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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086750/a-genome-wide-scan-for-genes-under-balancing-selection-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Myriam Croze, Andreas Wollstein, Vedran Božičević, Daniel Živković, Wolfgang Stephan, Stephan Hutter
BACKGROUND: In the history of population genetics balancing selection has been considered as an important evolutionary force, yet until today little is known about its abundance and its effect on patterns of genetic diversity. Several well-known examples of balancing selection have been reported from humans, mice, plants, and parasites. However, only very few systematic studies have been carried out to detect genes under balancing selection. We performed a genome scan in Drosophila melanogaster to find signatures of balancing selection in a derived (European) and an ancestral (African) population...
January 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072817/drosophila-clock-is-required-in-brain-pacemaker-neurons-to-prevent-premature-locomotor-aging-independently-of-its-circadian-function
#2
Alexandra Vaccaro, Abdul-Raouf Issa, Laurent Seugnet, Serge Birman, André Klarsfeld
Circadian clocks control many self-sustained rhythms in physiology and behavior with approximately 24-hour periodicity. In many organisms, oxidative stress and aging negatively impact the circadian system and sleep. Conversely, loss of the clock decreases resistance to oxidative stress, and may reduce lifespan and speed up brain aging and neurodegeneration. Here we examined the effects of clock disruptions on locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila. We found that lifespan was similarly reduced in three arrhythmic mutants (ClkAR, cyc0 and tim0) and in wild-type flies under constant light, which stops the clock...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067410/the-photolyase-cryptochrome-family-of-proteins-as-dna-repair-enzymes-and-transcriptional-repressors
#3
REVIEW
Ibrahim Halil Kavakli, Ibrahim Baris, Mehmet Tardu, Şeref Gül, Haşimcan Öner, Sibel Çal, Selma Bulut, Darya Yarparvar, Çağlar Berkel, Pınar Ustaoğlu, Cihan Aydın
Light is a very important environmental factor that governs many cellular responses in organisms. As a consequence, organisms possess different kinds of light-sensing photoreceptors to regulate their physiological variables and adapt to a given habitat. The cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF) includes photoreceptors that perform different functions in different organisms. Photolyases repair ultraviolet-induced DNA damage by a process known as photoreactivation using photons absorbed from the blue end of the light spectrum...
November 16, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062690/cryptochrome-mediates-behavioral-executive-choice-in-response-to-uv-light
#4
Lisa S Baik, Keri J Fogle, Logan Roberts, Alexis M Galschiodt, Joshua A Chevez, Yocelyn Recinos, Vinh Nguy, Todd C Holmes
Drosophila melanogaster CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) mediates behavioral and electrophysiological responses to blue light coded by circadian and arousal neurons. However, spectroscopic and biochemical assays of heterologously expressed CRY suggest that CRY may mediate functional responses to UV-A (ultraviolet A) light as well. To determine the relative contributions of distinct phototransduction systems, we tested mutants lacking CRY and mutants with disrupted opsin-based phototransduction for behavioral and electrophysiological responses to UV light...
January 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057529/genetic-inhibition-of-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-rescues-cognitive-impairments-in-neurofibromatosis-1-mutant-mice
#5
Joseph B Weiss, Sydney J Weber, Eileen Ruth S Torres, Tessa Marzulla, Jacob Raber
Heterozygous Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) loss of function mutations occur in approximately 90% of patients with neurofibromatosis. A major, disabling phenotypic consequence of reduced NF1 function is cognitive impairment; a possibly related behavioral phenotype is impaired sleep. Recent results in Drosophila have demonstrated a genetic interaction between Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (Alk) and NF1 for both associative learning and sleep. Inhibition of Alk improves associative learning and sleep in heterozygous NF1 mutant flies...
