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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324752/tet-protein-function-during-drosophila-development
#1
Fei Wang, Svetlana Minakhina, Hiep Tran, Neha Changela, Joseph Kramer, Ruth Steward
The TET (Ten-eleven translocation) 1, 2 and 3 proteins have been shown to function as DNA hydroxymethylases in vertebrates and their requirements have been documented extensively. Recently, the Tet proteins have been shown to also hydroxylate 5-methylcytosine in RNA. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmrC) is enriched in messenger RNA but the function of this modification has yet to be elucidated. Because Cytosine methylation in DNA is barely detectable in Drosophila, it serves as an ideal model to study the biological function of 5hmrC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321240/pigment-dispersing-factor-expressing-neurons-convey-circadian-information-in-the-honey-bee-brain
#2
Katharina Beer, Esther Kolbe, Noa B Kahana, Nadav Yayon, Ron Weiss, Pamela Menegazzi, Guy Bloch, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) is an important neuropeptide in the brain circadian network of Drosophila and other insects, but its role in bees in which the circadian clock influences complex behaviour is not well understood. We combined high-resolution neuroanatomical characterizations, quantification of PDF levels over the day and brain injections of synthetic PDF peptide to study the role of PDF in the honey bee Apis mellifera We show that PDF co-localizes with the clock protein Period (PER) in a cluster of laterally located neurons and that the widespread arborizations of these PER/PDF neurons are in close vicinity to other PER-positive cells (neurons and glia)...
January 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287788/timeless2-plays-an-important-role-in-reproduction-and-circadian-rhythms-in-the-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus
#3
Motoki Nose, Atsushi Tokuoka, Tetsuya Bando, Kenji Tomioka
The timeless2 (tim2) gene is an insect orthologue of the mammalian clock gene Timeless (mTim). Although its functional role has been extensively studied in mammals, little is known regarding its role in insects. In the present study, we obtained tim2 cDNA (Gb'tim2) from the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and characterized its functional role in embryonic development, egg production, and circadian rhythms. Gb'tim2 gave rise to a 1432 amino acid protein, and showed approximately 65% homology to that of Drosophila melanogaster...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282866/body-clocks-time-for-the-nobel-prize
#4
EDITORIAL
Charna Dibner, Ueli Schibler
Already in 1729 Jean-Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan, a French astronomer, noticed that the mimosa plants in his backyard opened and closed their leaves at similar times during the day. Intriguingly, these daily cycles of leaf movements persisted in plants kept in nearly constant darkness, and de Mairan thus concluded that they must be driven by endogenous clocks rather than environmental light-dark cycles. In the meantime self-sustained circadian oscillators have been found in nearly all light-sensitive organisms from cyanobacteria to mammals...
December 28, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278834/sugar-sensing-by-chrebp-mondo-mlx-new-insight-into-downstream-regulatory-networks-and-integration-of-nutrient-derived-signals
#5
REVIEW
Essi Havula, Ville Hietakangas
Animals regulate their physiology with respect to nutrient status, which requires nutrient sensing pathways. Simple carbohydrates, sugars, are sensed by the basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors ChREBP/Mondo, together with their heterodimerization partner Mlx, which are well-established activators of sugar-induced lipogenesis. Loss of ChREBP/Mondo-Mlx in mouse and Drosophila leads to sugar intolerance, that is, inability to survive on sugar containing diet. Recent evidence has revealed that ChREBP/Mondo-Mlx responds to sugar and fatty acid-derived metabolites through several mechanisms and cross-connects with other nutrient sensing pathways...
December 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277395/circadian-regulation-of-metabolism-and-healthspan-in-drosophila
#6
REVIEW
Jadwiga M Giebultowicz
Circadian clocks generate daily rhythms in gene expression, cellular functions, physiological processes and behavior. The core clock mechanism consists of transcriptional-translational negative feedback loops that turn over with an endogenous circa 24h period. Classical genetic experiments in the fly Drosophila melanogaster played an essential role in identification of clock genes that turned out to be largely conserved between flies and mammals. Like in mammals, circadian clocks in flies generate transcriptional rhythms in a variety of metabolic pathways related to feeding and detoxification...
