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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892932/reciprocal-regulation-of-carbon-monoxide-metabolism-and-the-circadian-clock
#1
Roman Klemz, Silke Reischl, Thomas Wallach, Nicole Witte, Karsten Jürchott, Sabrina Klemz, Veronika Lang, Stephan Lorenzen, Miriam Knauer, Steffi Heidenreich, Min Xu, Jürgen A Ripperger, Michael Schupp, Ralf Stanewsky, Achim Kramer
Circadian clocks are cell-autonomous oscillators regulating daily rhythms in a wide range of physiological, metabolic and behavioral processes. Feedback of metabolic signals, such as redox state, NAD(+)/NADH and AMP/ADP ratios, or heme, modulate circadian rhythms and thereby optimize energy utilization across the 24-h cycle. We show that rhythmic heme degradation, which generates the signaling molecule carbon monoxide (CO), is required for normal circadian rhythms as well as circadian metabolic outputs. CO suppresses circadian transcription by attenuating CLOCK-BMAL1 binding to target promoters...
November 28, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891621/animal-cryptochromes-divergent-roles-in-light-perception-circadian-timekeeping-and-beyond
#2
Alicia K Michael, Jennifer L Fribourgh, Russell N Van Gelder, Carrie L Partch
Cryptochromes are evolutionarily related to the light-dependent DNA repair enzyme photolyase, serving as major regulators of circadian rhythms in insects and vertebrate animals. There are two types of cryptochromes in the animal kingdom: Drosophila-like CRYs that act as non-visual photopigments linking circadian rhythms to the environmental light/dark cycle, and vertebrate-like CRYs that do not appear to sense light directly, but control the generation of circadian rhythms by acting as transcriptional repressors...
November 28, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883065/cycles-of-circadian-illuminance-are-sufficient-to-entrain-and-maintain-circadian-locomotor-rhythms-in-drosophila
#3
Eunjoo Cho, Ji Hye Oh, Euna Lee, Young Rag Do, Eun Young Kim
Light at night disrupts the circadian clock and causes serious health problems in the modern world. Here, we show that newly developed four-package light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can provide harmless lighting at night. To quantify the effects of light on the circadian clock, we employed the concept of circadian illuminance (CIL). CIL represents the amount of light weighted toward the wavelengths to which the circadian clock is most sensitive, whereas visual illuminance (VIL) represents the total amount of visible light...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879317/correlated-evolution-between-ck1%C3%AE-and-the-serine-rich-motif-contributes-to-regulating-the-mammalian-circadian-clock
#4
Lijuan Xing, Yang An, Guangsen Shi, Jie Yan, Pancheng Xie, Zhipeng Qu, Zhihui Zhang, Zhiwei Liu, Dejing Pan, Ying Xu
Understanding the mechanism underlying the physiological divergence of species is a long-standing issue in evolutionary biology. The circadian clock is a highly conserved system existing in almost all organisms that regulates a wide range of physiological and behavioral events to adapt to the day-night cycle. Here, the interactions between hCK1δ/ϵ/DBT (Drosophila ortholog of CK1δ/ϵ) and serine rich (SR) motifs from hPER2 (ortholog of Drosophila per) were reconstructed in a Drosophila circadian system. The results indicated that in Drosophila, the SR mutant form hPER2S662G does not recapitulate the mouse or human mutant phenotype...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871090/the-genomic-basis-of-circadian-and-circalunar-timing-adaptations-in-a-midge
#5
Tobias S Kaiser, Birgit Poehn, David Szkiba, Marco Preussner, Fritz J Sedlazeck, Alexander Zrim, Tobias Neumann, Lam-Tung Nguyen, Andrea J Betancourt, Thomas Hummel, Heiko Vogel, Silke Dorner, Florian Heyd, Arndt von Haeseler, Kristin Tessmar-Raible
Organisms use endogenous clocks to anticipate regular environmental cycles, such as days and tides. Natural variants resulting in differently timed behaviour or physiology, known as chronotypes in humans, have not been well characterized at the molecular level. We sequenced the genome of Clunio marinus, a marine midge whose reproduction is timed by circadian and circalunar clocks. Midges from different locations show strain-specific genetic timing adaptations. We examined genetic variation in five C. marinus strains from different locations and mapped quantitative trait loci for circalunar and circadian chronotypes...
December 1, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867253/drosophila-ezoana-uses-an-hour-glass-or-highly-damped-circadian-clock-for-measuring-night-length-and-inducing-diapause
#6
Koustubh M Vaze, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Insects inhabiting the temperate zones measure seasonal changes in day or night length to enter the overwintering diapause. Diapause induction occurs after the duration of the night exceeds a critical night length (CNL). Our understanding of the time measurement mechanisms is continuously evolving subsequent to Bünning's proposal that circadian systems play the clock role in photoperiodic time measurement (Bünning, 1936). Initially, the photoperiodic clocks were considered to be either based on circadian oscillators or on simple hour-glasses, depending on 'positive' or 'negative' responses in Nanda-Hamner and Bünsow experiments (Nanda & Hammer, 1958; Bünsow, 1960)...