January 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036067/drosophila-protein-kinase-ck2-genetics-regulatory-complexity-and-emerging-roles-during-development
#6
REVIEW
Mohna Bandyopadhyay, Scott Arbet, Clifton P Bishop, Ashok P Bidwai
CK2 is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that is highly conserved amongst all eukaryotes. It is a well-known oncogenic kinase that regulates vital cell autonomous functions and animal development. Genetic studies in the fruit fly Drosophila are providing unique insights into the roles of CK2 in cell signaling, embryogenesis, organogenesis, neurogenesis, and the circadian clock, and are revealing hitherto unknown complexities in CK2 functions and regulation. Here, we review Drosophila CK2 with respect to its structure, subunit diversity, potential mechanisms of regulation, developmental abnormalities linked to mutations in the gene encoding CK2 subunits, and emerging roles in multiple aspects of eye development...
December 29, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979876/circadian-and-feeding-cues-integrate-to-drive-rhythms-of-physiology-in-drosophila-insulin-producing-cells
#7
Annika F Barber, Renske Erion, Todd C Holmes, Amita Sehgal
Circadian clocks regulate much of behavior and physiology, but the mechanisms by which they do so remain poorly understood. While cyclic gene expression is thought to underlie metabolic rhythms, little is known about cycles in cellular physiology. We found that Drosophila insulin-producing cells (IPCs), which are located in the pars intercerebralis and lack an autonomous circadian clock, are functionally connected to the central circadian clock circuit via DN1 neurons. Insulin mediates circadian output by regulating the rhythmic expression of a metabolic gene (sxe2) in the fat body...
December 1, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974202/the-drosophila-clock-neuron-network-features-diverse-coupling-modes-and-requires-network-wide-coherence-for-robust-circadian-rhythms
#8
Zepeng Yao, Amelia J Bennett, Jenna L Clem, Orie T Shafer
In animals, networks of clock neurons containing molecular clocks orchestrate daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. However, how various types of clock neurons communicate and coordinate with one another to produce coherent circadian rhythms is not well understood. Here, we investigate clock neuron coupling in the brain of Drosophila and demonstrate that the fly's various groups of clock neurons display unique and complex coupling relationships to core pacemaker neurons. Furthermore, we find that coordinated free-running rhythms require molecular clock synchrony not only within the well-characterized lateral clock neuron classes but also between lateral clock neurons and dorsal clock neurons...
December 13, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936378/genome-wide-identification-of-neuronal-activity-regulated-genes-in-drosophila
#9
Xiao Chen, Reazur Rahman, Fang Guo, Michael Rosbash
Activity-regulated genes (ARGs) are important for neuronal functions like long-term memory and are well-characterized in mammals but poorly studied in other model organisms like Drosophila. Here we stimulated fly neurons with different paradigms and identified ARGs using high-throughput sequencing from brains as well as from sorted neurons: they included a narrow set of circadian neurons as well as dopaminergic neurons. Surprisingly, many ARGs are specific to the stimulation paradigm and very specific to neuron type...
December 9, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892932/reciprocal-regulation-of-carbon-monoxide-metabolism-and-the-circadian-clock
#10
Roman Klemz, Silke Reischl, Thomas Wallach, Nicole Witte, Karsten Jürchott, Sabrina Klemz, Veronika Lang, Stephan Lorenzen, Miriam Knauer, Steffi Heidenreich, Min Xu, Jürgen A Ripperger, Michael Schupp, Ralf Stanewsky, Achim Kramer
Circadian clocks are cell-autonomous oscillators regulating daily rhythms in a wide range of physiological, metabolic and behavioral processes. Feedback of metabolic signals, such as redox state, NAD(+)/NADH and AMP/ADP ratios, or heme, modulate circadian rhythms and thereby optimize energy utilization across the 24-h cycle. We show that rhythmic heme degradation, which generates the signaling molecule carbon monoxide (CO), is required for normal circadian rhythms as well as circadian metabolic outputs. CO suppresses circadian transcription by attenuating CLOCK-BMAL1 binding to target promoters...