December 19, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231171/tracing-neuronal-circuits-in-transgenic-animals-by-transneuronal-control-of-transcription-tract
#7
Ting-Hao Huang, Peter Niesman, Deepshika Arasu, Daniel Lee, Aubrie De La Cruz, Antuca Callejas, Elizabeth J Hong, Carlos Lois
Understanding the computations that take place in brain circuits requires identifying how neurons in those circuits are connected to one another. We describe a technique called TRACT (TRAnsneuronal Control of Transcription) based on ligand-induced intramembrane proteolysis to reveal monosynaptic connections arising from genetically labeled neurons of interest. In this strategy, neurons expressing an artificial ligand ('donor' neurons) bind to and activate a genetically-engineered artificial receptor on their synaptic partners ('receiver' neurons)...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217196/short-term-exposure-to-dim-light-at-night-disrupts-rhythmic-behaviors-and-causes-neurodegeneration-in-fly-models-of-tauopathy-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Mari Kim, Manivannan Subramanian, Yun-Ho Cho, Gye-Hyeong Kim, Eunil Lee, Joong-Jean Park
The accumulation and aggregation of phosphorylated tau proteins in the brain are the hallmarks for the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, disruptions in circadian rhythms (CRs) with altered sleep-wake cycles, dysregulation of locomotion, and increased memory defects have been reported in patients with AD. Drosophila flies that have an overexpression of human tau protein in neurons exhibit most of the symptoms of human patients with AD, including locomotion defects and neurodegeneration. Using the fly model for tauopathy/AD, we investigated the effects of an exposure to dim light at night on AD symptoms...
December 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212892/the-underlying-genetics-of-drosophila-circadian-behaviors
#9
REVIEW
D Lorena Franco, Lia Frenkel, M Fernanda Ceriani
Life is shaped by circadian clocks. This review focuses on how behavioral genetics in the fruit fly unveiled what is known today about circadian physiology. We will briefly summarize basic properties of the clock and focus on some clock-controlled behaviors to highlight how communication between central and peripheral oscillators defines their properties.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184510/neuronal-and-glial-clocks-underlying-structural-remodeling-of-pacemaker-neurons-in-drosophila
#10
Anastasia Herrero, José M Duhart, Maria F Ceriani
A number of years ago we reported that ventral Lateral Neurons (LNvs), which are essential in the control of rest-activity cycles in Drosophila, undergo circadian remodeling of their axonal projections. This structural plasticity gives rise to changes in the degree of connectivity, which could provide a means of transmitting time of day information. Thus far, work from different laboratories has shown that circadian remodeling of adult projections relies on activity-dependent and -independent mechanisms. In terms of clock- dependent mechanisms, several neuronal types undergoing circadian remodeling hinted to a differential effect of clock genes; while per mutants exhibited poorly developed axonal terminals giving rise to low complexity arbors, tim mutants displayed a characteristic hyper branching phenotype, suggesting these genes could be playing additional roles to those ascribed to core clock function...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183263/inverse-european-latitudinal-cline-at-the-timeless-locus-of-drosophila-melanogaster-reveals-selection-on-a-clock-gene-population-genetics-of-ls-tim
#11
Valeria Zonato, Stefano Vanin, Rodolfo Costa, Eran Tauber, Charalambos P Kyriacou
The spread of adaptive genetic variants in populations is a cornerstone of evolutionary theory but with relatively few biologically well-understood examples. Previous work on the ls-tim variant of timeless, which encodes the light-sensitive circadian regulator in Drosophila melanogaster, suggests that it may have originated in southeastern Italy. Flies characterized by the new allele show photoperiod-related phenotypes likely to be adaptive in seasonal environments. ls-tim may be spreading from its point of origin in Italy by directional selection, but there are alternative explanations for its observed clinal geographical distribution, including balancing selection and demography...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179610/a-tug-of-war-between-cryptochrome-and-the-visual-system-allows-the-adaptation-of-evening-activity-to-long-photoperiods-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Christa Kistenpfennig, Mayumi Nakayama, Ruri Nihara, Kenji Tomioka, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Taishi Yoshii
In many animals, the circadian clock plays a role in adapting to the coming season by measuring day length. The mechanism for measuring day length and its neuronal circuits remains elusive, however. Under laboratory conditions, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, displays 2 activity peaks: one in the morning and one in the evening. These peaks appear to be regulated by 2 separate circadian oscillators (the morning and evening oscillators) that reside in different subsets of pacemaker clock neurons in the brain...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175088/constitutive-up-regulation-of-turandot-genes-rather-than-changes-in-acclimation-ability-is-associated-with-the-evolutionary-adaptation-to-temperature-fluctuations-in-drosophila-simulans
#13
Tommaso Manenti, Volker Loeschcke, Jesper Givskov Sørensen
Most research on thermal adaptation of ectotherms is based on experiments performed at constant temperatures. However, for short-lived insects daily fluctuations of temperature could be an important environmental parameter involved in evolutionary adaptation to thermal heterogeneity. In this study we investigated the mechanisms underlying evolutionary adaptation to daily fluctuating temperatures. We studied replicated selection lines of Drosophila simulans evolved in a constant or a daily fluctuating thermal regime...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174887/fbxl4-serves-as-a-clock-output-molecule-that-regulates-sleep-through-promotion-of-rhythmic-degradation-of-the-gabaa-receptor
#14
Qian Li, Yi Li, Xiao Wang, Junxia Qi, Xi Jin, Huawei Tong, Zikai Zhou, Zi Chao Zhang, Junhai Han
The timing of sleep is tightly governed by the circadian clock, which contains a negative transcriptional feedback loop and synchronizes the physiology and behavior of most animals to daily environmental oscillations. However, how the circadian clock determines the timing of sleep is largely unclear. In vertebrates and invertebrates, the status of sleep and wakefulness is modulated by the electrical activity of pacemaker neurons that are circadian regulated and suppressed by inhibitory GABAergic inputs. Here, we showed that Drosophila GABAA receptors undergo rhythmic degradation in arousal-promoting large ventral lateral neurons (lLNvs) and their expression level in lLNvs displays a daily oscillation...
