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Nooreldin Fadol, Hajo Idriss, Isam Salih, Nserdin A Ragab, Safa Osman, Adam K Sam
This study was conducted to assess the level of radioactivity and the radiation hazards associated with granite rocks used for construction of buildings. The measurement of radioactivity content of the rock samples was performed with gamma-spectrometry equipped with Nal (TI) detector. From the results obtained in this study the average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were 20.64, 30.50 and 295.19 Bq kg-1, respectively. The absorbed dose rate in air at 1 m above ground level, the annual effective dose and the gamma index were determined with the aim to assess the possible radiological impact on inhabitants of dwellings built using such rocks...
February 12, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Mehran Makvandi, Edouard Dupis, Jonathan W Engle, F Meiring Nortier, Michael E Fassbender, Sam Simon, Eva R Birnbaum, Robert W Atcher, Kevin D John, Olivier Rixe, Jeffrey P Norenberg
Alpha-emitters are radionuclides that decay through the emission of high linear energy transfer α-particles and possess favorable pharmacologic profiles for cancer treatment. When coupled with monoclonal antibodies, peptides, small molecules, or nanoparticles, the excellent cytotoxic capability of α-particle emissions has generated a strong interest in exploring targeted α-therapy in the pre-clinical setting and more recently in clinical trials in oncology. Multiple obstacles have been overcome by researchers and clinicians to accelerate the development of targeted α-therapies, especially with the recent improvement in isotope production and purification, but also with the development of innovative strategies for optimized targeting...
February 8, 2018: Targeted Oncology
S M Pérez-Moreno, M J Gázquez, R Pérez-López, J P Bolivar
Determining the availability of natural radionuclides in environmental conditions is increasingly important in order to evaluate their toxicity. A validated procedure is necessary to ensure the comparability and accuracy of the results obtained by different laboratories. For that, an optimised BCR sequential extraction procedure has been applied to the certified reference material (CRM), coded as BCR-701, and their resulting liquid and solid fractions were subjected to an exhaustive chemical and radioactivity characterisation...
February 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Sonexay Xayheungsy, Le Hong Khiem, Le Dai Nam
The radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K natural radionuclides in Lao Portland cement samples were measured using a gamma-spectrometry with a HPGe detector. The activity concentrations were found to vary from 28.32 ± 2.23 to 65.50 ± 2.83 Bq kg-1 with a mean value of 41.12 ± 2.44 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra; from 7.25 ± 2.00 to 44.01 ± 2.45 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 16.60 ± 2.37 Bq kg-1 for 232Th and from 49.19 ± 4.27 to 196.74 ± 4.75 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 141.48 ± 4.50 Bq kg-1 for 40K, respectively...
February 3, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Hyung-Mi Cho, Guebuem Kim, Eun Young Kwon, Nils Moosdorf, Jordi Garcia-Orellana, Isaac R Santos
Riverine and atmospheric inputs are often considered as the main terrestrial sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphorus (DIP), and silicon (DSi) in the ocean. However, the fluxes of nutrients via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) often exceed riverine inputs in different local and regional scale settings. In this study, we provide a first approximation of global nutrient fluxes to the ocean via total SGD, including pore water fluxes, by combining a global compilation of nutrient concentrations in groundwater and the SGD-derived 228Ra fluxes...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zi Ye, Valentina Prigiobbe
Hydraulic fracturing (or fracking) is a well stimulation technique used to extract resources from a low permeability formation. Currently, the most common application of fracking is for the extraction of oil and gas from shale. During the operation, a large volume of brine, rich in hazardous chemicals, is produced. Spills of brine from wells or pits might negatively impact underground water resources and, in particular, one of the major concerns is the migration of radionuclides, such as radium (Ra2+), into the shallow subsurface...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Luisa Torres, Om Prakash Yadav, Eakalak Khan
Unconventional oil production in North Dakota (ND) and other states in the United States uses large amounts of water for hydraulic fracturing to stimulate oil flow. Most of the water used returns to the surface as produced water (PW) containing different constituents. Some of these contents are total dissolved solids and radionuclides. The most predominant radionuclide in PW is radium-226 (Ra-226) of which level depends on several factors including the content of certain cations. A multivariate regression model was developed to predict Ra-226 in PW from the Bakken Shale based on the levels of barium, strontium, and calcium...
January 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alexander Liede, Sally Wade, Jan Lethen, Rohini K Hernandez, Douglas Warner, Amy P Abernethy, Antonio Finelli
PURPOSE: This observational study of oncologic clinical practices was designed to describe real-world patterns of use of emerging therapies (abiraterone acetate, cabazitaxel, enzalutamide, radium-223, sipuleucel-T) in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and to characterize their concomitant use with denosumab or zoledronic acid. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a database of electronic health records from oncology practices across the United States...
January 24, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
E S Joel, O Maxwell, O O Adewoyin, C O Ehi-Eromosele, Z Embong, F Oyawoye
In this study, we evaluated the activity concentration of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) for fifteen (15) different brands of tile samples used for building purposes in Nigeria. The tile samples were analyzed using High purity Germanium gamma detector. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were observed to be 61.1 ± 5.5 Bq/kg, 70.2 ± 6.08 Bq/kg and 514.7 ± 59.8 Bq/kg respectively. Various hazard indices such as absorbed dose rate, external and internal hazard index, annual effective dose rate, Gamma activity Index (Iγ) and Alpha Index (Iα) were calculated...
