follow a distinct pattern, most notably characterized by an activity trough at dusk followed by a high level of male courtship during the night...
July 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733238/circadian-regulation-of-caterpillar-feeding-and-growth
#5
Agnieszka Suszczynska, Magdalena Maria Kaniewska, Piotr Bebas, Jadwiga Maria Giebultowicz, Joanna Kotwica-Rolinska
Circadian clocks orchestrate many physiological processes in adult organisms. For example, rhythmic feeding behavior is regulated by the central clock in the nervous system in coordination with metabolic rhythms, which in turn depend mostly on peripheral clocks localized in many tissues. Disruption of the circadian clock leads to metabolic dysregulation both in mammals and in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Circadian coordination of feeding and metabolism has been studied mainly in adult insects and not in larval stages, which are dramatically different from adults in species with complete full metamorphosis...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701782/haeme-oxygenase-protects-against-uv-light-dna-damages-in-the-retina-in-clock-dependent-manner
#6
Milena Damulewicz, Agnieszka Loboda, Alicja Jozkowicz, Jozef Dulak, Elzbieta Pyza
In the present study, we showed that in the retina of Drosophila, the expression of the ho gene, encoding haeme oxygenase (HO), is regulated by light but only at the beginning of the day. This timing must be set by the circadian clock as light pulses applied at other time points during the day do not increase the ho mRNA level. Moreover, light-induced activation of HO does not depend on the canonical phototransduction pathway but instead involves cryptochrome and is enhanced by ultraviolet (UV) light. Interestingly, the level of DNA damage in the retina after UV exposure was inversely related to the circadian oscillation of the ho mRNA level during the night, being the highest when the HO level was low and reversed during the day...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676676/identifying-pathways-modulating-sleep-duration-from-genomics-to-transcriptomics
#7
Karla V Allebrandt, Maris Teder-Laving, Paola Cusumano, Goar Frishman, Rosa Levandovski, Andreas Ruepp, Maria P L Hidalgo, Rodolfo Costa, Andres Metspalu, Till Roenneberg, Cristiano De Pittà
Recognizing that insights into the modulation of sleep duration can emerge by exploring the functional relationships among genes, we used this strategy to explore the genome-wide association results for this trait. We detected two major signalling pathways (ion channels and the ERBB signalling family of tyrosine kinases) that could be replicated across independent GWA studies meta-analyses. To investigate the significance of these pathways for sleep modulation, we performed transcriptome analyses of short sleeping flies' heads (knockdown for the ABCC9 gene homolog; dSur)...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669757/a-peptidergic-circuit-links-the-circadian-clock-to-locomotor-activity
#8
Anna N King, Annika F Barber, Amelia E Smith, Austin P Dreyer, Divya Sitaraman, Michael N Nitabach, Daniel J Cavanaugh, Amita Sehgal
The mechanisms by which clock neurons in the Drosophila brain confer an ∼24-hr rhythm onto locomotor activity are unclear, but involve the neuropeptide diuretic hormone 44 (DH44), an ortholog of corticotropin-releasing factor. Here we identified DH44 receptor 1 as the relevant receptor for rest:activity rhythms and mapped its site of action to hugin-expressing neurons in the subesophageal zone (SEZ). We traced a circuit that extends from Dh44-expressing neurons in the pars intercerebralis (PI) through hugin+ SEZ neurons to the ventral nerve cord...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658318/weclmon-a-simple-and-robust-camera-based-system-to-monitor-drosophila-eclosion-under-optogenetic-manipulation-and-natural-conditions
#9
Franziska Ruf, Martin Fraunholz, Konrad Öchsner, Johann Kaderschabek, Christian Wegener
Eclosion in flies and other insects is a circadian-gated behaviour under control of a central and a peripheral clock. It is not influenced by the motivational state of an animal, and thus presents an ideal paradigm to study the relation and signalling pathways between central and peripheral clocks, and downstream peptidergic regulatory systems. Little is known, however, about eclosion rhythmicity under natural conditions, and research into this direction is hampered by the physically closed design of current eclosion monitoring systems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641103/staring-at-the-clock-face-in-drosophila
#10
Ezio Rosato, Charalambos P Kyriacou
Liang et al. (2017) demonstrate how neuropeptides from two groups of clock cells appear to be responsible for the fly's circadian neurons becoming active at different times of day. By delaying the activity of their clock cell targets, they give rise to morning and evening behavior.
