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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754901/nocte-is-required-for-integrating-light-and-temperature-inputs-in-circadian-clock-neurons-of-drosophila
#1
Chenghao Chen, Min Xu, Yuto Anantaprakorn, Mechthild Rosing, Ralf Stanewsky
Circadian clocks organize biological processes to occur at optimized times of day and thereby contribute to overall fitness. While the regular daily changes of environmental light and temperature synchronize circadian clocks, extreme external conditions can bypass the temporal constraints dictated by the clock. Despite advanced knowledge about how the daily light-dark changes synchronize the clock, relatively little is known with regard to how the daily temperature changes influence daily timing and how temperature and light signals are integrated...
May 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724861/high-amplitude-circadian-rhythms-in-drosophila-driven-by-calcineurin-mediated-post-translational-control-of-sarah
#2
Sin Ho Kweon, Jongbin Lee, Chunghun Lim, Joonho Choe
Post-translational control is a crucial mechanism for circadian timekeeping. Evolutionarily conserved kinases and phosphatases have been implicated in circadian phosphorylation and degradation of clock-relevant proteins, which sustain high-amplitude rhythms with 24 hr periodicity in animal behaviors and physiology. Here, we report a novel clock function of the heterodimeric Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin and its regulator sarah ( sra ) in Drosophila Genomic deletion of the sra locus dampened circadian locomotor activity rhythms in free-running constant dark after entrainment in light-dark cycles...
May 3, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719232/cold-temperatures-fire-up-circadian-neurons
#3
Annika F Barber, Amita Sehgal
Circadian clocks monitor both light and temperature cycles to entrain behavior and physiology to the environment. Recently in Nature, Yadlapalli et al. (2018) identified a subgroup of Drosophila clock neurons that responds to temperature input with changes in intracellular calcium and mediates effects of temperature on circadian entrainment and sleep.
May 1, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712926/author-correction-the-characterization-of-the-circadian-clock-in-the-olive-fly-bactrocera-oleae-diptera-tephritidae-reveals-a-drosophila-like-organization
#4
Enrico Bertolini, Christa Kistenpfennig, Pamela Menegazzi, Alexander Keller, Martha Koukidou, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706866/-drosophila-rsk-influences-the-pace-of-the-circadian-clock-by-negative-regulation-of-protein-kinase-shaggy-activity
#5
Katherina Beck, Anna Hovhanyan, Pamela Menegazzi, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Thomas Raabe
Endogenous molecular circadian clocks drive daily rhythmic changes at the cellular, physiological, and behavioral level for adaptation to and anticipation of environmental signals. The core molecular system consists of autoregulatory feedback loops, where clock proteins inhibit their own transcription. A complex and not fully understood interplay of regulatory proteins influences activity, localization and stability of clock proteins to set the pace of the clock. This study focuses on the molecular function of Ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK) in the Drosophila melanogaster circadian clock...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695973/different-levels-of-expression-of-the-clock-protein-per-and-the-glial-marker-repo-in-ensheathing-and-astrocyte-like-glia-of-the-distal-medulla-of-drosophila-optic-lobe
#6
Wojciech Krzeptowski, Lucyna Walkowicz, Alicja Płonczyńska, Jolanta Górska-Andrzejak
Circadian plasticity of the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster depends on functioning of both the neuronal and glial oscillators. The clock function of the former is already quite well-recognized. The latter, however, is much less known and documented. In this study we focus on the glial oscillators that reside in the distal part of the second visual neuropil, medulla (dMnGl), in vicinity of the PIGMENT-DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) releasing terminals of the circadian clock ventral Lateral Neurons (LNvs). We reveal the heterogeneity of the dMnGl, which express the clock protein PERIOD (PER) and the pan-glial marker REVERSED POLARITY (REPO) at higher (P1) or lower (P2) levels...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673553/the-discoveries-of-molecular-mechanisms-for-the-circadian-rhythm-the-2017-nobel-prize-in-physiology-or-medicine
#7
Rong-Chi Huang
Circadian clocks evolved to allow plants and animals to adapt their behaviors to the 24-hr change in the external environment due to the Earth's rotation. While the first scientific observation of circadian rhythm in the plant leaf movement may be dated back to the early 18th century, it took 200 years to realize that the leaf movement is controlled by an endogenous circadian clock. The cloning and characterization of the first Drosophila clock gene period in the early 1980s, independently by Jeffery C. Hall and Michael Rosbash at Brandeis University and Michael Young at Rockefeller University, paved the way for their further discoveries of additional genes and proteins, culminating in establishing the so-called transcriptional translational feedback loop (TTFL) model for the generation of autonomous oscillator with a period of ∼24 h...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651236/substrates-for-neuronal-cotransmission-with-neuropeptides-and-small-molecule-neurotransmitters-in-drosophila
#8
REVIEW
Dick R Nässel
It has been known for more than 40 years that individual neurons can produce more than one neurotransmitter and that neuropeptides often are colocalized with small molecule neurotransmitters (SMNs). Over the years much progress has been made in understanding the functional consequences of cotransmission in the nervous system of mammals. There are also some excellent invertebrate models that have revealed roles of coexpressed neuropeptides and SMNs in increasing complexity, flexibility, and dynamics in neuronal signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621409/dstac-is-required-for-normal-circadian-activity-rhythms-in-drosophila
#9
I-Uen Hsu, Jeremy W Linsley, Jade E Varineau, Orie T Shafer, John Y Kuwada
The genetic, molecular and neuronal mechanism underlying circadian activity rhythms is well characterized in the brain of Drosophila. The small ventrolateral neurons (s-LNV s) and pigment dispersing factor (PDF) expressed by them are especially important for regulating circadian locomotion. Here we describe a novel gene, Dstac, which is similar to the stac genes found in vertebrates that encode adaptor proteins, which bind and regulate L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (CaChs). We show that Dstac is coexpressed with PDF by the s-LNV s and regulates circadian activity...
