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Optimum nutrition

Alison Luther, Joseph Gabriel, Richard P Watson, Nader K Francis
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in perioperative care, post-operative clinical and functional outcomes after major abdominal surgery can be suboptimal. Prehabilitation programmes attempt to optimise a patient's preoperative condition to improve outcomes. Total body prehabilitation includes structured exercise, nutritional optimisation, psychological support and cessation of negative health behaviours. This systematic review aims to report on the current literature regarding the impact of total body prehabilitation prior to major abdominal surgery...
March 15, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Maria Hayes
By 2050, the world population is estimated to reach 9.6 billion, and this growth continues to require more food, particularly proteins. Moreover, the Westernisation of society has led to consumer demand for protein products that taste good and are convenient to consume, but additionally have nutritional and health maintenance and well-being benefits. Proteins provide energy, but additionally have a wide range of functions from enzymatic activities in the body to bioactivities including those associated with heart health, diabetes-type 2-prevention and mental health maintenance; stress relief as well as a plethora of other health beneficial attributes...
March 14, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Kyle Edmunds, Magnús Gíslason, Sigurður Sigurðsson, Vilmundur Guðnason, Tamara Harris, Ugo Carraro, Paolo Gargiulo
Sarcopenic muscular degeneration has been consistently identified as an independent risk factor for mortality in aging populations. Recent investigations have realized the quantitative potential of computed tomography (CT) image analysis to describe skeletal muscle volume and composition; however, the optimum approach to assessing these data remains debated. Current literature reports average Hounsfield unit (HU) values and/or segmented soft tissue cross-sectional areas to investigate muscle quality. However, standardized methods for CT analyses and their utility as a comorbidity index remain undefined, and no existing studies compare these methods to the assessment of entire radiodensitometric distributions...
2018: PloS One
Xuegui Liu, Yixing Gao, Danqi Li, Changfeng Liu, Mei Jin, Jun Bian, Mengchao Lv, Yuqiu Sun, Lixin Zhang, Pinyi Gao
Rosa laevigata fruit has been known as a functional foodstuff for a long time. Recently, increasing attention has been given to polysaccharides from R. laevigata fruit due to their numerous medicinal and nutritional properties. In this study, a rapid and effective approach for the extraction and separation of polysaccharides from the title fruit was developed using microwave-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction (MA-ATPE) with a PEG/ammonium sulfate system. After analysis of the response surface methodology (RSM) data based on a Box-Behnken design (BBD), a model was proposed and was found to predict an optimum yield value of 258...
March 7, 2018: Food & Function
S Antoun, B Raynard
In the field of oncology, it is well recognized that a decrease in mass, density, strength, or function of skeletal muscle is associated to increased treatment toxicities and postoperative complications, as well as poor progression-free survival and overall survival. The ability of amino acids to stimulate protein synthesis in cancer patients is reduced. Considering nutritional intervention, this anabolic resistance could be in a part counteracted by increasing protein or by giving specific amino acids. In particular, Leucine might counteract this anabolic resistance not only by increasing substrate availability, but also by directly modulating the anabolic signal pathway...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
W A C Kristine Koekkoek, C H Coralien van Setten, Laura E Olthof, J C N Hans Kars, Arthur R H van Zanten
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Optimal protein intake during critical illness is unknown. Conflicting results on nutritional support during the first week of ICU stay have been published. We addressed timing of protein intake and outcomes in ICU patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. METHODS: We retrospectively collected nutritional and clinical data on the first 7 days of ICU admission of adult critically ill patients, who were mechanically ventilated in our ICU for at least 7 days and admitted between January 1st 2011 and December 31st 2015...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Lazaros I Sakkas, Theodora Simopoulou, Dimitrios Daoussis, Stamatis-Nick Liossis, Spyros Potamianos
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic systemic disease characterized by microvasculopathy, autoantibodies, and extensive fibrosis. Intestinal involvement is frequent in SSc and represents a significant cause of morbidity. The pathogenesis of intestinal involvement includes vascular damage, nerve dysfunction, smooth muscle atrophy, and fibrosis, causing hypomotility, which leads to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), malabsorption, malnutrition, diarrhea, pseudo-obstruction, constipation, pneumatosis intestinalis, and fecal incontinence...
