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Chad R Ritch, Michael S Cookson
Docetaxel based chemotherapy showed survival benefit and emerged as the mainstay of treatment for castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in 2004. However, therapeutic options have expanded rapidly since 2011. The spectrum of new agents is broad and includes drugs that target the androgen axis (enzalutamide, abiraterone), immunotherapy (sipuleucel-T), bone seeking radionuclides (radium-223), and second line chemotherapy (cabazitaxel). In addition, new agents have been developed to reduce skeletal related events (denosumab)...
October 17, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Oliver Sartor
Radiopharmaceuticals used in the treatment of castrate-resistant prostate cancer are reviewed herein with an emphasis on sequential and combination therapies. Four bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals had been approved in the United States. Three of these are β-emitters (phosphorus-32, strontium-89, samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylene-phosphonic acid) that are approved for palliative purposes. One α-emitter (radium-223 [Ra]) is approved for prolongation of survival in bone metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer...
September 2016: Cancer Journal
Zachery R Reichert, Maha Hussain
The development of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) signals the terminal disease phase. The preceding hormone-dependent disease setting is effectively managed with androgen deprivation therapy. This foundation of treatment has a high rate of biochemical and clinical response and meaningful clinical benefit but is finite in duration as most cancers will progress to castration resistance. Historically, treatment for mCRPC entailed androgen receptor (AR) inhibitors (nilutamide, flutamide, bicalutamide), nonspecific steroidal biosynthesis inhibitors (ketoconazole, itraconazole), steroids (prednisone, diethylstilbesterol, dexamethasone), or palliative chemotherapy (mitoxantrone, estramustine), but none of these strategies impacted survival...
September 2016: Cancer Journal
Allie E Steinberger, Patrick Cotogno, Elisa M Ledet, Brian Lewis, Oliver Sartor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Jesse Aidan Dinh, Danial Baker, Manpreet Chahal
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the efficacy, tolerability, drug interactions, dosing, and administration issues associated with enzalutamide, abiraterone, and radium-223 for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and Web of Science were used to search for relevant articles using a key-word search (enzalutamide, abiraterone, radium-223, and phase 3). No restriction was placed on the date of publication...
2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Vahé Barsegian, Stefan P Müller, Daniel Möckel, Peter A Horn, Andreas Bockisch, Monika Lindemann
PURPOSE: Therapy with the alpha-emitter radium-223 chloride ((223)Ra) is an innovative therapeutic option in patients with metastasized, castration-resistant prostate cancer. However, radiotherapy can lead to hematopoietic toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine if (223)Ra therapy induces an impairment of cellular antimicrobial immune responses. METHODS: In 11 patients receiving (223)Ra treatment, lymphocyte proliferation and the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-10) were determined, using lymphocyte transformation testing and ELISpot, respectively...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
A Baeza, A Salas, J Guillén, A Muñoz-Serrano, M Á Ontalba-Salamanca, M C Jiménez-Ramos
The occurrence of naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water can pose health hazards in some populations, especially taking into account that routine procedures in Drinking Water Treatment Plants (DWTPs) are normally unable to remove them efficiently from drinking water. In fact, these procedures are practically transparent to them, and in particular to radium. In this paper, the characterization and capabilities of a patented filter designed to remove radium from drinking water with high efficiency is described...
October 3, 2016: Chemosphere
Charalampos Fragkoulis, Ioannis Gkialas, Georgios Papadopoulos, Konstantinos Ntoumas
Prostate cancer is a major public health problem worldwide, still remaining the most common cancer among elder males in both Europe and USA, being responsible for approximately 30,000 deaths in USA in 2014. Nowadays, after decades of basic research, novel treatment options have emerged focusing on men suffering from metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer improving overall survival. It is also estimated that more than 90% of such patients develop bone metastasis, resulting in a significant increase in morbidity and mortality...
