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Diet and diabetes

Kai G Kahl, Michael Deuschle, Brendon Stubbs, Ulrich Schweiger
Background Severe mental illnesses (SMIs), i.e. major depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are associated with an elevated risk for the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders. Several factors have been associated with increased cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality in SMI, including lifestyle factors (smoking, inactivity, unhealthy diet), endocrine and immunologic alterations; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully uncovered. It is now well accepted that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) promotes the development of cardiometabolic disorders, at least in part by inflammatory and metabolic functions...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Ayesha Fawad, Andreas Bergmann, Joachim Struck, Peter M Nilsson, Marju Orho-Melander, Olle Melander
Context: The gut hormone neurotensin promotes fat absorption, diet-induced weight gain and liver steatosis. Its stable precursor-hormone fragment "proneurotensin" predicts cardiometabolic disease in middle-aged populations, especially in women. Objective: To test if proneurotensin predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes development in an elderly population and whether there are gender differences in this respect. Design, Setting and Participants: Fasting proneurotensin was measured in plasma from 4804 participants (mean age 69±6 years) of the Malmö Preventive Project (MPP) and subjects were followed up for development of CVD and diabetes during 5...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Karen E Assmann, Moufidath Adjibade, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Michael D Wirth, Mathilde Touvier, Tasnime Akbaraly, Serge Hercberg, Pilar Galan, Chantal Julia, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot
Background: While low-grade chronic inflammation has been suggested as a major modulator of healthy aging (HA), no study has yet investigated the link between the inflammatory potential of the diet and multidimensional concepts of HA. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet at midlife, as measured by the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), and HA assessed 13 y later. Methods: We analyzed data from 2796 participants in the French Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Giuseppe La Torre, Rosella Saulle, Francesca Di Murro, Roberta Siliquini, Alberto Firenze, Massimo Maurici, Alice Mannocci, Vittoria Colamesta, Francesco Barillà, Fabio Ferrante, Luciano Agati
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Western countries. The possible synergistic effect of poor adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) and other risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) such as hypertension, cholesterol, ever smoker, BMI> 25, diabetes, has not been deeply studied. DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: Patients with first AMI and controls from four tertiary referral Italian centers were screened for enrolment...
2018: PloS One
Hayley A Young, David Benton
As the influence of diet on health may take place over a period of decades, there is a need for biomarkers that help to identify those aspects of nutrition that have either a positive or a negative influence. The evidence is considered that heart-rate variability (HRV) (the time differences between one beat and the next) can be used to indicate the potential health benefits of food items. Reduced HRV is associated with the development of numerous conditions for example, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, obesity and psychiatric disorders...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Olivia Farrer, Alison Yaxley, Karen Walton, Michelle Miller
AIM: The prevalence of diabetes in older adults in residential aged care (RAC) is twice that of community dwelling older adults. Older adults with diabetes have been highlighted as being at high risk of frailty and malnutrition, particularly when managed on a therapeutic diet. However, assumptions may be based on clinical presentation of our oldest old which may be at conflict with the clinical presentation of younger older adults. The aim of this retrospective audit was to identify the characteristics of aged care residents with diabetes, their comorbidities and malnutrition risk...
