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Drosophila circadian

Chantal Beatrice Magne Nde, Gloria Casas Gimeno, Maria Docanto, Kevin C Knower, Morag J Young, Jakob Buehn, Edris Sayed, Colin D Clyne
Activation of oestrogen receptor α (ERα) stimulates cell division and tumour growth by modulating the expression of ERα target genes. This activation involves the recruitment of specific proteins with activities that are still not fully understood. Timeless, the human homologue of the Drosophila gene involved in circadian rhythm, was previously shown to be a strong predictor of tamoxifen relapse, and is involved in genomic stability and cell cycle control. In this study, we investigated the interplay between Timeless and ERα, and showed that human Timeless is an ERα coactivator...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Yan-Dong Jiang, Xin Yuan, Wen-Wu Zhou, Yue-Liang Bai, Gui-Yao Wang, Zeng-Rong Zhu
Most living organisms have developed internal circadian clocks to anticipate the daily environmental changes. The circadian clocks are composed of several transcriptional-translational feedback loops, in which cryptochromes (CRYs) serve as critical elements. In insects, some CRYs act as photopigments to control circadian photoentrainment, while the others act as transcriptional regulators. We cloned and characterized two cryptochrome genes, the Drosophila -like ( lscry1 ) and vertebrate-like ( lscry2 ) genes, in a rice pest Laodelphax striatellus ...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Shirley L Zhang, Zhifeng Yue, Denice M Arnold, Gregory Artiushin, Amita Sehgal
Endogenous circadian rhythms are thought to modulate responses to external factors, but mechanisms that confer time-of-day differences in organismal responses to environmental insults/therapeutic treatments are poorly understood. Using a xenobiotic, we find that permeability of the Drosophila "blood"-brain barrier (BBB) is higher at night. The permeability rhythm is driven by circadian regulation of efflux and depends on a molecular clock in the perineurial glia of the BBB, although efflux transporters are restricted to subperineurial glia (SPG)...
February 27, 2018: Cell
Christopher R Hackley, Esteban O Mazzoni, Justin Blau
Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors enable cell-specific measurements of ions and small molecules in real time. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is one of the most important signaling molecules in virtually all cell types and organisms. We describe cAMPr, a new single-wavelength cAMP sensor. We developed cAMPr in bacteria and embryonic stem cells and validated the sensor in mammalian neurons in vitro and in Drosophila circadian pacemaker neurons in intact brains. Comparison with other single-wavelength cAMP sensors showed that cAMPr improved the quantitative detection of cAMP abundance...
March 6, 2018: Science Signaling
Jie Bi, Amita Sehgal, Julie A Williams, Yu-Feng Wang
Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria present in a wide range of insects. Although their dramatic effects on host reproductive biology have been well studied, the effects of Wolbachia on sleep behavior of insect hosts are not well documented. In this study, we report that Wolbachia infection caused an increase of total sleep time in both male and female Drosophila melanogaster. The increase in sleep was associated with an increase in the number of nighttime sleep bouts or episodes, but not in sleep bout duration...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Georges Pétavy, Brigitte Moreteau, Jean R David, Patricia Gibert
Thoracic and abdominal pigmentation were measured in Drosophila melanogaster under a cold circadian stress (8-25 °C) and a heat one (18-33 °C) and compared to the phenotypes observed under similar but constant temperatures of 17 or 25 °C respectively. An isofemale line design permitted to submit each line (full sibs) to the four thermal regimes. Under cold stress, the pigmentation was similar to the value observed at constant 25 °C, suggesting a kind of functional dominance of the high temperature phase...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Zvonimir Marelja, Silke Leimkühler, Fanis Missirlis
Iron sulfur (Fe-S) clusters and the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) are present at enzyme sites, where the active metal facilitates electron transfer. Such enzyme systems are soluble in the mitochondrial matrix, cytosol and nucleus, or embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane, but virtually absent from the cell secretory pathway. They are of ancient evolutionary origin supporting respiration, DNA replication, transcription, translation, the biosynthesis of steroids, heme, catabolism of purines, hydroxylation of xenobiotics, and cellular sulfur metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Samantha You, Tudor A Fulga, David Van Vactor, F Rob Jackson
We describe a genome-wide microRNA (miRNA)-based screen to identify brain glial cell functions required for circadian behavior. To identify glial miRNAs that regulate circadian rhythmicity, we employed a collection of "miR-sponges" to inhibit miRNA function in a glia-specific manner. Our initial screen identified 20 glial miRNAs that regulate circadian behavior. We studied two miRNAs, miR-263b and miR-274, in detail and found that both function in adult astrocytes to regulate behavior. Astrocyte-specific inhibition of miR-263b or miR-274 in adults acutely impairs circadian locomotor activity rhythms with no effect on glial or clock neuronal cell viability...
March 2018: Genetics
Bing Qiao, Chiyuan Li, Victoria W Allen, Mimi M Shirasu-Hiza, Sheyum Syed
Despite being pervasive, the control of programmed grooming is poorly understood. We addressed this gap by developing a high-throughput platform that allows long-term detection of grooming in Drosophila melanogaster . In our method, a k -nearest neighbors algorithm automatically classifies fly behavior and finds grooming events with over 90% accuracy in diverse genotypes. Our data show that flies spend ~13% of their waking time grooming, driven largely by two major internal programs. One of these programs regulates the timing of grooming and involves the core circadian clock components cycle , clock , and period ...