April 5, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617359/sexual-dimorphism-of-sleep-regulated-by-juvenile-hormone-signaling-in-drosophila
#10
Binbin Wu, Lingling Ma, Enyan Zhang, Juan Du, Suning Liu, Jeffrey Price, Sheng Li, Zhangwu Zhao
Sexually dimorphic phenotypes are a universal phenomenon in animals. In the model animal fruit fly Drosophila, males and females exhibit long- and short-sleep phenotypes, respectively. However, the mechanism is still a mystery. In this study, we showed that juvenile hormone (JH) is involved in regulation of sexually dimorphic sleep in Drosophila, in which gain of JH function enlarges differences of the dimorphic sleep phenotype with higher sleep in males and lower sleep in females, while loss of JH function blurs these differences and results in feminization of male sleep and masculinization of female sleep...
April 4, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615925/on-variations-in-the-level-of-per-in-glial-clocks-of-drosophila-optic-lobe-and-its-negative-regulation-by-pdf-signaling
#11
Jolanta Górska-Andrzejak, Elżbieta M Chwastek, Lucyna Walkowicz, Kacper Witek
We show that the level of the core protein of the circadian clock Period (PER) expressed by glial peripheral oscillators depends on their location in the Drosophila optic lobe. It appears to be controlled by the ventral lateral neurons (LNvs) that release the circadian neurotransmitter Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF). We demonstrate that glial cells of the distal medulla neuropil (dMnGl) that lie in the vicinity of the PDF-releasing terminals of the LNvs possess receptors for PDF (PDFRs) and express PER at significantly higher level than other types of glia...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611807/ck1-doubletime-activity-delays-transcription-activation-in-the-circadian-clock
#12
Deniz Top, Jenna L O'Neil, Gregory E Merz, Kritika Dusad, Brian R Crane, Michael W Young
In the Drosophila circadian clock, Period (PER) and Timeless (TIM) proteins inhibit Clock-mediated transcription of per and tim genes until PER is degraded by Doubletime/CK1 (DBT)-mediated phosphorylation, establishing a negative feedback loop. Multiple regulatory delays within this feedback loop ensure ~24 hr periodicity. Of these delays, the mechanisms that regulate delayed PER degradation (and Clock reactivation) remain unclear. Here we show that phosphorylation of certain DBT target sites within a central region of PER affect PER inhibition of Clock and the stability of the PER/TIM complex...
April 3, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590612/a-conserved-circadian-function-for-the-neurofibromatosis-1-gene
#13
Lei Bai, Yool Lee, Cynthia T Hsu, Julie A Williams, Daniel Cavanaugh, Xiangzhong Zheng, Carly Stein, Paula Haynes, Han Wang, David H Gutmann, Amita Sehgal
Loss of the Neurofibromatosis 1 (Nf1) protein, neurofibromin, in Drosophila disrupts circadian rhythms of locomotor activity without impairing central clock function, suggesting effects downstream of the clock. However, the relevant cellular mechanisms are not known. Leveraging the discovery of output circuits for locomotor rhythms, we dissected cellular actions of neurofibromin in recently identified substrates. Herein, we show that neurofibromin affects the levels and cycling of calcium in multiple circadian peptidergic neurons...