March 15, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Fred Brouns
In the past, different types of diet with a generally low-carbohydrate content (< 50-< 20 g/day) have been promoted, for weight loss and diabetes, and the effectiveness of a very low dietary carbohydrate content has always been a matter of debate. A significant reduction in the amount of carbohydrates in the diet is usually accompanied by an increase in the amount of fat and to a lesser extent, also protein. Accordingly, using the term "low carb-high fat" (LCHF) diet is most appropriate...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Bo Li, Xiangsong Wu, Hanbei Chen, Chengle Zhuang, Zhiguo Zhang, Shuangshuang Yao, Dongsheng Cai, Guang Ning, Qing Su
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to contribute to many metabolic diseases, including diabetes. In this study, we investigated the role of miR199a-5p in the regulation of hepatic insulin sensitivity. Ad-anti-miR199a-5p adenoviruses were injected into male C57BL/6J WT mice fed a high-fat diet to inhibit miR199a-5p expression before the glucose levels and insulin resistance were assessed. Similarly, Ad-miR199a-5p adenoviruses were injected into male C57BL/6J WT mice to cause the overexpression of miR199a-5p. To investigate the roles of autophagy-related protein 14 (ATG14) and miR199a-5p in the regulation of insulin sensitivity, we injected Ad-miR199a-5p with or without Ad-ATG14 viruses into WT C57BL/6J mice before performing functional assays...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Kayo Kurotani, Palitha Karunapema, Kapila Jayaratne, Masao Sato, Takuya Hayashi, Hiroshi Kajio, Shoji Fukuda, Hisao Hara, Osamu Okazaki, Achala Upendra Jayatilleke, Daisuke Nonaka, Mitsuhiko Noda, Tetsuya Mizoue
The differences in the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases between Sri Lankan and Japanese populations might be explained by the differences in their diet, especially fat. To test the hypothesis that the fatty acid (FA) compositions differ between Sri Lankan and Japanese populations and that high concentrations of n-3 polyunsaturated FAs and linoleic acid are associated with a low level of arteriosclerosis, the authors compared the circulating FA compositions between Sri Lankan and Japanese populations and examined the association of the circulating FA composition with arterial stiffness in each population...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Marta Scatena, Melissa F Jackson, Mei Y Speer, Elizabeth M Leaf, Mary C Wallingford, Cecilia M Giachelli
OBJECTIVE: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major cause of aortic stenosis (AS) and cardiac insufficiency. Patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at heightened risk for CAVD, and their valves have greater calcification than nondiabetic valves. No drugs to prevent or treat CAVD exist, and animal models that might help identify therapeutic targets are sorely lacking. To develop an animal model mimicking the structural and functional features of CAVD in people with T2DM, we tested a diabetogenic, procalcific diet and its effect on the incidence and severity of CAVD and AS in the, LDLr-/- ApoB100/100 mouse model...
February 15, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Mercedes Sotos-Prieto, Josiemer Mattei
The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been recommended to the general population by many scientific organizations as a healthy dietary pattern, based on strong evidence of association with improved cardiometabolic health, including lower risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. However, most studies have been conducted in Mediterranean or European countries or among white populations in the United States (US), while few exist for non-Mediterranean countries or racial/ethnic minority populations in the US...
March 14, 2018: Nutrients
Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Seifu Mideksa, Sintayehu Ambachew
Polyunsaturated Fatty acids have multiple effects in peripheral tissues and pancreatic beta cell function. The n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids prevent and reverse high-fat-diet induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. Insulin secretion is stimulated by glucose, amino acids, and glucagon- like peptide-1 in tissue containing high levels of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids than lower level of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids. Also, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids led to decreased production of prostaglandin, which in turn contributed to the elevation of insulin secretion...
March 14, 2018: Adipocyte
Muneeb U Rehman, Shahzada Mudasir Rashid, Saiema Rasool, Sheeba Shakeel, Bilal Ahmad, Sheikh Bilal Ahmad, Hassan Madkhali, Majid Ahmad Ganaie, Sabiya Majid, Showkat Ahmad Bhat
Development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is directly linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. In this context, inflammatory and oxidative markers have gained much attention as targets for therapeutic intervention. We studied the effect of zingerone in a streptozotocin/high fat diet (STZ/HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic Wistar rat model. Zingerone also known as vanillyl acetone is a pharmacologically active compound present usually in dry ginger. STZ/HFD caused excessive increase in ROS and inflammation in experimental animals...
