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Optimum nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088407/far-off-and-close-up-dry-matter-intake-modulate-indicators-of-immunometabolic-adaptations-to-lactation-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-pasture-based-transition-dairy-cows
#1
M Vailati-Riboni, G Farina, F Batistel, A Heiser, M D Mitchell, M A Crookenden, C G Walker, J K Kay, S Meier, J R Roche, J J Loor
The common practice of increasing dietary energy density during the close-up dry period (last ∼3 wk prepartum) has been recently associated with a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving. Despite these reports, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off, nonlactating period is a common management policy aimed at achieving optimum calving body condition score (BCS) in pasture-based systems, as cows are generally thinner than total mixed ration cows at the end of lactation. Our hypothesis was that both far-off and close-up overfeeding influence the peripartum adipose tissue changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053581/optimization-of-formulation-and-processing-of-moringa-oleifera-and-spirulina-complex-tablets
#2
Yi Zheng, Fan Zhu, Dan Lin, Jun Wu, Yichao Zhou, Bohn Mark
Objective: To prepare a more comprehensive nutrition, more balanced proportion of natural nutritional supplement tablets with Moringa oleifera leaves and spirulina the two nutrients which have complementary natural food ingredients. Method: On the basis of research M. oleifera leaves with spirulina nutrient composition was determined on M. oleifera leaves and spirulina ratio of raw materials, and the choice of microcrystalline cellulose, sodium salt of caboxy methyl cellulose(CMC),magnesium stearate excipient, through single factor and orthogonal experiment, selecting the best formula tablets prepared by powder direct compression technology, for preparation of M...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053574/evaluation-of-different-commercial-feeds-on-grow-out-silver-black-porgy-sparidentex-hasta-valenciennes-for-optimum-growth-performance-fillet-quality-and-cost-of-production
#3
M A Hossain, K M Al-Abdul-Elah, S El-Dakour
The objective of the study was to find a cost-effective feed from three commercial feeds, namely, Arasco (Saudi Arabia), Skretting (Turkey), and Biomar (Greece) for commercially producing silver black porgy (sobaity bream), Sparidentex hasta in Kuwait. For confidentiality, these feeds were randomly given code names, diets 1, 2, and 3, which were known only to the investigating staffs. The trash fish (diet 4) was used as the control. The experiment was conducted for 28 wk with grow-out sobaity bream (210.0 ± 0...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050856/improved-endoglucanase-production-and-mycelial-biomass-of-some-ericoid-fungi
#4
O R Adeoyo, B I Pletschke, J F Dames
Fungal species associated with ericaceous plant roots produce a number of enzymes and other bio-active metabolites in order to enhance survival of their host plants in natural environments. This study focussed on endoglucanase production from root associated ericoid mycorrhizal and dark septate endophytic fungal isolates. Out of the five fungal isolates screened, Leohumicola sp. (ChemRU330/PPRI 13195) had the highest relative enzyme activity and was tested along with isolates belonging to Hyloscyphaceae (EdRU083/PPRI 17284) and Leotiomycetes (EdRU002/PPRI 17261) for endoglucanase production under different pH and nutritional conditions that included: carbon sources, nitrogen sources and metal ions, at an optimum temperature of 28 °C...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999938/characterization-of-cinnamoyl-esterases-from-different-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria
#5
Caroline Fritsch, André Jänsch, Matthias A Ehrmann, Simone Toelstede, Rudi F Vogel
A high variety of plants that are used for food production contain esterified hydroxycinnamic acids. As their free forms display several benefits, like an enhanced absorption in human intestinal tract, anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic effects, an improved protein solubility and reduced discoloration, the microbial ability to cleave the ester bond is highly desired. In order to examine potential fermentation strains for this purpose, six different lactic acid bacteria and one bifidobacterial strain were screened for their ability to degrade esterified hydroxycinnamic acids because these strains are commonly used for fermentation of plant-based foods...
December 21, 2016: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995970/yields-and-nutritional-of-greenhouse-tomato-in-response-to-different-soil-aeration-volume-at-two-depths-of-subsurface-drip-irrigation
#6
Yuan Li, Wenquan Niu, Miles Dyck, Jingwei Wang, Xiaoyang Zou
This study investigated the effects of 4 aeration levels (varied by injection of air to the soil through subsurface irrigation lines) at two subsurface irrigation line depths (15 and 40 cm) on plant growth, yield and nutritional quality of greenhouse tomato. In all experiments, fruit number, width and length, yield, vitamin C, lycopene and sugar/acid ratio of tomato markedly increased in response to the aeration treatments. Vitamin C, lycopene, and sugar/acid ratio increased by 41%, 2%, and 43%, respectively, in the 1...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987187/cations-optimization-for-protein-enrichment-in-rice-straw-by-mixed-cultures-of-neurospora-crassa-14-8-and-candida-utilis-using-response-surface-methodology
#7
Jinru Jia, Huayou Chen, Bangguo Wu, Zhong Ni
This study investigated the effect of cation optimization by mixed cultures of Neurospora crassa and Candida utilis on the true protein (TP) content. Firstly, to enhance the nutritional contents of rice straw (RS), two fermentation parameters (effect of inoculation ratio and inoculation time) were optimized. It was found that when C. utilis was inoculated 60 h later than N. crassa with the inoculation ratio of 1:5 (N. crassa to C. utilis), the maximum TP yield was obtained. In order to further optimize TP content, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and Box-Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM) were adopted...