2018: MethodsX
E S Joel, O Maxwell, O O Adewoyin, C O Ehi-Eromosele, M A Saeed
In this investigation, natural radioactive contents in tiles manufactured in Nigeria and tiles imported from China were measured using gamma ray spectroscopy. High Purity Germanium detector was used to estimate the concentrations of some radioisotopes present in 17 samples of various tiles from Nigeria and China. The average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K for the tiles were found to be 68.2 ± 0.5; 173.9 ± 9.2 and 490 ± 15 Bq/kg and 58.2 ± 0.5, 161.5 ± 9.4 and 455...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sunil Parimi, Erica Tsang, Abraham Alexander, Michael Mckenzie, Francois Bachand, Katherine Sunderland, Kim N Chi, Maria Aparicio, Daniel Worsley, Scott Tyldesley
INTRODUCTION: Radium 223 (Ra223) given for six cycles has proven efficacy in clinical trials, but its population-level generalizability has not been well-described. The objectives of this study were to describe population-based Ra223 use in the abiraterone and enzalutamide era and identify factors associated with completion. METHODS: All Ra223 patients at the British Columbia Cancer Agency between September 2013 and February 2016 were identified. Patients who completed <5 vs...
October 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Sara Westrøm, Marion Malenge, Ida Sofie Jorstad, Elisa Napoli, Øyvind S Bruland, Tina B Bønsdorff, Roy H Larsen
Internal therapy with α-emitters should be well suited for micrometastatic disease. Radium-224 emits multiple α-particles through its decay and has a convenient 3.6 days half-life. Despite its attractive properties, the use of 224 Ra has been limited to bone-seeking applications because it cannot be stably bound to a targeting molecule. Alternative delivery systems for 224 Ra are therefore of considerable interest. In this study, calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) microparticles are proposed as carriers for 224 Ra, designed for local therapy of disseminated cancers in cavitary regions, such as peritoneal carcinomatosis...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
Thu-Cuc Nguyen, Ravneet Bajwa, Shahla Bari, Azka Ali, William Paul Skelton, Roland-Austin Federico, Rohit Bishnoi, Justin W Wray, Robert A Zlotecki, Long H Dang, Jameel Muzaffar
Castration-resistant prostate cancer is an incurable disease. To date, six agents-abiraterone, enzalutamide, docetaxel, cabazitaxel, radium-223 and sipuleucel-T- have shown clinical efficacy in phase III clinical trials, leading to their FDA approval. Patients are typically sequenced through most or all of these agents, and then eventually succumb to their disease. Development of new treatments remains an unmet need. We report a case of a patient who progressed on enzalutamide with a single enlarging metastatic lesion, was treated with ablative stereotactic body radiation therapy while maintaining the same systemic treatment, who then had durable complete remission...
January 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Roberto C Delgado Bolton, Francesco Giammarile
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Kaoru Maruyama, Keita Utsunomia, Takahiro Nakamoto, Shigenari Kawakita, Takashi Murota, Noboru Tanigawa
A 76-year-old man with symptomatic bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer underwent Radium-223-dichloride (Ra-223) therapy. Before Ra-223 therapy, he had normal peripheral blood cell counts. Ra-223 therapy relieved his shoulder and low back pain. The elevation of the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), doubling every month during Ra-223 therapy, suggested a PSA flare or relapse. Some lesions showed decrease and some lesions showed increase on Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy at two weeks after the third injection of Ra-223 therapy...
2018: Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology
Lauren E Kipp, Matthew A Charette, Willard S Moore, Paul B Henderson, Ignatius G Rigor
Rising temperatures in the Arctic Ocean region are responsible for changes such as reduced ice cover, permafrost thawing, and increased river discharge, which, together, alter nutrient and carbon cycles over the vast Arctic continental shelf. We show that the concentration of radium-228, sourced to seawater through sediment-water exchange processes, has increased substantially in surface waters of the central Arctic Ocean over the past decade. A mass balance model for 228Ra suggests that this increase is due to an intensification of shelf-derived material inputs to the central basin, a source that would also carry elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and nutrients...
January 2018: Science Advances
Michel L Peters, Claudine de Meijer, Dirk Wyndaele, Walter Noordzij, Annemarie M Leliveld-Kors, Joan van den Bosch, Pieter H van den Berg, Agni Baka, Jennifer G Gaultney
The article Dutch Economic Value of Radium-223 in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer, written by Michel L. Peters, Claudine de Meijer, Dirk Wyndaele, Walter Noordzij, Annemarie M. Leliveld-Kors, Joan van den Bosch, Pieter H. van den Berg, Agni Baka, Jennifer G. Gaultney was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 2nd September, 2017 without open access.
January 4, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Nancy E Lauer, Nathaniel R Warner, Avner Vengosh
In Pennsylvania, Appalachian oil and gas wastewaters (OGW) are permitted for release to surface waters after some treatment by centralized waste treatment (CWT) facilities. While this practice was largely discontinued in 2011 for unconventional Marcellus OGW, it continues for conventional OGW. This study aimed to evaluate the environmental implications of the policy allowing the disposal of conventional OGW. We collected stream sediments from three discharge sites receiving treated OGW between 2014-2017 and measured 228Ra, 226Ra, and their decay products, 228Th and 210Pb, respectively...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Chris Parker, Axel Heidenreich, Sten Nilsson, Neal Shore
BACKGROUND: Treatment options for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) have expanded in recent years and include cytotoxic agents (e.g., docetaxel and cabazitaxel), immunotherapy (e.g., sipuleucel-T), oral hormonal therapies targeting the androgen receptor axis (e.g., enzalutamide and abiraterone), and targeted alpha therapy (e.g., radium-223 dichloride (radium-223)). Although treatment guidelines have been updated to reflect the availability of new agents, it is not easy to apply them in daily clinical practice because recommendations vary depending on patient comorbidities and disease characteristics...
January 3, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Jorge D Ramos, Elahe A Mostaghel, Colin C Pritchard, Evan Y Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
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