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Optimum nutrition

Jonathan Y Lin, William J Hobson, John T Wertz
Cephalotes "turtle" ants host a core group of gut-associated symbionts, but their potential contributions to ant nutrition and disease resistance remain uncharacterized in vitro. To gain a better understanding of the metabolic capability of core symbionts belonging to the Burkholderiales, we cultivated and characterized strain CAG32T, isolated from the guts of Cephalotes rohweri ants. Strain CAG32T was rod-shaped, Gram-negative, motile, and formed pale-white colonies on trypticase soy agar. Optimum growth occurred under an atmosphere of 20% O2 supplemented with 1% CO2...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Usha Rani Somaraju, Arturo Solis-Moya
BACKGROUND: Most people with cystic fibrosis (80% to 90%) need pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy to prevent malnutrition. Enzyme preparations need to be taken whenever food is taken, and the dose needs to be adjusted according to the food consumed. A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is needed to guide clinical practice, as there is variability between centres with respect to assessment of pancreatic function, time of commencing treatment, dose and choice of supplements...
November 23, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Oraporn Bualuang, Onwude Daniel Iroemeha, Kwanta Pracha
BACKGROUND: Drying is a preservation method that removes or reduces the moisture content of a product. This process could affect the nutritional properties of agricultural crops. Therefore, this research seeks to investigate the effect of microwave drying power (100-700 W) on drying rate, effective diffusivity, antioxidant value of beta-carotene content (BCC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and the antioxidant capacity of sprouted corn, which can be applied as a rich antioxidant source...
November 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Ryo Miyazaki, Taro Takeshima, Kazuhiko Kotani
Sarcopenia is an age-related health problem in general communities. Effective exercise programs against sarcopenia remain necessary for community-dwelling older people. In order to summarize the available knowledge on this subject, we collected English articles from a MEDLINE/Pubmed database examining the effects of exercise interventions on sarcopenia-related outcome measures in community-dwelling older people. When nine articles, including eight randomized controlled trials, were reviewed, most studies demonstrated significant improvements in some outcome measures...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Veronique Beckers, Lisa Maria Dersch, Katrin Lotz, Guido Melzer, Oliver Ernst Bläsing, Regine Fuchs, Thomas Ehrhardt, Christoph Wittmann
BACKGROUND: During the last decades, we face an increasing interest in superior plants to supply growing demands for human and animal nutrition and for the developing bio-based economy. Presently, our limited understanding of their metabolism and its regulation hampers the targeted development of desired plant phenotypes. In this regard, systems biology, in particular the integration of metabolic and regulatory networks, is promising to broaden our knowledge and to further explore the biotechnological potential of plants...
October 29, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
Gregory C Jones, Christopher A R Sainsbury
Cystic fibrosis is a common genetic condition and abnormal glucose handling leading to cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is a frequent comorbidity. CFRD is mainly thought to be the result of progressive pancreatic damage resulting in beta cell dysfunction and loss of insulin secretion. Whilst Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing is still recommended for diagnosing CFRD, the relationship between glucose abnormalities and adverse outcomes in CF is complex and occurs at stages of dysglycaemia occurring prior to diagnosis of diabetes by World Health Organisation criteria...
December 2016: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Delphine Vincent, Aaron Elkins, Mark R Condina, Vilnis Ezernieks, Simone Rochfort
Cow's milk is an important source of proteins in human nutrition. On average, cow's milk contains 3.5% protein. The most abundant proteins in bovine milk are caseins and some of the whey proteins, namely beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, and serum albumin. A number of allelic variants and post-translationally modified forms of these proteins have been identified. Their occurrence varies with breed, individuality, stage of lactation, and health and nutritional status of the animal. It is therefore essential to have reliable methods of detection and quantitation of these proteins...
