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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701782/haeme-oxygenase-protects-against-uv-light-dna-damages-in-the-retina-in-clock-dependent-manner
#1
Milena Damulewicz, Agnieszka Loboda, Alicja Jozkowicz, Jozef Dulak, Elzbieta Pyza
In the present study, we showed that in the retina of Drosophila, the expression of the ho gene, encoding haeme oxygenase (HO), is regulated by light but only at the beginning of the day. This timing must be set by the circadian clock as light pulses applied at other time points during the day do not increase the ho mRNA level. Moreover, light-induced activation of HO does not depend on the canonical phototransduction pathway but instead involves cryptochrome and is enhanced by ultraviolet (UV) light. Interestingly, the level of DNA damage in the retina after UV exposure was inversely related to the circadian oscillation of the ho mRNA level during the night, being the highest when the HO level was low and reversed during the day...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676676/identifying-pathways-modulating-sleep-duration-from-genomics-to-transcriptomics
#2
Karla V Allebrandt, Maris Teder-Laving, Paola Cusumano, Goar Frishman, Rosa Levandovski, Andreas Ruepp, Maria P L Hidalgo, Rodolfo Costa, Andres Metspalu, Till Roenneberg, Cristiano De Pittà
Recognizing that insights into the modulation of sleep duration can emerge by exploring the functional relationships among genes, we used this strategy to explore the genome-wide association results for this trait. We detected two major signalling pathways (ion channels and the ERBB signalling family of tyrosine kinases) that could be replicated across independent GWA studies meta-analyses. To investigate the significance of these pathways for sleep modulation, we performed transcriptome analyses of short sleeping flies' heads (knockdown for the ABCC9 gene homolog; dSur)...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669757/a-peptidergic-circuit-links-the-circadian-clock-to-locomotor-activity
#3
Anna N King, Annika F Barber, Amelia E Smith, Austin P Dreyer, Divya Sitaraman, Michael N Nitabach, Daniel J Cavanaugh, Amita Sehgal
The mechanisms by which clock neurons in the Drosophila brain confer an ∼24-hr rhythm onto locomotor activity are unclear, but involve the neuropeptide diuretic hormone 44 (DH44), an ortholog of corticotropin-releasing factor. Here we identified DH44 receptor 1 as the relevant receptor for rest:activity rhythms and mapped its site of action to hugin-expressing neurons in the subesophageal zone (SEZ). We traced a circuit that extends from Dh44-expressing neurons in the pars intercerebralis (PI) through hugin+ SEZ neurons to the ventral nerve cord...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658318/weclmon-a-simple-and-robust-camera-based-system-to-monitor-drosophila-eclosion-under-optogenetic-manipulation-and-natural-conditions
#4
Franziska Ruf, Martin Fraunholz, Konrad Öchsner, Johann Kaderschabek, Christian Wegener
Eclosion in flies and other insects is a circadian-gated behaviour under control of a central and a peripheral clock. It is not influenced by the motivational state of an animal, and thus presents an ideal paradigm to study the relation and signalling pathways between central and peripheral clocks, and downstream peptidergic regulatory systems. Little is known, however, about eclosion rhythmicity under natural conditions, and research into this direction is hampered by the physically closed design of current eclosion monitoring systems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641103/staring-at-the-clock-face-in-drosophila
#5
Ezio Rosato, Charalambos P Kyriacou
Liang et al. (2017) demonstrate how neuropeptides from two groups of clock cells appear to be responsible for the fly's circadian neurons becoming active at different times of day. By delaying the activity of their clock cell targets, they give rise to morning and evening behavior.