November 28, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891621/animal-cryptochromes-divergent-roles-in-light-perception-circadian-timekeeping-and-beyond
#11
Alicia K Michael, Jennifer L Fribourgh, Russell N Van Gelder, Carrie L Partch
Cryptochromes are evolutionarily related to the light-dependent DNA repair enzyme photolyase, serving as major regulators of circadian rhythms in insects and vertebrate animals. There are two types of cryptochromes in the animal kingdom: Drosophila-like CRYs that act as non-visual photopigments linking circadian rhythms to the environmental light/dark cycle, and vertebrate-like CRYs that do not appear to sense light directly, but control the generation of circadian rhythms by acting as transcriptional repressors...
November 28, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883065/cycles-of-circadian-illuminance-are-sufficient-to-entrain-and-maintain-circadian-locomotor-rhythms-in-drosophila
#12
Eunjoo Cho, Ji Hye Oh, Euna Lee, Young Rag Do, Eun Young Kim
Light at night disrupts the circadian clock and causes serious health problems in the modern world. Here, we show that newly developed four-package light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can provide harmless lighting at night. To quantify the effects of light on the circadian clock, we employed the concept of circadian illuminance (CIL). CIL represents the amount of light weighted toward the wavelengths to which the circadian clock is most sensitive, whereas visual illuminance (VIL) represents the total amount of visible light...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879317/correlated-evolution-between-ck1%C3%AE-protein-and-the-serine-rich-motif-contributes-to-regulating-the-mammalian-circadian-clock
#13
Lijuan Xing, Yang An, Guangsen Shi, Jie Yan, Pancheng Xie, Zhipeng Qu, Zhihui Zhang, Zhiwei Liu, Dejing Pan, Ying Xu
Understanding the mechanism underlying the physiological divergence of species is a long-standing issue in evolutionary biology. The circadian clock is a highly conserved system existing in almost all organisms that regulates a wide range of physiological and behavioral events to adapt to the day-night cycle. Here, the interactions between hCK1ϵ/δ/DBT (Drosophila ortholog of CK1δ/ϵ) and serine-rich (SR) motifs from hPER2 (ortholog of Drosophila per) were reconstructed in a Drosophila circadian system. The results indicated that in Drosophila, the SR mutant form hPER2(S662G) does not recapitulate the mouse or human mutant phenotype...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871090/the-genomic-basis-of-circadian-and-circalunar-timing-adaptations-in-a-midge
#14
Tobias S Kaiser, Birgit Poehn, David Szkiba, Marco Preussner, Fritz J Sedlazeck, Alexander Zrim, Tobias Neumann, Lam-Tung Nguyen, Andrea J Betancourt, Thomas Hummel, Heiko Vogel, Silke Dorner, Florian Heyd, Arndt von Haeseler, Kristin Tessmar-Raible
Organisms use endogenous clocks to anticipate regular environmental cycles, such as days and tides. Natural variants resulting in differently timed behaviour or physiology, known as chronotypes in humans, have not been well characterized at the molecular level. We sequenced the genome of Clunio marinus, a marine midge whose reproduction is timed by circadian and circalunar clocks. Midges from different locations show strain-specific genetic timing adaptations. We examined genetic variation in five C. marinus strains from different locations and mapped quantitative trait loci for circalunar and circadian chronotypes...
December 1, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867253/drosophila-ezoana-uses-an-hour-glass-or-highly-damped-circadian-clock-for-measuring-night-length-and-inducing-diapause
#15
Koustubh M Vaze, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Insects inhabiting the temperate zones measure seasonal changes in day or night length to enter the overwintering diapause. Diapause induction occurs after the duration of the night exceeds a critical night length (CNL). Our understanding of the time measurement mechanisms is continuously evolving subsequent to Bünning's proposal that circadian systems play the clock role in photoperiodic time measurement (Bünning, 1936). Initially, the photoperiodic clocks were considered to be either based on circadian oscillators or on simple hour-glasses, depending on 'positive' or 'negative' responses in Nanda-Hamner and Bünsow experiments (Nanda & Hammer, 1958; Bünsow, 1960)...