2016: PloS One
Mark R Corkins, Stephen R Daniels, Sarah D de Ferranti, Neville H Golden, Jae H Kim, Sheela N Magge, Sarah Jane Schwarzenberg
Nutrition is a critical factor for appropriate child and adolescent development. Appropriate nutrition changes according to age. Nutrition is an important element for prevention of disease development, especially for chronic diseases. Many children and adolescents live in environments that do not promote optimum nutrition. Families must work to provide improved food environments to encourage optimum nutrition. Early primordial prevention of risk factors for chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, is important, and dietary habits established early may be carried through adult life...
November 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
Anna Wiernicka, Małgorzata Matuszczyk, Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Ewa Toporowska-Kowalska, Katarzyna Popińska, Urszula Chlebowczyk-Grzybowska, Ewa Hapyn, Jarosław Kierkuś
BACKGROUND: The appropriate time to initiate enteral nutrition after the placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube has been an area of limited research. There are no sufficient randomised prospective controlled trials in the paediatric population comparing the safety and tolerance of early feeding (3 h) after PEG placement. In order to reduce the period of fasting, inadequate nutritional support, and hospitalisation time, we decided to devise this study. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a multicentre, randomised, open-label trial designed to evaluate the tolerance and safety of early enteral nutrition after PEG placement in children...
October 7, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Martin Alain Mune Mune, Samuel René Minka
BACKGROUND: Cowpea is a source of low-cost and good nutritional quality protein for utilization in food formulations in replacement of animal proteins. Therefore it is necessary that cowpea protein exhibits good functionality, particularly protein solubility which affects the other functional properties. The objective of this study was to produce cowpea protein hydrolysate exhibiting optimum solubility by the adequate combination of hydrolysis parameters, namely time, solid/liquid ratio (SLR) and enzyme/substrate ratio (ESR), and to determine its functional properties and molecular characteristics...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Jangwoo Lee, Seung Gu Shin, Jinmo Ahn, Gyuseong Han, Kwanghyun Hwang, Woong Kim, Seokhwan Hwang
Seven white rot fungal species were tested for growth as mycelia using swine wastewater (SW), an agro-waste with tremendous environmental footprint, as the sole nutrient source. The SW contained high concentrations of carbon and nitrogen components, which could support nutritional requirements for mycelial growth. Out of the seven species, Pleurotus ostreatus and Hericium erinaceus were successfully cultivated on the SW medium using solid-state fermentation. Response surface methodology was employed to determine the combination of pH, temperature (T), and substrate concentration (C) that maximizes mycelial growth rate (Kr) for the two species...
September 30, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Anna T Grazul-Bilska, Vilaivan Khanthusaeng, Casie S Bass, Samantha L Kaminski, Chainarong Navanukraw, Dale A Redmer
The aim of this study was to evaluate lipid droplet (LD) expression in uteri of FSH-treated or nontreated sheep administered with arginine (Arg) or vehicle (saline, Sal) and fed a control (C), excess (overfed, O) or restricted (underfed, U) diet. In experiment 1, ewes from each diet were randomly assigned to Arg or Sal treatments administered three times daily starting on Day 0 of the first estrous cycle until blood sample and uterine tissue collection at the early- or mid-luteal phase of the second estrous cycle or the late-luteal phase of the first estrous cycle...
September 2, 2016: Theriogenology
Jesús Alberto Pérez-Romero, Susana Redondo-Gómez, Enrique Mateos-Naranjo
Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element for plants, and its excess impairs plant performance. Physiological impacts of Cd excess are well known in non-tolerant plants, however this information is scarce for Cd-tolerant plants. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of five different Cd levels (0, 0.05, 0.20, 0.65 and 1.35 mM Cd) on the growth, photosynthetic apparatus (PSII chemistry), gas exchange characteristics, photosynthetic pigments profiles, water relations and nutritional balance of the Cd-accumulator Salicornia ramosissima...