December 16, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976408/combined-effect-of-carnosol-rosmarinic-acid-and-thymol-on-the-oxidative-stability-of-soybean-oil-using-a-simplex-centroid-mixture-design
#8
Salma Saoudi, Nadia Chammem, Ines Sifaoui, Ignacio A Jiménez, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, José E Piñero, Maha Bouassida-Beji, Moktar Hamdi, Isabel L Bazzocchi
BACKGROUND: Oxidation taking place during the use of oil, leads to the deterioration of both nutritional and sensorial qualities. Natural antioxidants from herbs and plants are rich in phenolic compounds and could be therefore more efficient than synthetic ones to prevent lipid oxidation reactions. This study was aimed at the valorization of Tunisian aromatic plants and their active compounds as new sources of natural antioxidant preventing oil oxidation. RESULTS: Carnosol, rosmarinic acid and thymol were isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus capitatus by column chromatography and were analyzed by NMR...
December 15, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957653/harvesting-of-the-microalga-nannochloropsis-sp-by-bioflocculation-with-mung-bean-protein-extract
#9
Ganesan Kandasamy, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad Shaleh
Harvesting microalgae from medium is a major challenge due to their small size and low concentrations. In an attempt to find a cost-effective and eco-friendly harvesting technique, mung bean (Vigna radiata) protein extract (MBPE) was used for flocculation of Nannochloropsis sp. The effects of parameters such as pH, flocculant dose, algae concentration, and mixing time were used to study the flocculation efficiency (FE) of MBPE. Optimum parameters of MBPE dosage of 20 mL L(-1) and a mixing rate of 300 rpm for 6 min achieved a FE of >92% after 2 h of settling time...
December 12, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938325/enhanced-candicidal-compound-production-by-a-new-soil-isolate-penicillium-verruculosum-mkh7-under-submerged-fermentation
#10
Shruti Talukdar, Madhumita Talukdar, Manorama Buragohain, Archana Yadav, R N S Yadav, T C Bora
BACKGROUND: Microorganisms are a rich source of structurally diverse secondary metabolites that exert a major impact on the control of infectious diseases and other medical conditions. The biosynthesis of these metabolites can be improved by manipulating the nutritional or environmental factors. This work evaluates the effects of fermentation parameters on the production of a lactone compound effective against Candida albicans by Penicillium verruculosum MKH7 under submerged fermentation...
December 9, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902262/saccharedens-versatilis-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-sugar-degrading-member-of-the-burkholderiales-isolated-from-cephalotes-rohweri-ant-guts
#11
Jonathan Y Lin, William J Hobson, John T Wertz
Cephalotes "turtle" ants host a core group of gut-associated symbionts, but their potential contributions to ant nutrition and disease resistance remain uncharacterized in vitro. To gain a better understanding of the metabolic capability of core symbionts belonging to the Burkholderiales, we cultivated and characterized strain CAG32T, isolated from the guts of Cephalotes rohweri ants. Strain CAG32T was rod-shaped, Gram-negative, motile, and formed pale-white colonies on trypticase soy agar. Optimum growth occurred under an atmosphere of 20% O2 supplemented with 1% CO2...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878805/pancreatic-enzyme-replacement-therapy-for-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#12
REVIEW
Usha Rani Somaraju, Arturo Solis-Moya
BACKGROUND: Most people with cystic fibrosis (80% to 90%) need pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy to prevent malnutrition. Enzyme preparations need to be taken whenever food is taken, and the dose needs to be adjusted according to the food consumed. A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is needed to guide clinical practice, as there is variability between centres with respect to assessment of pancreatic function, time of commencing treatment, dose and choice of supplements...
23, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859376/microwave-drying-of-germinated-corn-and-its-effect-on-phytochemical-properties
#13
Oraporn Bualuang, Onwude Daniel Iroemeha, Kwanta Pracha
BACKGROUND: Drying is a preservation method that removes or reduces the moisture content of a product. This process could affect the nutritional properties of agricultural crops. Therefore, this research seeks to investigate the effect of microwave drying power (100-700 W) on drying rate, effective diffusivity, antioxidant value of beta-carotene content (BCC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and the antioxidant capacity of sprouted corn, which can be applied as a rich antioxidant source...