February 27, 2018: ELife
Robin Fropf, Hong Zhou, Jerry C P Yin
Circadian regulation is a conserved phenomenon across the animal kingdom, and its disruption can have severe behavioral and physiological consequences. Core circadian clock proteins are likewise well conserved from Drosophila to humans. While the molecular clock interactions that regulate circadian rhythms have been extensively described, additional roles for clock genes during complex behaviors are less understood. Here, we show that mutations in the clock gene period result in differential time-of-day effects on acquisition and long-term memory of aversive olfactory conditioning...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Riikka Tapanainen, Darren J Parker, Maaria Kankare
To function properly, organisms must adjust their physiology, behavior and metabolism in response to a suite of varying environmental conditions. One of the central regulators of these changes is organisms' internal circadian clock, and recent evidence has suggested that the clock genes are also important in the regulation of seasonal adjustments. In particular, thermosensitive splicing of the core clock gene timeless in a cosmopolitan fly, Drosophila melanogaster , has implicated this gene to be involved in thermal adaptation...
February 22, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Swathi Yadlapalli, Chang Jiang, Andrew Bahle, Pramod Reddy, Edgar Meyhofer, Orie T Shafer
Circadian clocks coordinate behaviour, physiology and metabolism with Earth's diurnal cycle. These clocks entrain to both light and temperature cycles, and daily environmental temperature oscillations probably contribute to human sleep patterns. However, the neural mechanisms through which circadian clocks monitor environmental temperature and modulate behaviour remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate how the circadian clock neuron network of Drosophila melanogaster processes changes in environmental temperature...
February 21, 2018: Nature
Ana Filošević, Sabina Al-Samarai, Rozi Andretić Waldowski
Drosophila melanogaster can be used to identify genes with novel functional roles in neuronal plasticity induced by repeated consumption of addictive drugs. Behavioral sensitization is a relatively simple behavioral output of plastic changes that occur in the brain after repeated exposures to drugs of abuse. The development of screening procedures for genes that control behavioral sensitization has stalled due to a lack of high-throughput behavioral tests that can be used in genetically tractable organism, such as Drosophila ...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Virginie Sabado, Emi Nagoshi
The circadian pacemaker circuit orchestrates rhythmic behavioral and physiological outputs coordinated with environmental cues, such as day/night cycles. The molecular clock within each pacemaker neuron generates circadian rhythms in gene expression, which underlie the rhythmic neuronal functions essential to the operation of the circuit. Investigation of the properties of the individual molecular oscillators in different subclasses of pacemaker neurons and their interaction with neuronal signaling yields a better understanding of the circadian pacemaker circuit...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Deborah A Hursh, Brian G Stultz
Zinc finger in the cerebellum (Zic) proteins are a family of transcription factors with multiple roles during development, particularly in neural tissues. The founding member of the Zic family is the Drosophila odd-paired (opa) gene. The Opa protein has a DNA binding domain containing five Cys2His2-type zinc fingers and has been shown to act as a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Opa has significant homology to mammalian Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 within the zinc finger domain and in two other conserved regions outside that domain...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Frank K Schubert, Nicolas Hagedorn, Taishi Yoshii, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Dirk Rieger
Drosophila melanogaster is a long-standing model organism in the circadian clock research. A major advantage is the relative small numbers of about 150 neurons, which built the circadian clock in Drosophila. In our recent work, we focused on the neuroanatomical properties of the lateral neurons of the clock network. By applying the multicolor-labeling technique Flybow we were able to identify the anatomical similarity of the previously described E2 subunit of the evening oscillator of the clock, which is built by the 5th small ventrolateral neuron (5th s-LNv ) and one ITP positive dorsolateral neuron (LNd )...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Zhichao Zhang, Weihuan Cao, Isaac Edery
Similar to many diurnal animals, Drosophila melanogaster exhibits a mid-day siesta that is more robust as temperature increases, an adaptive response that aims to minimize the deleterious effects from exposure to heat. This temperature-dependent plasticity in mid-day sleep levels is partly based on the thermal sensitive splicing of an intron in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the circadian clock gene termed period (per). In this study, we evaluated a possible role for the serine/arginine-rich (SR) splicing factors in the regulation of dmpi8 splicing efficiency and mid-day siesta...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Leonie Lichtenstein, Kornelia Grübel, Johannes Spaethe
BACKGROUND: The compound eyes of insects allow them to catch photons and convert the energy into electric signals. All compound eyes consist of numerous ommatidia, each comprising a fixed number of photoreceptors. Different ommatidial types are characterized by a specific set of photoreceptors differing in spectral sensitivity. In honey bees, males and females possess different ommatidial types forming distinct retinal mosaics. However, data are lacking on retinal ontogeny and the mechanisms by which the eyes are patterned...
January 30, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Li Yuan, Yi-Rou Li, Xiao-Dong Xu
Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines the generation of biological rhythms in various creatures and in many parts of body, and their adaptive fitness to solar- and lunar-related periodic phenomena. The synchronization of internal circadian clocks with external timing signals confers accurate phase response and tissue homeostasis. Herein we state a series of studies on circadian rhythms and introduce the brief history of chronobiology. We also present a detailed timeline of the discoveries on molecular mechanisms controlling circadian rhythm in Drosophila, which was awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine...
January 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Seth D Rhoades, Katrina Nayak, Shirley Zhang, Amita Sehgal, Aalim M Weljie
Complex interactions of environmental cues and transcriptional clocks drive rhythmicity in organismal physiology. Light directly affects the circadian clock; however, little is known about its relative role in controlling metabolic variations in vivo. Here we used high time-resolution sampling in Drosophila at every 2 h to measure metabolite outputs using a liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach. Over 14% of detected metabolites oscillated with circadian periodicity under light-dark (LD) cycles...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
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