September 15, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Sadaf Anwaar, Qaisar Maqbool, Nyla Jabeen, Mudassar Nazar, Fazal Abbas, Bushra Nawaz, Talib Hussain, Syed Z Hussain
In this study, we have investigated the effect of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) on callogenesis and regeneration of Oryza sativa L (Super Basmati, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, and Basmati 385). In this regard, CuO-NPs have been bio-synthesized via Azadirachta indica leaf extract. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis depicts average particle size of 40 ± 5 nm with highly homogenous and spherical morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been employed to confirm the phase purity of the synthesized NPs...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Giovanni Antonio Lutzu, Lanlan Zhang, Zhaohui Zhang, Tianzhong Liu
Porphyridium cruentum is one of the most valued microalgae species able to produce both pigments and exopolysaccharides. Conventional liquid suspended cultivation in ponds and photobioreactors show its disadvantages in lower cultivation efficiency and higher stirring power consumption due to the high viscosity of the medium by the accumulation of polysaccharides. In this work, a new method of culture (called attached cultivation) based on the growth of microalgae using a supporting surface was successfully applied to the cultivation of P...
September 10, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Xingli Liu, Taihua Mu, Hongnan Sun, Miao Zhang, Jingwang Chen, Maire Laure Fauconnier
We investigated the nutritional quality of steamed and baked breads containing 35% potato flour from four potato cultivars. Compared with traditional wheat varieties, potato-wheat steamed and baked breads contained higher dietary fiber (1.87-fold), K (2.68-fold), vitamin C (28.56-fold), and total polyphenol (1.90-fold) contents and greater antioxidant activity (1.23-fold). Moreover, the estimated glycemic index of potato-wheat breads ranged from 61.20 (Hongmei-wheat baked bread) to 67.36 (Atlantic-wheat steamed bread), which was lower than that of wheat steamed bread (70...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Sumit Gaur, Rupali Agnihotri
Trace mineral micronutrients are imperative for optimum host response. Populations worldwide are prone to their insufficiency owing to lifestyle changes or poor nutritional intake. Balanced levels of trace minerals like iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and copper (Cu) are essential to prevent progression of chronic conditions like periodontitis. Their excess as well as deficiency is detrimental to periodontal health. This is specifically true in relation to Fe. Furthermore, some trace elements, e.g. Se, Zn and Cu are integral components of antioxidant enzymes and prevent reactive oxygen species induced destruction of tissues...
August 31, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Xiaoting Ye, Fei Lu, Tianming Yao, Renyou Gan, Zhongquan Sui
Impact of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) on nutritional properties of normal maize starch (NMS) under various reaction conditions was investigated. NMS was adjusted to moisture levels of 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% and heated at 80, 100, 120 and 140°C for 4, 8, 12 and 16h. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to obtain the optimal combination of moisture level (X1: 20-30%), length of heating (X2: 4-12h), and temperature (X3: 100-140°C). The optimum reaction condition decreased rapidly digestible starch (RDS) from 87...
August 23, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chao Wu, Xinying Wang, Tingting Jiang, Chaojun Li, Li Zhang, Xuejin Gao, Feng Tian, Ning Li, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study was designed to investigate a relatively optimum dose of partial enteral nutrition (PEN) which effectively attenuates intestinal barrier dysfunction initiated by ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: In experiment 1, 60 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to intestinal IRI and assigned to six groups according to the different proportion of EN administrations: namely total parenteral nutrition (TPN or 0%EN), 10%EN, 20%EN, 40%EN, 60%EN, and total enteral nutrition (TEN or 100%) groups, the deficits of intraluminal calorie were supplemented by PN...
2016: Nutrients
Munusamy Madhaiyan, Selvaraj Poonguzhali, Venkatakrishnan Sivaraj Saravanan, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Dhandapani Pragatheswari, Palani Santhanakrishnan, Soo-Jin Kim, Hang-Yeon Weon, Soon-Wo Kwon
A novel siderophore-producing actinomycete, designated PL19T, was isolated from the Scots-pine needle-like leaves collected from TNAU campus, Coimbatore, India. The isolate was chemoorganotrophic in nutrition and able to grow at 30 °C, and the optimum pH and NaCl facilitated the growth pH 6-11 and 0-8 % (w/v), respectively. The cells are filamentous and the mycelia formed are basically of wide and intricately branched substrate mycelium from which aerial mycelia arises, later gets differentiated into spores that are warty and arranged spirally...
October 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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