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636933/drosophila-neuropeptide-f-signaling-independently-regulates-feeding-and-sleep-wake-behavior
#6
Brian Y Chung, Jennifer Ro, Sabine A Hutter, Kylie M Miller, Lakshmi S Guduguntla, Shu Kondo, Scott D Pletcher
Proper regulation of sleep-wake behavior and feeding is essential for organismal health and survival. While previous studies have isolated discrete neural loci and substrates important for either sleep or feeding, how the brain is organized to coordinate both processes with respect to one another remains poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that the Drosophila Neuropeptide F (NPF) network forms a critical component of both adult sleep and feeding regulation. Activation of NPF signaling in the brain promotes wakefulness and adult feeding, likely through its cognate receptor NPFR...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634443/the-narrow-abdomen-ion-channel-complex-is-highly-stable-and-persists-from-development-into-adult-stages-to-promote-behavioral-rhythmicity
#7
Devon L Moose, Stephanie J Haase, Benjamin T Aldrich, Bridget C Lear
The sodium leak channel NARROW ABDOMEN (NA)/ NALCN is an important component of circadian pacemaker neuronal output. In Drosophila, rhythmic expression of the NA channel regulator Nlf-1 in a subset of adult pacemaker neurons has been proposed to contribute to circadian regulation of channel localization or activity. Here we have restricted expression of Drosophila NA channel subunits or the Nlf-1 regulator to either development or adulthood using the temperature-inducible tubulin-GAL80(ts) system. Surprisingly, we find that developmental expression of endogenous channel subunits and Nlf-1 is sufficient to promote robust rhythmic behavior in adults...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620087/daily-activity-of-the-housefly-musca-domestica-is-influenced-by-temperature-independent-of-3-utr-period-gene-splicing
#8
Olga Bazalova, David Dolezel
Circadian clocks orchestrate daily activity patterns and free running periods of locomotor activity under constant conditions. While the first often depends on temperature, the latter is temperature-compensated over a physiologically relevant range. Here, we explored the locomotor activity of the temperate housefly, Musca domestica Under low temperatures, activity was centered round a major and broad afternoon peak, while high temperatures resulted in activity throughout the photophase with a mild mid-day depression, which was especially pronounced in males exposed to long photoperiods...
June 15, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620079/starvation-promotes-odor-feeding-time-associations-in-flies
#9
Nitin Singh Chouhan, Reinhard Wolf, Martin Heisenberg
Starvation causes a motivational state that facilitates diverse behaviors such as feeding, walking, and search. Starved Drosophila can form odor/feeding-time associations but the role of starvation in encoding of "time" is poorly understood. Here we show that the extent of starvation is correlated with the fly's ability to establish odor/feeding-time memories. Prolonged starvation promotes odor/feeding-time associations after just a single cycle of reciprocal training. We also show that starvation is required for acquisition but is dispensable for retrieval of odor/feeding-time memory...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615472/neuronal-circadian-clock-protein-oscillations-are-similar-in-behaviourally-rhythmic-forager-honeybees-and-in-arrhythmic-nurses
#10
T Fuchikawa, K Beer, C Linke-Winnebeck, R Ben-David, A Kotowoy, V W K Tsang, G R Warman, E C Winnebeck, C Helfrich-Förster, G Bloch
Internal clocks driving rhythms of about a day (circadian) are ubiquitous in animals, allowing them to anticipate environmental changes. Genetic or environmental disturbances to circadian clocks or the rhythms they produce are commonly associated with illness, compromised performance or reduced survival. Nevertheless, some animals including Arctic mammals, open sea fish and social insects such as honeybees are active around-the-clock with no apparent ill effects. The mechanisms allowing this remarkable natural plasticity are unknown...
June 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611590/cryptochrome-is-a-regulator-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-visual-system-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Milena Damulewicz, Gabriella M Mazzotta, Elena Sartori, Ezio Rosato, Rodolfo Costa, Elzbieta M Pyza
Drosophila CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) is a blue light sensitive protein with a key role in circadian photoreception. A main feature of CRY is that light promotes an interaction with the circadian protein TIMELESS (TIM) resulting in their ubiquitination and degradation, a mechanism that contributes to the synchronization of the circadian clock to the environment. Moreover, CRY participates in non-circadian functions such as magnetoreception, modulation of neuronal firing, phototransduction and regulation of synaptic plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598695/unconventional-roles-of-opsins
#12
Nicole Y Leung, Craig Montell
Rhodopsin is the classical light sensor. Although rhodopsin has long been known to be important for image formation in the eye, the requirements for opsins in non-image formation and in extraocular light sensation were revealed much later. Most recent is the demonstration that an opsin in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is expressed in pacemaker neurons in the brain and functions in light entrainment of circadian rhythms. However, the biggest surprise is that opsins have light-independent roles, countering more than a century of dogma that they function exclusively as light sensors...
June 9, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592698/a-screening-of-unf-targets-identifies-rnb-a-novel-regulator-of-drosophila-circadian-rhythms
#13
Anatoly Kozlov, Edouard Jaumouillé, Pedro Machado Almeida, Rafael Koch, Joseph Rodriguez, Katherine C Abruzzi, Emi Nagoshi
Behavioral circadian rhythms are controlled by multi-oscillator networks comprising functionally different subgroups of clock neurons. Studies have demonstrated that molecular clocks in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are regulated differently in clock neuron subclasses to support their specific functions (Lee et al., 2016; Top et al., 2016). The nuclear receptor unfulfilled (unf) represents a regulatory node that provides the small ventral Lateral Neurons (s-LNvs) unique characteristics as the master pacemaker (Beuchle et al...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583847/timeless-confers-cisplatin-resistance-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-by-activating-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-and-promoting-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#14
Sai-Lan Liu, Huan-Xin Lin, Chu-Yong Lin, Xiao-Qing Sun, Li-Ping Ye, Fang Qiu, Wen Wen, Xin Hua, Xian-Qiu Wu, Jun Li, Li-Bing Song, Ling Guo
This study investigated the expression, clinicopathological significance and mechanism of action of TIMELESS, a mammalian homolog of a Drosophila circadian rhythm gene, in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed TIMELESS was upregulated in NPC cell lines (n = 8 vs. NP69 cells), and freshly-frozen (n = 6) and paraffin-embedded human NPC specimens (n = 108 vs. normal samples/non-tumor cells). TIMELESS expression was associated with T category (P = 0...