February 21, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Baoli Sun, Nazir Ahmad Khan, Peiqiang Yu
The first aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional value of crude protein (CP) in CDC [Crop Development Centre (CDC), University of Saskatchewan] chickpea varieties (Frontier kabuli and Corinne desi) in comparison with a CDC barley variety in terms of: 1) CP chemical profile and subfractions; (2) in situ rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal digestibility of CP; 2) metabolizable protein (MP) supply to dairy cows; and (3) protein molecular structure characteristics using advanced molecular spectroscopy...
February 6, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Jeongtae Kim, Yowook Song, Dong Woo Kim, Muhammad Fiaz, Chan Ho Kwon
Background: Maize fodder is being used as staple feed for livestock but it lacks protein and essential amino acids; lysine and tryptophan. Intercropping maize with leguminous soybean crop is promising technique under limited land resources of South Korea but it can only give considerable advantages when adequate distance is provided between corn and soybean rows. Main aim of present study was to find-out adequate distance between corn and soybean seeding rows for optimum growth, yield and nutritive value of intercropped forage...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Asif Naeem, Muhammad Aslam, Asma Lodhi
BACKGROUND: The negative effect of soil applied phosphorus (P) on zinc (Zn) uptake by plants and concentration in food grains could be a possible reason of low dietary intake of Zn. Likewise its critical role in plant tolerance to other abiotic stresses, potassium (K) was thought to retrieve P induced decrease in grain Zn concentration of wheat. To test the above hypothesis, effect of K application (50 mg kg-1 soil) on Zn concentration in shoot/grains and its shoot-to-grain translocation was studied in wheat (Triticum aestivum L, cv Galaxy 2013) under low and optimal supply of both P (10 and 50 mg kg-1 ) and Zn (0 and 5 mg kg-1 )...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Aline Sartori Guidolin, Thaís Regiani Cataldi, Carlos Alberto Labate, Frederic Francis, Fernando Luis Cônsoli
Bacterial symbionts are broadly distributed among insects, influencing their bioecology to different degrees. Aphids carry a number of secondary symbionts that can influence aphid physiology and fitness attributes. Spiroplasma is seldom reported as an aphid symbiont, but a high level of infection has been observed in one population of the tropical aphid Aphis citricidus. We used sister isolines of Spiroplasma-infected (Ac-BS) and Spiroplasma-free (Ac-B) aphids reared on sweet orange (optimum host) and orange jasmine (suboptimum host) to demonstrate the effects of Spiroplasma infection in the aphid proteome profile...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vineet Kumar, Ram Chandra
Maillard reactions products (MRPs) are a major colorant of distillery effluent. It is major source of environmental pollution due to its complex structure and recalcitrant nature. This study has revealed that sucrose glutamic acid-Maillard reaction products (SGA-MRPs) showed many absorption peaks between 200 and 450 nm. The absorption maximum peak was noted at 250 nm in spectrophotometric detection. This indicated the formation of variable molecular weight Maillard products during the SGA-MRPs formation at high temperature...
February 2, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Ahmed M Rayan, Noha E Morsy, Khaled M Youssef
The present study investigated the effects of adding the powder of cactus Opuntia dillenii (O. dillenii) seeds on the functional properties, fiber, antioxidants and acceptability of rice-based extrudates. The control blend consisting basically of rice flour was replaced with O. dillenii seed powder at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20% then extruded at the optimum processing conditions. The extruded products were evaluated for their chemical composition, functional properties, color attributes, antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics...