March 14, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Silvia Barja-Fernandez, José María Moreno-Navarrete, Cintia Folgueira, Gemma Xifra, Mònica Sabater, Cecilia Castelao, Johan FernØ, Rosaura Leis, Carlos Diéguez, Felipe F Casanueva, Wifredo Ricart, Luisa M Seoane, José Manuel Fernandez-Real, Rubén Nogueiras
SCOPE: Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL-4) regulates plasma lipoprotein levels but its relevance in human obesity and type 2 diabetes is largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the regulation of circulating ANGPTL-4 levels in obesity, type 2 diabetes and after changes in body weight. METHODS AND RESULTS: Circulating ANGPTL-4 levels were measured in two different cohorts. First, in a cross-sectional study, we evaluated ANGPTL-4 levels in lean and obese patients with normoglycemia or with altered glucose tolerance (n = 282)...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Maria Irene Bellini, Kostas Koutroutsos, Jack Galliford, Paul E Herbert
Background: The prevalence of overweight and obese kidney transplant recipients (KTR) has risen in parallel to the obesity epidemic that has affected the general population over the last two decades. At present, there is an ongoing debate regarding the suitability for transplantation of obese patients. Methods: Data were prospectively collected on consecutive single organ KTR transplanted between January 2014 and March 2016. The patients were stratified according to their body mass index (BMI) using the World Health Organization classification...
December 2017: Transplantation Direct
Rajesh Kumari, Venus Dalal, Garima Kachhawa, Ipshita Sahoo, Rajesh Khadgawat, Reeta Mahey, Vidushi Kulshrestha, Perumal Vanamail, J B Sharma, Neerja Bhatla, Alka Kriplani
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a carbohydrate intolerance first diagnosed in pregnancy and may be associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the maternal and perinatal outcome in GDM during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective analysis of women diagnosed with GDM who got antenatal care and delivered in our hospital in previous 5 years...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jiangying Kuang, Lei Chen, Qin Tang, Jinhang Zhang, Yanping Li, Jinhan He
Sirt6 is one of the sirtuin family members, a kind of NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase and ADP-ribose transferase enzyme. It has an important role in physiological and pathological processes, regulating aging, cancer, obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, and energy metabolism. Recent studies have suggested that reduced Sirt6 action is related to obesity and diabetes. Aging and overnutrition, two major risk factors for obesity and diabetes, lead to decreased Sirt6 level and function, which results in abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Luohua Jiang, Jenny Chang, Janette Beals, Ann Bullock, Spero M Manson
Growing evidence reveals various neighborhood conditions are associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. It is unknown, however, whether the effectiveness of diabetes prevention interventions is also influenced by neighborhood characteristics. The purpose of the current study is to examine the impact of neighborhood characteristics on the outcomes of a lifestyle intervention to prevent diabetes in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Year 2000 US Census Tract data were linked with those from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPI-DP), an evidence-based lifestyle intervention implemented in 36 AI/AN grantee sites across the US...
March 10, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Junjun Wang, Ting Zhai, Yong Chen
This study was aimed to clarify the effect of honokiol (Hon) on the activity of Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, and the level of mRNA expression of liver and kidney transporters in type 2 diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet and strepotozotocin. Rats were randomly divided into normal control (NC) group, diabetic control (DC) group and Hon groups ( n = 6). The activities of hepatic CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP2C, CYP2B, CYP3A and CYP4A, and the mRNA expression levels of hepatic and renal transporters, were determined...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Diane L McKay, Misha Eliasziw, C Y Oliver Chen, Jeffrey B Blumberg
Evidence from observational and intervention studies has shown a high intake of tree nuts is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), mortality from type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and all-cause mortality. However, there is limited data regarding their effects on indicators of cardiometabolic risk other than hypercholesterolemia, and little is known about the demonstrable health benefits of pecans ( Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K.Koch). We conducted a randomized, controlled feeding trial to compare the effects of a pecan-rich diet with an isocaloric control diet similar in total fat and fiber content, but absent nuts, on biomarkers related to CVD and T2DM risk in healthy middle-aged and older adults who are overweight or obese with central adiposity...
March 11, 2018: Nutrients
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