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636933/drosophila-neuropeptide-f-signaling-independently-regulates-feeding-and-sleep-wake-behavior
#11
Brian Y Chung, Jennifer Ro, Sabine A Hutter, Kylie M Miller, Lakshmi S Guduguntla, Shu Kondo, Scott D Pletcher
Proper regulation of sleep-wake behavior and feeding is essential for organismal health and survival. While previous studies have isolated discrete neural loci and substrates important for either sleep or feeding, how the brain is organized to coordinate both processes with respect to one another remains poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that the Drosophila Neuropeptide F (NPF) network forms a critical component of both adult sleep and feeding regulation. Activation of NPF signaling in the brain promotes wakefulness and adult feeding, likely through its cognate receptor NPFR...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634443/the-narrow-abdomen-ion-channel-complex-is-highly-stable-and-persists-from-development-into-adult-stages-to-promote-behavioral-rhythmicity
#12
Devon L Moose, Stephanie J Haase, Benjamin T Aldrich, Bridget C Lear
The sodium leak channel NARROW ABDOMEN (NA)/ NALCN is an important component of circadian pacemaker neuronal output. In Drosophila, rhythmic expression of the NA channel regulator Nlf-1 in a subset of adult pacemaker neurons has been proposed to contribute to circadian regulation of channel localization or activity. Here we have restricted expression of Drosophila NA channel subunits or the Nlf-1 regulator to either development or adulthood using the temperature-inducible tubulin-GAL80(ts) system. Surprisingly, we find that developmental expression of endogenous channel subunits and Nlf-1 is sufficient to promote robust rhythmic behavior in adults...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620087/daily-activity-of-the-housefly-musca-domestica-is-influenced-by-temperature-independent-of-3-utr-period-gene-splicing
#13
Olga Bazalova, David Dolezel
Circadian clocks orchestrate daily activity patterns and free running periods of locomotor activity under constant conditions. While the first often depends on temperature, the latter is temperature-compensated over a physiologically relevant range. Here, we explored the locomotor activity of the temperate housefly Musca domestica Under low temperatures, activity was centered round a major and broad afternoon peak, while high temperatures resulted in activity throughout the photophase with a mild midday depression, which was especially pronounced in males exposed to long photoperiods...
August 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620079/starvation-promotes-odor-feeding-time-associations-in-flies
#14
Nitin Singh Chouhan, Reinhard Wolf, Martin Heisenberg
Starvation causes a motivational state that facilitates diverse behaviors such as feeding, walking, and search. Starved Drosophila can form odor/feeding-time associations but the role of starvation in encoding of "time" is poorly understood. Here we show that the extent of starvation is correlated with the fly's ability to establish odor/feeding-time memories. Prolonged starvation promotes odor/feeding-time associations after just a single cycle of reciprocal training. We also show that starvation is required for acquisition but is dispensable for retrieval of odor/feeding-time memory...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615472/neuronal-circadian-clock-protein-oscillations-are-similar-in-behaviourally-rhythmic-forager-honeybees-and-in-arrhythmic-nurses
#15
T Fuchikawa, K Beer, C Linke-Winnebeck, R Ben-David, A Kotowoy, V W K Tsang, G R Warman, E C Winnebeck, C Helfrich-Förster, G Bloch
Internal clocks driving rhythms of about a day (circadian) are ubiquitous in animals, allowing them to anticipate environmental changes. Genetic or environmental disturbances to circadian clocks or the rhythms they produce are commonly associated with illness, compromised performance or reduced survival. Nevertheless, some animals including Arctic mammals, open sea fish and social insects such as honeybees are active around-the-clock with no apparent ill effects. The mechanisms allowing this remarkable natural plasticity are unknown...