March 27, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581265/circadian-clock-activity-of-cryptochrome-relies-on-tryptophan-mediated-photoreduction
#14
Changfan Lin, Deniz Top, Craig C Manahan, Michael W Young, Brian R Crane
Cryptochromes (CRYs) entrain the circadian clocks of plants and animals to light. Irradiation of the Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) causes reduction of an oxidized flavin cofactor by a chain of conserved tryptophan (Trp) residues. However, it is unclear how redox chemistry within the Trp chain couples to dCRY-mediated signaling. Here, we show that substitutions of four key Trp residues to redox-active tyrosine and redox-inactive phenylalanine tune the light sensitivity of dCRY photoreduction, conformational activation, cellular stability, and targeted degradation of the clock protein timeless (TIM)...
March 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555554/timeless-is-a-novel-estrogen-receptor-co-activator-involved-in-multiple-signalling-pathways-in-mcf-7-cells
#15
Chantal Beatrice Magne Nde, Gloria Casas Gimeno, Maria Docanto, Kevin C Knower, Morag J Young, Jakob Buehn, Edris Sayed, Colin D Clyne
Activation of oestrogen receptor α (ERα) stimulates cell division and tumour growth by modulating the expression of ERα target genes. This activation involves the recruitment of specific proteins with activities that are still not fully understood. Timeless, the human homologue of the Drosophila gene involved in circadian rhythm, was previously shown to be a strong predictor of tamoxifen relapse, and is involved in genomic stability and cell cycle control. In this study, we investigated the interplay between Timeless and ERα, and showed that human Timeless is an ERα coactivator...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541034/-cryptochrome-regulates-circadian-locomotor-rhythms-in-the-small-brown-planthopper-laodelphax-striatellus-fall%C3%A3-n
#16
Yan-Dong Jiang, Xin Yuan, Wen-Wu Zhou, Yue-Liang Bai, Gui-Yao Wang, Zeng-Rong Zhu
Most living organisms have developed internal circadian clocks to anticipate the daily environmental changes. The circadian clocks are composed of several transcriptional-translational feedback loops, in which cryptochromes (CRYs) serve as critical elements. In insects, some CRYs act as photopigments to control circadian photoentrainment, while the others act as transcriptional regulators. We cloned and characterized two cryptochrome genes, the Drosophila -like ( lscry1 ) and vertebrate-like ( lscry2 ) genes, in a rice pest Laodelphax striatellus ...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526461/a-circadian-clock-in-the-blood-brain-barrier-regulates-xenobiotic-efflux
#17
Shirley L Zhang, Zhifeng Yue, Denice M Arnold, Gregory Artiushin, Amita Sehgal
Endogenous circadian rhythms are thought to modulate responses to external factors, but mechanisms that confer time-of-day differences in organismal responses to environmental insults/therapeutic treatments are poorly understood. Using a xenobiotic, we find that permeability of the Drosophila "blood"-brain barrier (BBB) is higher at night. The permeability rhythm is driven by circadian regulation of efflux and depends on a molecular clock in the perineurial glia of the BBB, although efflux transporters are restricted to subperineurial glia (SPG)...
March 22, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511120/campr-a-single-wavelength-fluorescent-sensor-for-cyclic-amp
#18
Christopher R Hackley, Esteban O Mazzoni, Justin Blau
Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors enable cell-specific measurements of ions and small molecules in real time. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is one of the most important signaling molecules in virtually all cell types and organisms. We describe cAMPr, a new single-wavelength cAMP sensor. We developed cAMPr in bacteria and embryonic stem cells and validated the sensor in mammalian neurons in vitro and in Drosophila circadian pacemaker neurons in intact brains. Comparison with other single-wavelength cAMP sensors showed that cAMPr improved the quantitative detection of cAMP abundance...
March 6, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499213/wolbachia-affects-sleep-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Jie Bi, Amita Sehgal, Julie A Williams, Yu-Feng Wang
Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria present in a wide range of insects. Although their dramatic effects on host reproductive biology have been well studied, the effects of Wolbachia on sleep behavior of insect hosts are not well documented. In this study, we report that Wolbachia infection caused an increase of total sleep time in both male and female Drosophila melanogaster. The increase in sleep was associated with an increase in the number of nighttime sleep bouts or episodes, but not in sleep bout duration...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496004/influence-of-extreme-heat-or-cold-stresses-on-body-pigmentation-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Georges Pétavy, Brigitte Moreteau, Jean R David, Patricia Gibert
Thoracic and abdominal pigmentation were measured in Drosophila melanogaster under a cold circadian stress (8-25 °C) and a heat one (18-33 °C) and compared to the phenotypes observed under similar but constant temperatures of 17 or 25 °C respectively. An isofemale line design permitted to submit each line (full sibs) to the four thermal regimes. Under cold stress, the pigmentation was similar to the value observed at constant 25 °C, suggesting a kind of functional dominance of the high temperature phase...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
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