July 2016: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
C Sainz Fernández, L S Quindós Poncela, A Fernández Villar, I Fuente Merino, J L Gutierrez-Villanueva, S Celaya González, L Quindós López, J Quindós López, E Fernández, J Remondo Tejerina, J L Martín Matarranz, M García Talavera
One of the requirements of the recently approved EU-BSS (European Basic Safety Standards Directive, EURATOM, 2013) is the design and implementation of national radon action plans in the member states (Annex XVIII). Such plans require radon surveys. The analysis of indoor radon data is supported by the existing knowledge about geogenic radiation. With this aim, we used the terrestrial gamma dose rate data from the MARNA project. In addition, we considered other criterion regarding the surface of Spain, population, permeability of rocks, uranium and radium contain in soils because currently no data are available related to soil radon gas concentration and permeability in Spain...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
A Bang, S Malone, E Y C Leung, C Canil, L Eapen, S C Morgan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
E Anderson, W W Wong, H Mohammadi, T B Daniels, S Vora, S E Schild, S R Keole, C R Choo, K S Tzou, A Bryce, T H Ho, F J Quevedo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
D E Spratt, J Osborne, Z S Zumsteg, K Rebiez, J E Leeman, A Rivera, M J Zelefsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Fable Zustovich, Davide Pastorelli
Bone metastases affect the majority of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. This review describes the current therapies available for the management of CRPC patients with bone metastases. Areas covered: Studies on the use of currently available therapeutic approaches for palliating pain, delaying skeletal-related events (SREs) and prolonging survival in CRPC patients with bone metastases have been examined. PubMed database was searched in May 2016 starting with the following keywords: ('castration-resistant prostate cancer' OR 'CRPC') AND 'bone metastases', and approximately 270 results were retrieved...
October 6, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Jinlong Wang, Jinzhou Du, Qianqian Bi
The activities of the natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K) of the surface sediments in the Yangtze Estuary were determined and used to evaluate radiation hazards in the study area. The of activities of (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K ranges from 14.1 to 62.3, 26.1 to 71.9, 13.7 to 52.3, and 392 to 898Bqkg(-1), respectively, which were comparable to values of other regions in China. The activities of (232)Th, (40)K and (226)Ra were clearly different from the global recommended values...
September 21, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
A Clouvas, F Leontaris, S Xanthos, D Alifragis
Radon concentration as function of the soil depth was measured during the years (2011-2015), in a location of the Aristotle University campus. Radium distribution in soil was found constant. On the contrary, as expected, radon concentration increases with soil depth. The experimental distribution was reproduced by solving the general transport equation (diffusion and advection). From the general radon migration (diffusion and advection) equation it was indirectly deduced, from the measured radon profile in the soil, the radon exhalation rate from the soil (26...
September 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar, Kambiz Azgomi, Stefan Hauser, Xiao Wei, Anna Yordanova, Florian Gaertner, Stefan Kürpig, Holger Strunk, Markus Essler
PURPOSE: We retrospectively evaluated the utility of (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET for planning (223)RaCl2 therapy of patients with metastatic prostate cancer and its impact on the therapeutic response as determined by PSA and ALP, as well as the correlation of PSA changes with the results of PSMA-PET, follow-up scans. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with a median age of 73 years who underwent a total of 307 cycles of therapy with (223)RaCl2 were analyzed. In thirty-one patients bone scans and radiological imaging was performed for pre therapeutic imaging (group 1)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Rana R McKay, Susanna Jacobus, Matthew Fiorillo, Elisa M Ledet, Patrick M Cotogna, Allie E Steinberger, Heather A Jacene, Oliver Sartor, Mary-Ellen Taplin
BACKGROUND: Radium-223 has shown clinical efficacy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Despite improvement in quality of life and survival, practice patterns and utility of this agent outside the context of clinical trials have not been fully characterized. The primary objective in this study was to evaluate variables associated with completion of 5 to 6 radium-223 doses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted retrospective analyses of patients who received radium-223 (n = 135)...
August 20, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Heather Cox, Megan Hames, Mona Benrashid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology
Janne Olsen Frenvik, Knut Dyrstad, Solveig Kristensen, Olav B Ryan
Targeted Thorium Conjugates (TTCs) are being explored as a potential future platform for specific tumour targeting pharmaceuticals. In TTCs the alpha emitting radionuclide thorium-227 ((227)Th) with a half-life of 18.697 days is labelled to targeting moieties, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The amount of daughter nuclide radium-223 ((223)Ra, t1/2 = 11.435 days) will increase during manufacture and distribution, and so a technology for purification is required to assure an acceptable level of (223)Ra is administrated to the patient...
September 15, 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Jamal Al Abdullah, Mohammad Said Al-Masri, Yusr Amin, Ibrahim Awad, Zuhair Sheaib
Contamination of soil with (226)Ra is a common problem in the oilfields, leading to costly remediation and disposal programmes. The present study focuses on the chemical fractionation and mobility of (226)Ra in contaminated soils collected from an oilfield using a three-step sequential extraction procedure (BCR). The total activity concentrations of (226)Ra in contaminated soils were measured and found to be in the range from 1030 ± 90 to 7780 ± 530 Bq kg(-1), with a mean activity concentration of 2840 ± 1840 Bq kg(-1)...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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