December 2016: Physiological Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856350/achilles-is-a-circadian-clock-controlled-gene-that-regulates-immune-function-in-drosophila
#7
Jiajia Li, Erin E Terry, Edith Fejer, Diana Gamba, Natalie Hartmann, Joseph Logsdon, Daniel Michalski, Lisa E Rois, Maria J Scuderi, Michael Kunst, Michael E Hughes
The circadian clock is a transcriptional/translational feedback loop that drives the rhythmic expression of downstream mRNAs. Termed "clock-controlled genes," these molecular outputs of the circadian clock orchestrate cellular, metabolic, and behavioral rhythms. As part of our on-going work to characterize key upstream regulators of circadian mRNA expression, we have identified a novel clock-controlled gene in Drosophila melanogaster, Achilles (Achl), which is rhythmic at the mRNA level in the brain and which represses expression of anti-microbial peptides in the immune system...
November 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853240/modulation-of-light-driven-arousal-by-lim-homeodomain-transcription-factor-apterous-in-large-pdf-positive-lateral-neurons-of-the-drosophila-brain
#8
Naoto Shimada, Show Inami, Shoma Sato, Toshihiro Kitamoto, Takaomi Sakai
Apterous (Ap), the best studied LIM-homeodomain transcription factor in Drosophila, cooperates with the cofactor Chip (Chi) to regulate transcription of specific target genes. Although Ap regulates various developmental processes, its function in the adult brain remains unclear. Here, we report that Ap and Chi in the neurons expressing PDF, a neuropeptide, play important roles in proper sleep/wake regulation in adult flies. PDF-expressing neurons consist of two neuronal clusters: small ventral-lateral neurons (s-LNvs) acting as the circadian pacemaker and large ventral-lateral neurons (l-LNvs) regulating light-driven arousal...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829142/sensory-conflict-disrupts-activity-of-the-drosophila-circadian-network
#9
Ross E F Harper, Peter Dayan, Joerg T Albert, Ralf Stanewsky
Periodic changes in light and temperature synchronize the Drosophila circadian clock, but the question of how the fly brain integrates these two input pathways to set circadian time remains unanswered. We explore multisensory cue combination by testing the resilience of the circadian network to conflicting environmental inputs. We show that misaligned light and temperature cycles can lead to dramatic changes in the daily locomotor activities of wild-type flies during and after exposure to sensory conflict...
November 8, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814361/clockwork-orange-enhances-period-mediated-rhythms-in-transcriptional-repression-by-antagonizing-e-box-binding-by-clock-cycle
#10
Jian Zhou, Wangjie Yu, Paul E Hardin
The Drosophila circadian oscillator controls daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism and behavior via transcriptional feedback loops. CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) heterodimers initiate feedback loop function by binding E-box elements to activate per and tim transcription. PER-TIM heterodimers then accumulate, bind CLK-CYC to inhibit transcription, and are ultimately degraded to enable the next round of transcription. The timing of transcriptional events in this feedback loop coincide with, and are controlled by, rhythms in CLK-CYC binding to E-boxes...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791392/impact-of-ataxin-2-knock-out-on-circadian-locomotor-behavior-and-per-immunoreaction-in-the-scn-of-mice
#11
Martina Pfeffer, Suzana Gispert, Georg Auburger, Helmut Wicht, Horst-Werner Korf
In Drosophila melanogaster, Ataxin-2 is a crucial activator of Period and is involved in the control of circadian rhythms. However, in mammals the function of Ataxin-2 is unknown despite its involvement in the inherited neurogenerative disease Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 in humans. Therefore, we analyzed locomotor behavior of Atxn2-deficient mice and their WT littermates under entrained- and free-running conditions as well as after experimental jet lag. Furthermore, we compared the PER1 and PER2 immunoreaction (IR) in the SCN...
October 28, 2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784754/an-rnai-screen-to-identify-protein-phosphatases-that-function-within-the-drosophila-circadian-clock
#12
Parul Agrawal, Paul E Hardin
Circadian clocks in eukaryotes keep time via cell-autonomous transcriptional feedback loops. A well-characterized example of such a transcriptional feedback loop is in Drosophila, where CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) complexes activate transcription of period (per) and timeless (tim) genes, rising levels of PER-TIM complexes feedback to repress CLK-CYC activity, and degradation of PER and TIM permits the next cycle of CLK-CYC transcription. The timing of CLK-CYC activation and PER-TIM repression is regulated post-translationally, in part through rhythmic phosphorylation of CLK, PER and TIM...
October 26, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770026/micro-environmental-gene-expression-plasticity-among-individual-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
Yanzhu Lin, Zhen-Xia Chen, Brian Oliver, Susan T Harbison
Differences in phenotype among genetically identical individuals exposed to the same environmental condition are often noted in genetic studies. Despite this commonplace observation, little is known about the causes of this variability, which has been termed microenvironmental plasticity. One possibility is that stochastic or technical sources of variance produce these differences. A second possibility is that this variation has a genetic component. We have explored gene expression robustness in the transcriptomes of 730 individual Drosophila melanogaster of 16 fixed genotypes, 9 of which are infected with Wolbachia Three replicates of flies were grown controlling for food, day/night cycles, humidity, temperature, sex, mating status, social exposure, and circadian timing of RNA extraction...