November 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829949/exercise-intervention-for-anti-sarcopenia-in-community-dwelling-older-people
#14
REVIEW
Ryo Miyazaki, Taro Takeshima, Kazuhiko Kotani
Sarcopenia is an age-related health problem in general communities. Effective exercise programs against sarcopenia remain necessary for community-dwelling older people. In order to summarize the available knowledge on this subject, we collected English articles from a MEDLINE/Pubmed database examining the effects of exercise interventions on sarcopenia-related outcome measures in community-dwelling older people. When nine articles, including eight randomized controlled trials, were reviewed, most studies demonstrated significant improvements in some outcome measures...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793154/in-silico-metabolic-network-analysis-of-arabidopsis-leaves
#15
Veronique Beckers, Lisa Maria Dersch, Katrin Lotz, Guido Melzer, Oliver Ernst Bläsing, Regine Fuchs, Thomas Ehrhardt, Christoph Wittmann
BACKGROUND: During the last decades, we face an increasing interest in superior plants to supply growing demands for human and animal nutrition and for the developing bio-based economy. Presently, our limited understanding of their metabolism and its regulation hampers the targeted development of desired plant phenotypes. In this regard, systems biology, in particular the integration of metabolic and regulatory networks, is promising to broaden our knowledge and to further explore the biotechnological potential of plants...
October 29, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752941/a-practical-approach-to-glucose-abnormalities-in-cystic-fibrosis
#16
REVIEW
Gregory C Jones, Christopher A R Sainsbury
Cystic fibrosis is a common genetic condition and abnormal glucose handling leading to cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is a frequent comorbidity. CFRD is mainly thought to be the result of progressive pancreatic damage resulting in beta cell dysfunction and loss of insulin secretion. Whilst Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing is still recommended for diagnosing CFRD, the relationship between glucose abnormalities and adverse outcomes in CF is complex and occurs at stages of dysglycaemia occurring prior to diagnosis of diabetes by World Health Organisation criteria...
December 2016: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749892/quantitation-and-identification-of-intact-major-milk-proteins-for-high-throughput-lc-esi-q-tof-ms-analyses
#17
Delphine Vincent, Aaron Elkins, Mark R Condina, Vilnis Ezernieks, Simone Rochfort
Cow's milk is an important source of proteins in human nutrition. On average, cow's milk contains 3.5% protein. The most abundant proteins in bovine milk are caseins and some of the whey proteins, namely beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, and serum albumin. A number of allelic variants and post-translationally modified forms of these proteins have been identified. Their occurrence varies with breed, individuality, stage of lactation, and health and nutritional status of the animal. It is therefore essential to have reliable methods of detection and quantitation of these proteins...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745591/nutrition-in-children-and-adolescents
#18
REVIEW
Mark R Corkins, Stephen R Daniels, Sarah D de Ferranti, Neville H Golden, Jae H Kim, Sheela N Magge, Sarah Jane Schwarzenberg
Nutrition is a critical factor for appropriate child and adolescent development. Appropriate nutrition changes according to age. Nutrition is an important element for prevention of disease development, especially for chronic diseases. Many children and adolescents live in environments that do not promote optimum nutrition. Families must work to provide improved food environments to encourage optimum nutrition. Early primordial prevention of risk factors for chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, is important, and dietary habits established early may be carried through adult life...
November 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717336/the-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-evaluation-of-the-tolerance-and-safety-of-early-enteral-nutrition-in-children-after-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-placement-protocol-version-09-01-2015
#19
Anna Wiernicka, Małgorzata Matuszczyk, Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Ewa Toporowska-Kowalska, Katarzyna Popińska, Urszula Chlebowczyk-Grzybowska, Ewa Hapyn, Jarosław Kierkuś
BACKGROUND: The appropriate time to initiate enteral nutrition after the placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube has been an area of limited research. There are no sufficient randomised prospective controlled trials in the paediatric population comparing the safety and tolerance of early feeding (3 h) after PEG placement. In order to reduce the period of fasting, inadequate nutritional support, and hospitalisation time, we decided to devise this study. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a multicentre, randomised, open-label trial designed to evaluate the tolerance and safety of early enteral nutrition after PEG placement in children...
October 7, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714803/production-and-characterization-of-cowpea-protein-hydrolysate-with-optimum-nitrogen-solubility-by-enzymatic-hydrolysis-using-pepsin
#20
Martin Alain Mune Mune, Samuel René Minka
BACKGROUND: Cowpea is a source of low-cost and good nutritional quality protein for utilization in food formulations in replacement of animal proteins. Therefore it is necessary that cowpea protein exhibits good functionality, particularly protein solubility which affects the other functional properties. The objective of this study was to produce cowpea protein hydrolysate exhibiting optimum solubility by the adequate combination of hydrolysis parameters, namely time, solid/liquid ratio (SLR) and enzyme/substrate ratio (ESR), and to determine its functional properties and molecular characteristics...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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