December 2016: Physiological Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856350/achilles-is-a-circadian-clock-controlled-gene-that-regulates-immune-function-in-drosophila
#16
Jiajia Li, Erin E Terry, Edith Fejer, Diana Gamba, Natalie Hartmann, Joseph Logsdon, Daniel Michalski, Lisa E Rois, Maria J Scuderi, Michael Kunst, Michael E Hughes
The circadian clock is a transcriptional/translational feedback loop that drives the rhythmic expression of downstream mRNAs. Termed "clock-controlled genes," these molecular outputs of the circadian clock orchestrate cellular, metabolic, and behavioral rhythms. As part of our on-going work to characterize key upstream regulators of circadian mRNA expression, we have identified a novel clock-controlled gene in Drosophila melanogaster, Achilles (Achl), which is rhythmic at the mRNA level in the brain and which represses expression of antimicrobial peptides in the immune system...
November 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853240/modulation-of-light-driven-arousal-by-lim-homeodomain-transcription-factor-apterous-in-large-pdf-positive-lateral-neurons-of-the-drosophila-brain
#17
Naoto Shimada, Show Inami, Shoma Sato, Toshihiro Kitamoto, Takaomi Sakai
Apterous (Ap), the best studied LIM-homeodomain transcription factor in Drosophila, cooperates with the cofactor Chip (Chi) to regulate transcription of specific target genes. Although Ap regulates various developmental processes, its function in the adult brain remains unclear. Here, we report that Ap and Chi in the neurons expressing PDF, a neuropeptide, play important roles in proper sleep/wake regulation in adult flies. PDF-expressing neurons consist of two neuronal clusters: small ventral-lateral neurons (s-LNvs) acting as the circadian pacemaker and large ventral-lateral neurons (l-LNvs) regulating light-driven arousal...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829142/sensory-conflict-disrupts-activity-of-the-drosophila-circadian-network
#18
Ross E F Harper, Peter Dayan, Joerg T Albert, Ralf Stanewsky
Periodic changes in light and temperature synchronize the Drosophila circadian clock, but the question of how the fly brain integrates these two input pathways to set circadian time remains unanswered. We explore multisensory cue combination by testing the resilience of the circadian network to conflicting environmental inputs. We show that misaligned light and temperature cycles can lead to dramatic changes in the daily locomotor activities of wild-type flies during and after exposure to sensory conflict...
November 8, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814361/clockwork-orange-enhances-period-mediated-rhythms-in-transcriptional-repression-by-antagonizing-e-box-binding-by-clock-cycle
#19
Jian Zhou, Wangjie Yu, Paul E Hardin
The Drosophila circadian oscillator controls daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism and behavior via transcriptional feedback loops. CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) heterodimers initiate feedback loop function by binding E-box elements to activate per and tim transcription. PER-TIM heterodimers then accumulate, bind CLK-CYC to inhibit transcription, and are ultimately degraded to enable the next round of transcription. The timing of transcriptional events in this feedback loop coincide with, and are controlled by, rhythms in CLK-CYC binding to E-boxes...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791392/impact-of-ataxin-2-knock-out-on-circadian-locomotor-behavior-and-per-immunoreaction-in-the-scn-of-mice
#20
Martina Pfeffer, Suzana Gispert, Georg Auburger, Helmut Wicht, Horst-Werner Korf
In Drosophila melanogaster, Ataxin-2 is a crucial activator of Period and is involved in the control of circadian rhythms. However, in mammals the function of Ataxin-2 is unknown despite its involvement in the inherited neurogenerative disease Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 in humans. Therefore, we analyzed locomotor behavior of Atxn2-deficient mice and their WT littermates under entrained- and free-running conditions as well as after experimental jet lag. Furthermore, we compared the PER1 and PER2 immunoreaction (IR) in the SCN...
October 28, 2016: Chronobiology International
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