October 21, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756446/diversification-of-molecular-clockwork-for-tissue-specific-function-insight-from-novel-drosophila-clock-mutant-homologous-to-mouse-clock-allele
#14
Eunjoo Cho, Euna Lee, Eun Young Kim
The circadian clock system enables organisms to anticipate the rhythmic environmental changes and to manifest behavior and physiology at advantageous times of day. Transcriptional/translational feedback loop (TTFL) is the basic feature of eukaryotic circadian clock and is based on the rhythmic association of circadian transcriptional activator and repressor. In Drosophila, repression of dCLOCK/CYCLE (dCLK/CYC) mediated transcription by PERIOD (PER) is critical for inducing circadian rhythms of gene expression...
October 19, 2016: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732848/pdf-signaling-is-an-integral-part-of-the-drosophila-circadian-molecular-oscillator
#15
Shaul Mezan, Jean Daniel Feuz, Bart Deplancke, Sebastian Kadener
Circadian clocks generate 24-hr rhythms in physiology and behavior. Despite numerous studies, it is still uncertain how circadian rhythms emerge from their molecular and neural constituents. Here, we demonstrate a tight connection between the molecular and neuronal circadian networks. Using fluorescent transcriptional reporters in a Drosophila ex vivo brain culture system, we identified a reciprocal negative regulation between the master circadian regulator CLK and expression of pdf, the main circadian neuropeptide...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730591/protocols-to-study-behavior-in-drosophila
#16
Wendi S Neckameyer, Parag Bhatt
Drosophila melanogaster is an incredibly versatile organism capable of both innate and higher-order behaviors. These behaviors offer not only a way to assay whether or not the animal is physiologically compromised (e.g., feeding, locomotion), but also serve to assess changes in centrally mediated functions. Here we describe several high throughput, reproducible, yet inexpensive and facile behavioral assays for both larval and adult Drosophila. The larval assays all employ an agar substrate in a petri dish; the adult assays are grouped into "vial-based" and "arena-based" paradigms...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721647/optical-coherence-tomography-for-brain-imaging-and-developmental-biology
#17
Jing Men, Yongyang Huang, Jitendra Solanki, Xianxu Zeng, Aneesh Alex, Jason Jerwick, Zhan Zhang, Rudolph E Tanzi, Airong Li, Chao Zhou
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising research tool for brain imaging and developmental biology. Serving as a three-dimensional optical biopsy technique, OCT provides volumetric reconstruction of brain tissues and embryonic structures with micrometer resolution and video rate imaging speed. Functional OCT enables label-free monitoring of hemodynamic and metabolic changes in the brain in vitro and in vivo in animal models. Due to its non-invasiveness nature, OCT enables longitudinal imaging of developing specimens in vivo without potential damage from surgical operation, tissue fixation and processing, and staining with exogenous contrast agents...
July 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689358/allatostatin-a-signalling-in-drosophila-regulates-feeding-and-sleep-and-is-modulated-by-pdf
#18
Jiangtian Chen, Wencke Reiher, Christiane Hermann-Luibl, Azza Sellami, Paola Cognigni, Shu Kondo, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Jan A Veenstra, Christian Wegener
Feeding and sleep are fundamental behaviours with significant interconnections and cross-modulations. The circadian system and peptidergic signals are important components of this modulation, but still little is known about the mechanisms and networks by which they interact to regulate feeding and sleep. We show that specific thermogenetic activation of peptidergic Allatostatin A (AstA)-expressing PLP neurons and enteroendocrine cells reduces feeding and promotes sleep in the fruit fly Drosophila. The effects of AstA cell activation are mediated by AstA peptides with receptors homolog to galanin receptors subserving similar and apparently conserved functions in vertebrates...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689221/molecular-modulators-of-the-circadian-clock-lessons-from-flies-and-mice
#19
Lucia Mendoza-Viveros, Pascale Bouchard-Cannon, Sara Hegazi, Arthur H Cheng, Stephen Pastore, Hai-Ying Mary Cheng
Circadian timekeeping is a ubiquitous mechanism that enables organisms to maintain temporal coordination between internal biological processes and time of the local environment. The molecular basis of circadian rhythms lies in a set of transcription-translation feedback loops (TTFLs) that drives the rhythmic transcription of core clock genes, whose level and phase of expression serve as the marker of circadian time. However, it has become increasingly evident that additional regulatory mechanisms impinge upon the TTFLs to govern the properties and behavior of the circadian clock...
September 29, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676307/developmental-biology-when-less-damage-causes-more-harm
#20
E Thomas Danielsen, Kim F Rewitz
Circadian clocks are important timekeepers of physiological processes. A new report shows that silencing the circadian clock specifically in steroid-producing cells of Drosophila disrupts development and causes lethality, and is more detrimental than having no clock at all.
September 26, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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