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Laurent Desorgher, François Bochud, Thomas Flury, Christophe Murith, Sébastien Baechler, Claude Bailat
Industrial activities involving radium sources, such as watchmaking, were still common up until the 1960s. They produced contaminations in building materials and the soil in a large variety of geometries. The potential remediation of such places requires instruments that are properly calibrated as well as adequate procedures. We have developed a model that estimates the rate of ambient dose equivalent H˙∗ (10) at 10 cm and 1 m from a source of 226 Ra and its progeny in both the soil or the building materials...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Philipp Nuhn, Johann S De Bono, Karim Fizazi, Stephen J Freedland, Maurizio Grilli, Philip W Kantoff, Guru Sonpavde, Cora N Sternberg, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
CONTEXT: Introduction of novel agents for the management of advanced prostate cancer provides a range of treatment options with notable benefits for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). At the same time, understanding of optimal patient selection, effective sequential use, and development of resistance patterns remains incomplete. OBJECTIVE: To review current systemic therapies and recent advances in drug development for mCRPC and strategies to aid in patient selection and optimal sequencing...
April 16, 2018: European Urology
Asha Leisser, Marzieh Nejabat, Markus Hartenbach, Reza Agha Mohammadi Sareshgi, Shahrokh Shariat, Gero Kramer, Michael Krainer, Marcus Hacker, Alexander R Haug
223 Radium (223 Ra) has emerged as treatment prolonging survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). As 223 Ra can cause hematotoxicity (HT), pre-existing hematopoiesis might influence the efficacy of 223 Ra and the rate of hematotoxicity, but as to our knowledge such data has not been published yet, we retrospectively conducted an analysis on patients receiving 223 Ra. 54 patients treated with 223 Ra had a median survival of 67 weeks, which was significantly reduced in patients with pre-existing Hb toxicity (Tox) grade 2 (48 weeks P = 0...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
J Orcajo-Rincon, A P Caresia-Aróztegui, M Del Puig Cózar-Santiago, J R García-Garzón, M de Arcocha-Torres, R C Delgado-Bolton, M J García-Velloso, S Alvarez-Ruiz, A M García-Vicente
Bone metastatic disease is the main cause of morbidity / mortality in patients with prostate cancer, presenting frequently as bone pain, pathological fractures or spinal cord compression, which requires early and timely therapy. Although, for the moment, the therapeutic window for its use has not been definitively established, radium-223 (223 Ra), an alpha particle emitter, has proved to be an effective therapeutic tool, pre or post-chemotherapy, in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases and absence of visceral metastases, significantly modifying the prognosis of the disease...
April 13, 2018: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
Isabel Heidegger, Renate Pichler, Axel Heidenreich, Wolfgang Horninger, Andreas Pircher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
Davide Tassinari, Chiara Cherubini, Britt Roudnas, Emiliano Tamburini, Fabrizio Drudi, Emanuela Bianchi, Manuela Fantini, Francesco Montanari, Sergio Sartori
INTRODUCTION: To compare the efficacy of abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, cabazitaxel and Radium-223 in the treatment of castration-resistant, docetaxel-resistant metastatic prostate cancer. METHODS: An indirect comparison of overall survival (OS) and time to PSA progression among abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, cabazitaxel and Radium-223 was performed with a network meta-analysis. OS in the entire population of patients was the primary end point. OS in ECOG 0-1/2, BPI-SF≤4/>4, pretreated with 1 or 2 courses of chemotherapy, age≤65/>65 patients, patients with only bone metastases or bone and visceral metastases, and time to PSA progression were the secondary end points...
April 4, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Ashif H Tamboli, S W Gosavi, Chiaki Terashima, Akira Fujishima, Atul A Pawar, Hern Kim
A recyclable titanium nanofibers, doped with cerium and nickel doped was successfully synthesized by using sol-gel and electrospinning method for hydrogen generation from alkali free hydrolysis of NaBH4 . The resultant nanocomposite was characterized to find out the structural and physical-chemical properties by a series of analytical techniques such as FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), SEM (scanning electron microscope), EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy),N2 adsorption-desorption and BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), etc...
March 22, 2018: Chemosphere
G Bordelet, C Beaucaire, V Phrommavanh, M Descostes
Peat is a complex material with several organic constituents that contribute to its high capacity to retain metals. In the context of uranium mining, peat can accumulate high concentrations of uranium and its decay products such as radium. Hence, interaction with peat appears to be a key factor in the understanding of the geochemical mechanisms controlling the fate of these products. This study aims to determine the sorption properties of two trace elements, U(VI) and226 Ra, on natural organic matter from peat...
March 21, 2018: Chemosphere
Asta Juzeniene, Jenni Bernoulli, Mari Suominen, Jussi Halleen, Roy Hartvig Larsen
BACKGROUND/AIM: Bone metastases are associated with increased morbidity and poor prognosis in a variety of cancers. The present study investigated the effects of targeted radionuclide therapy with α-emitting, bone-seeking radium-224 (224 Ra) on osteolytic bone metastasis of MDA-MB-231(SA)-GFP human breast cancer cells injected intracardially into nude mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vehicle, ethylenediamine tetra (methylene phosphonic acid) (EDTMP) and224 Ra-solution (45, 91 or 179 kBq/kg) with EDTMP were intravenously administered to mice two days after cell injection...