June 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611590/cryptochrome-is-a-regulator-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-visual-system-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Milena Damulewicz, Gabriella M Mazzotta, Elena Sartori, Ezio Rosato, Rodolfo Costa, Elzbieta M Pyza
Drosophila CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) is a blue light sensitive protein with a key role in circadian photoreception. A main feature of CRY is that light promotes an interaction with the circadian protein TIMELESS (TIM) resulting in their ubiquitination and degradation, a mechanism that contributes to the synchronization of the circadian clock to the environment. Moreover, CRY participates in non-circadian functions such as magnetoreception, modulation of neuronal firing, phototransduction and regulation of synaptic plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598695/unconventional-roles-of-opsins
#17
Nicole Y Leung, Craig Montell
Rhodopsin is the classical light sensor. Although rhodopsin has long been known to be important for image formation in the eye, the requirements for opsins in non-image formation and in extraocular light sensation were revealed much later. Most recent is the demonstration that an opsin in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is expressed in pacemaker neurons in the brain and functions in light entrainment of circadian rhythms. However, the biggest surprise is that opsins have light-independent roles, countering more than a century of dogma that they function exclusively as light sensors...
June 9, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592698/a-screening-of-unf-targets-identifies-rnb-a-novel-regulator-of-drosophila-circadian-rhythms
#18
Anatoly Kozlov, Edouard Jaumouillé, Pedro Machado Almeida, Rafael Koch, Joseph Rodriguez, Katharine C Abruzzi, Emi Nagoshi
Behavioral circadian rhythms are controlled by multioscillator networks comprising functionally different subgroups of clock neurons. Studies have demonstrated that molecular clocks in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are regulated differently in clock neuron subclasses to support their specific functions (Lee et al., 2016; Top et al., 2016). The nuclear receptor unfulfilled (unf) represents a regulatory node that provides the small ventral lateral neurons (s-LNvs) unique characteristics as the master pacemaker (Beuchle et al...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583847/timeless-confers-cisplatin-resistance-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-by-activating-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-and-promoting-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#19
Sai-Lan Liu, Huan-Xin Lin, Chu-Yong Lin, Xiao-Qing Sun, Li-Ping Ye, Fang Qiu, Wen Wen, Xin Hua, Xian-Qiu Wu, Jun Li, Li-Bing Song, Ling Guo
This study investigated the expression, clinicopathological significance and mechanism of action of TIMELESS, a mammalian homolog of a Drosophila circadian rhythm gene, in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed TIMELESS was upregulated in NPC cell lines (n = 8 vs. NP69 cells), and freshly-frozen (n = 6) and paraffin-embedded human NPC specimens (n = 108 vs. normal samples/non-tumor cells). TIMELESS expression was associated with T category (P = 0...
June 3, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558035/oscillating-pdf-in-termini-of-circadian-pacemaker-neurons-and-synchronous-molecular-clocks-in-downstream-neurons-are-not-sufficient-for-sustenance-of-activity-rhythms-in-constant-darkness
#20
Pavitra Prakash, Aishwarya Nambiar, Vasu Sheeba
In Drosophila, neuropeptide Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF) is expressed in small and large ventral Lateral Neurons (sLNv and lLNv), among which sLNv are critical for activity rhythms in constant darkness. Studies show that this is mediated by rhythmic accumulation and likely secretion of PDF from sLNv dorsal projections, which in turn synchronises molecular oscillations in downstream circadian neurons. Using targeted expression of a neurodegenerative protein Huntingtin in LNv, we evoke a selective loss of neuropeptide PDF and clock protein PERIOD from sLNv soma...
2017: PloS One
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