November 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172879/circadian-rhythms-in-visual-responsiveness-in-the-behaviorally-arrhythmic-drosophila-clock-mutant-clkjrk
#15
Olivia M Nippe, Alex R Wade, Christopher J H Elliott, Sangeeta Chawla
An organism's biological day is characterized by a pattern of anticipatory physiological and behavioral changes that are governed by circadian clocks to align with the 24-h cycling environment. Here, we used flash electroretinograms (ERGs) and steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) to examine how visual responsiveness in wild-type Drosophila melanogaster and the circadian clock mutant ClkJrk varies over circadian time. We show that the ERG parameters of wild-type flies vary over the circadian day, with a higher luminance response during the subjective night...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155709/a-computational-method-to-quantify-fly-circadian-activity
#16
Andrey Lazopulo, Sheyum Syed
In most animals and plants, circadian clocks orchestrate behavioral and molecular processes and synchronize them to the daily light-dark cycle. Fundamental mechanisms that underlie this temporal control are widely studied using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. In flies, the clock is typically studied by analyzing multiday locomotor recording. Such a recording shows a complex bimodal pattern with two peaks of activity: a morning peak that happens around dawn, and an evening peak that happens around dusk...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103936/vrille-controls-pdf-neuropeptide-accumulation-and-arborization-rhythms-in-small-ventrolateral-neurons-to-drive-rhythmic-behavior-in-drosophila
#17
Kushan L Gunawardhana, Paul E Hardin
In Drosophila, the circadian clock is comprised of transcriptional feedback loops that control rhythmic gene expression responsible for daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior. The core feedback loop, which employs CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) activators and PERIOD-TIMELESS (PER-TIM) repressors to drive rhythmic transcription peaking at dusk, is required for circadian timekeeping and overt behavioral rhythms. CLK-CYC also activates an interlocked feedback loop, which uses the PAR DOMAIN PROTEIN 1ε (PDP1ε) activator and the VRILLE (VRI) repressor to drive rhythmic transcription peaking at dawn...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095827/co-option-of-the-bzip-transcription-factor-vrille-as-the-activator-of-doublesex1-in-environmental-sex-determination-of-the-crustacean-daphnia-magna
#18
Nur Syafiqah Mohamad Ishak, Quang Dang Nong, Tomoaki Matsuura, Yasuhiko Kato, Hajime Watanabe
Divergence of upstream regulatory pathways of the transcription factor Doublesex (Dsx) serves as a basis for evolution of sex-determining mechanisms in animals. However, little is known about the regulation of Dsx in environmental sex determination. In the crustacean Daphnia magna, environmental sex determination is implemented by male-specific expression of the Dsx ortholog, Dsx1. Transcriptional regulation of Dsx1 comprises at least three phases during embryogenesis: non-sex-specific initiation, male-specific up-regulation, and its maintenance...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092799/novel-drosophila-model-for-psychiatric-disorders-including-autism-spectrum-disorder-by-targeting-of-atp-binding-cassette-protein-a
#19
Ibuki Ueoka, Hitoshi Kawashima, Atsushi Konishi, Mikio Aoki, Ryo Tanaka, Hideki Yoshida, Toru Maeda, Mamiko Ozaki, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interactions, as well as restricted, stereotyped patterns of behavior and interests. In addition, alterations in circadian sleep-wake rhythm are common in young children with ASD. Mutations in ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 13 (ABCA13) have been recently identified in a monkey that displays behavior associated with ASD. ABCA13, a member of the ABCA family of proteins, is predicted to transport lipid molecules and is expressed in the human trachea, testis, bone marrow, hippocampus, cortex, and other tissues...
October 29, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075180/evaluating-the-autonomy-of-the-drosophila-circadian-clock-in-dissociated-neuronal-culture
#20
Virginie Sabado, Ludovic Vienne, Emi Nagoshi
Circadian behavioral rhythms offer an excellent model to study intricate interactions between the molecular and neuronal mechanisms of behavior. In mammals, pacemaker neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate rhythms cell-autonomously, which are synchronized by the network interactions within the circadian circuit to drive behavioral rhythms. However, whether this principle is universal to circadian systems in animals remains unanswered. Here, we examined the autonomy of the Drosophila circadian clock by monitoring transcriptional and post-transcriptional rhythms of individual clock neurons in dispersed culture with time-lapse microscopy...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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