April 2018: Anticancer Research
Ronald E Goans, Richard E Toohey, Carol J Iddins, Stacey L McComish, Sergei Y Tolmachev, Nicholas Dainiak
Recently, the pseudo-Pelger Huët anomaly in peripheral blood neutrophils has been described as a new radiation-induced, stable biomarker. In this study, pseudo-Pelger Huët anomaly was examined in peripheral blood slides from a cohort of 166 former radium dial painters and ancillary personnel in the radium dial industry, 35 of whom had a marrow dose of zero above background. Members of the radium dial painter cohort ingested Ra and Ra at an early age (average age 20.6 ± 5.4 y; range 13-40 y) during the years 1914-1955...
March 28, 2018: Health Physics
Fatemeh Heidari, Hossein Riahi, Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, Farideh Zakeri, Zeinab Shariatmadari, Tomáš Hauer
Biomass-based decontamination methods are among the most interesting water treatment techniques. In this study, 2 cyanobacterial strains, Nostoc punctiforme A.S/S4 and Chroococcidiopsis thermalis S.M/S9, isolated from hot springs containing high concentrations of radium (226 Ra), were studied to be associated with removal of radionuclides (238 U and226 Ra) and heavy metal cadmium (Cd) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption equilibrium data was described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Kinetic studies indicated that the sorption of 3 metals followed pseudo-second-order kinetics...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Juan Pablo Sade, Carlos Alberto Vargas Báez, Martin Greco, Carlos Humberto Martínez, Miguel Ángel Álvarez Avitia, Carlos Palazzo, Narciso Hernández Toriz, Patricia Isabel Bernal Trujillo, Diogo Assed Bastos, Fabio Augusto Schutz, Santiago Bella, Lucas Nogueira, Neal D Shore
Prostate cancer is a significant burden and cause of mortality in Latin America. This article reviews the treatment options for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and provides consensus recommendations to assist Latin American prostate cancer specialists with clinical decision making. A multidisciplinary expert panel from Latin America reviewed the available data and their individual experience to develop clinical consensus opinions for the use of life-prolonging agents in mCRPC, with consideration given to factors influencing patient selection and treatment monitoring...
March 19, 2018: Medical Oncology
Tanya B Dorff, Neeraj Agarwal
Bone metastases are the main driver of morbidity and mortality in advanced prostate cancer. Targeting the bone microenvironment, a key player in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis, has become one of the mainstays of therapy in men with advanced prostate cancer. This review will evaluate the data supporting the use of bone-targeted therapy, including (1) bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid, which directly target osteoclasts, (2) denosumab, a receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK) ligand inhibitor, which targets a key component of bone stromal interaction, and (3) radium-223, an alpha-emitting calcium mimetic, which hones to the metabolically active areas of osteoblastic metastasis and induces double-strand breaks in the DNA...
March 16, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
Elizabeth Gourd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Wahida Chakari, Anette Pedersen Pilt, Jørgen Lock-Andersen
Haemangiomas are benign skin lesions that usually regress spontaneously, but radiotherapy has previously been used to assist the regression and healing of the lesions. Radium and X-rays were used as a treatment for benign skin lesions such as haemangioma until the carcinogenic effect of ionising radiation in humans was described. We report a patient diagnosed with a sarcomatoid carcinoma. Her past history was of particular interest since she had received radium treatment for a haemangioma at the same location more than 70 years before...
January 2018: Case Reports in Dermatology
Megan E V Caram, Jason P Estes, Jennifer J Griggs, Paul Lin, Bhramar Mukherjee
BACKGROUND: Several systemic treatments have been shown to increase survival for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. This study sought to characterize variation in use of the six "focus drugs" (docetaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide, sipuleucel-T, radium-223, and cabazitaxel) that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer during the years 2010-2015. We hypothesized that the use of these treatments would vary over time and by region of the country...
March 6, 2018: BMC Cancer
Michael A Chen, Benjamin D Kocar
Radium (Ra) is a radioactive element commonly found within soils, sediments and natural waters. Elevated Ra activities arising through natural and anthropogenic processes pose a threat to groundwater resources and human health, and Ra isotope ratios are used to decipher groundwater movement, estimate submarine discharge flux, and fingerprint contamination associated with hydraulic fracturing operations. Although adsorption to metal (hydr)oxides and certain clay minerals is well established as a dominant mechanism controlling Ra transport and retention, the extent of Ra sorption to other minerals and under variable environmental conditions (e...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Sophie Poty, Lynn C Francesconi, Michael Robert McDevitt, Michael J Morris, Jason S Lewis
The use of radioactive sources to deliver cytotoxic ionizing radiation to disease sites dates back to the early 20th century, with the discovery of radium and its physiological effects. Alpha-emitters are of particular interest in the field of clinical oncology for radiotherapy applications. The first part of this review explored α-emitting radionuclides' basic radiochemistry, high cell-killing potency, and availability, together with hurdles such as radiolabeling methods and daughter redistribution. The second part of this review will give an overview of the most promising and current uses of α-emitters in preclinical and clinical studies...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Ana Emília Brito, Bárbara Juarez Amorim, Milena Martello, Wanderley Marques Bernardo, Elba Etchebehere
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Jayeesh Bakshi
Radiation exposure is a limiting factor to work in sensitive environments seen in nuclear power and test reactors, medical isotope production facilities, spent fuel handling, etc. The established choice for high radiation shielding is lead (Pb), which is toxic, heavy, and abidance by RoHS. Concrete, leaded (Pb) bricks are used as construction materials in nuclear facilities, vaults, and hot cells for radioisotope production. Existing transparent shielding such as leaded glass provides minimal shielding attenuation in radiotherapy procedures, which in some cases is not sufficient...
April 2018: Health Physics
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