February 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
A Kumar, M Kothari, A Grigoriadis, M Trulsson, P Svensson
Tooth loss, decreased mass and strength of the masticatory muscles leading to difficulty in chewing have been suggested as important determinants of eating and nutrition in the elderly. To compensate for the loss of teeth, in particular, a majority of the elderly rely on dental prosthesis for chewing. Chewing function is indeed an important aspect of oral health, and therefore, oral rehabilitation procedures should aim to restore or maintain adequate function. However, even if the possibilities to anatomically restore lost teeth and occlusion have never been better; conventional rehabilitation procedures may still fail to optimally restore oral functions...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Marjan Oraei, Seyed Hadi Razavi, Faramarz Khodaiyan
Background: Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is an essential component of the basic metabolism, and an important nutritional and growth factor in humans, animals, plants and micro-organisms. It has been widely used in the fields of pharmaceuticals, feed and food additives. The industrial production of riboflavin mostly relies on the microbial fermentation. Designing an appropriate fermentation medium is of crucial importance to improve the riboflavin production. Methods: In this study, sequential methodology combining a screening test of minerals by Plackett-Burman (PB) and an optimization test by Central Composite Design (CCD) was applied to enhance riboflavin production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 in shake flasks...
January 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
Ewa Stefanska, Agnieszka Wendołowicz, Urszula Cwalina, Urszula Kowzan, Beata Konarzewska, Agata Szulc, Lucyna Ostrowska
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: An increased incidence of depressive disorders observed in recent years in the Polish and world population is a serious health problem. The aim of the study was to compare dietary habits and nutritional status of patients with recurrent depressive disorders, depending on their place of residence. Their impact on selected metabolic parameters was also considered. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group comprised 96 women and 84 men reporting to the Outpatient Mental Health Clinic at the Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Bialystok in north-eastern Poland...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Sarosh Iqbal, Rubeena Zakar, Muhammad Zakria Zakar, Florian Fischer
BACKGROUND: Optimum nutrition and good feeding practices amongst infants and young children are the key determinants of growth for a healthy life. Dietary diversity is considered to be a reliable and easy-to-measure proxy variable to assess young children's feeding practices for dietary adequacy and nutritional intake. This research aims to examine the current practices of dietary diversity amongst infants and young children aged 6-23 months in Pakistan and the various associated factors at child, maternal, household and community levels...
December 6, 2017: Nutrition Journal
Saifullah, Saad Dahlawi, Asif Naeem, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Ansar Farooq, Sadia Bibi, Zed Rengel
Growing rice on arsenic (As)-contaminated soil or irrigating with As-contaminated water leads to significant accumulation of As in grains. Moreover, rice accumulates more As into grains than other cereal crops. Thus, rice consumption has been identified as a major route of human exposure to As in many countries. Inorganic As species are carcinogenic and could pose a considerable health risk to humans even at low dietary concentration. Genotypic variation and concentration of nutrients such as iron, manganese, phosphate, sulfur and silicon are the two main factors that affect As accumulation in rice grains...
March 2018: Chemosphere
Xiaoming Dong, Xinhua Song, Caihong Dong
Irpex lacteus, a medicinal fungus, is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat chronic glomerulonephritis. In this work, a strain of I. lacteus was isolated from the fruiting body of a wild specimen and identified by ITS-5.8S ribosomal DNA sequencing analysis. Then the nutritional requirements and culture conditions for mycelial growth of I. lacteus in semisynthetic liquid media were investigated using the one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal matrix methods. Optimum growth occurred at 30°C and 35°C. I...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
J Q Chen, Y S Li, Z J Li, H X Lu, P Q Zhu, C M Li
l-Arginine is a nutritionally essential amino acid for spermatogenesis and plays versatile roles in animal health and can be utilized as a potential agent to improve reproductive performance of boars under high ambient temperature. The present study aimed to determine whether dietary l-arginine could alleviate heat stress-induced infertility in boars. In all, 20 boars (PIC 1040; 248.59±3.84 kg BW and 407.65±6.40 days of age) were selected and randomly assigned to four groups (group 0.0%, basal diet; group 0...
December 4, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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