June 3, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558035/oscillating-pdf-in-termini-of-circadian-pacemaker-neurons-and-synchronous-molecular-clocks-in-downstream-neurons-are-not-sufficient-for-sustenance-of-activity-rhythms-in-constant-darkness
#15
Pavitra Prakash, Aishwarya Nambiar, Vasu Sheeba
In Drosophila, neuropeptide Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF) is expressed in small and large ventral Lateral Neurons (sLNv and lLNv), among which sLNv are critical for activity rhythms in constant darkness. Studies show that this is mediated by rhythmic accumulation and likely secretion of PDF from sLNv dorsal projections, which in turn synchronises molecular oscillations in downstream circadian neurons. Using targeted expression of a neurodegenerative protein Huntingtin in LNv, we evoke a selective loss of neuropeptide PDF and clock protein PERIOD from sLNv soma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556778/how-a-brain-keeps-its-cool
#16
Swathi Yadlapalli, Orie T Shafer
Temperature-sensing neurons in the Drosophila brain cooperate with the central circadian clock to help regulate body temperature.
May 30, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555616/central-and-peripheral-clocks-are-coupled-by-a-neuropeptide-pathway-in-drosophila
#17
Mareike Selcho, Carola Millán, Angelina Palacios-Muñoz, Franziska Ruf, Lilian Ubillo, Jiangtian Chen, Gregor Bergmann, Chihiro Ito, Valeria Silva, Christian Wegener, John Ewer
Animal circadian clocks consist of central and peripheral pacemakers, which are coordinated to produce daily rhythms in physiology and behaviour. Despite its importance for optimal performance and health, the mechanism of clock coordination is poorly understood. Here we dissect the pathway through which the circadian clock of Drosophila imposes daily rhythmicity to the pattern of adult emergence. Rhythmicity depends on the coupling between the brain clock and a peripheral clock in the prothoracic gland (PG), which produces the steroid hormone, ecdysone...
May 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553207/dm5-ht2b-pharmacological-characterization-of-the-fifth-serotonin-receptor-subtype-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Wolfgang Blenau, Stöppler Daniel, Sabine Balfanz, Markus Thamm, Arnd Baumann
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important regulator of physiological and behavioral processes in both protostomes (e.g., insects) and deuterostomes (e.g., mammals). In insects, serotonin has been found to modulate the heart rate and to control secretory processes, development, circadian rhythms, aggressive behavior, as well as to contribute to learning and memory. Serotonin exerts its activity by binding to and activating specific membrane receptors. The clear majority of these receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552314/a-series-of-suppressive-signals-within-the-drosophila-circadian-neural-circuit-generates-sequential-daily-outputs
#19
Xitong Liang, Timothy E Holy, Paul H Taghert
We studied the Drosophila circadian neural circuit using whole-brain imaging in vivo. Five major groups of pacemaker neurons display synchronized molecular clocks, yet each exhibits a distinct phase of daily Ca(2+) activation. Light and neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF) from morning cells (s-LNv) together delay the phase of the evening (LNd) group by ∼12 hr; PDF alone delays the phase of the DN3 group by ∼17 hr. Neuropeptide sNPF, released from s-LNv and LNd pacemakers, produces Ca(2+) activation in the DN1 group late in the night...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503020/circadian-rhythm-in-mrna-expression-of-the-glutathione-synthesis-gene-gclc-is-controlled-by-peripheral-glial-clocks-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Eileen S Chow, Dani M Long, Jadwiga M Giebultowicz
Circadian coordination of metabolism, physiology, and behaviour is found in all living kingdoms. Clock genes are transcriptional regulators, and their rhythmic activities generate daily rhythms in clock-controlled genes which result in cellular and organismal rhythms. Insects provide numerous examples of rhythms in behaviour and reproduction, but less is known about control of metabolic processes by circadian clocks in insects. Recent data suggest that several pathways involved in protecting cells from oxidative stress may be modulated by the circadian system, including genes involved in glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis...
December 2016: Physiological Entomology
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