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Optimum nutrition

Nyla Jabeen, Qaisar Maqbool, Tahira Bibi, Mudassar Nazar, Syed Z Hussain, Talib Hussain, Tariq Jan, Ishaq Ahmad, Malik Maaza, Sadaf Anwaar
Mounting-up economic losses to annual crops yield due to micronutrient deficiency, fertiliser inefficiency and increasing microbial invasions (e.g. Xanthomonas cempestri attack on tomatoes) are needed to be solved via nano-biotechnology. So keeping this in view, the authors' current study presents the new horizon in the field of nano-fertiliser with highly nutritive and preservative effect of green fabricated zinc oxide-nanostructures (ZnO-NSs) during Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) growth dynamics. ZnO-NS prepared via green chemistry possesses highly homogenous crystalline structures well-characterised through ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Thiago Sidooski, Adriano Brandelli, Sávio Leandro Bertoli, Carolina Krebs de Souza, Lisiane Fernandes de Carvalho
There has been an increasing debate about the use of synthetic chemical compounds and the consequences of their use in food preservation. In this context, the utilization of some natural compounds produced by bacteria, showing an inhibitory effect against microorganisms associated with food contamination, have gained attention as preservation technology. In order to improve the production and yield costs of bacteriocins, detailed studies are necessary to determine the conditions that allow an optimized production and extraction of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB)...
May 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Yatin Mehta, J D Sunavala, Kapil Zirpe, Niraj Tyagi, Sunil Garg, Saswati Sinha, Bhuvaneshwari Shankar, Sanghamitra Chakravarti, M N Sivakumar, Sambit Sahu, Pradeep Rangappa, Tanmay Banerjee, Anshu Joshi, Ganesh Kadhe
Background and Aim: Intensive-care practices and settings may differ for India in comparison to other countries. While international guidelines are available to direct the use of enteral nutrition (EN), there are no recommendations specific to Indian settings. Advisory board meetings were arranged to develop the practice guidelines specific to Indian context, for the use of EN in critically ill patients and to overcome challenges in this field. Methods: Various existing guidelines, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, and review articles were reviewed for their contextual relevance and strength...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Prajakta P Kamble, Maheshkumar V Kore, Sushama A Patil, Jyoti P Jadhav, Yasmin C Attar
Tithonia rotundifolia is an easily available and abundant inulin rich weed reported to be competitive and allelopathic. This weed inulin is hydrolyzed by inulinase into fructose. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize culture conditions for the inulinase production from Arthrobacter mysorens strain no.1 isolated from rhizospheric area of Tithonia weed. Initially, Plackett- Burman design was used for screening 11 nutritional parameters for inulinase production including inulin containing weeds as cost effective substrate...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Mohsen Abdel-Tawwab, Ibrahim Adeshina, Adetola Jenyo-Oni, Emmanual K Ajani, Benjami O Emikpe
Clove basil, Ocimum gratissimum, is a native plant to Africa and grows virtually in tropical and subtropical regions. It has good aroma and its leaves have become used as a spicy and in traditional medicine. The use of plant leaves in fish diets may deteriorate their growth because it may content anti-nutritional factors0 Thus, it is better to use plants leaves extract. In the current study, clove basil leaves extract (CBLE) was administrated to African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (B.) for 12 weeks to evaluate its effect on growth performance, physiological, antioxidants, and innate immunity variables...
April 25, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Justine Aussant, Freddy Guihéneuf, Dagmar B Stengel
Microalgae are considered a sustainable source of high-value products with health benefits. Marine algae-derived omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are considered dietary elements with effects on mental health, cognition enhancement, and cardiovascular protection. This study investigated the temperature effect on omega-3 LC-PUFA production in eight species of microalgae from various taxonomic groups, with a focus on achieving an optimal balance between omega-3 accumulation and efficient growth performance...
April 25, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Minju Joy, Kajal Chakraborty
The estuarine Corbiculid bivalve black clam, Villorita cyprinoides collected from the Southwestern coastline regions of Arabian Sea are significant resources of nutritional and bioactive pluralities. The purification of ethyl acetate:methanol (EtOAc:MeOH) extract of V. cyprinoides characterized a previously undisclosed specialized abeo-pregnane-type sterol derivative 19 (10→5) abeo-20-methyl-pregn-10-en-3β-yl-hex-(3'E)-enoate (1) along with two cholestenols (22E),(241 E)-241 ,242 -dihomocholesta-5,22,241 -trien-3β-ol (2) and (22E)-241 -homocholesta-5,22-dien-(3β,241 β)-diol (3)...
April 20, 2018: Steroids
Syeda Bushra Zafar, Tayyaba Asif, Shah Ali Ul Qader, Afsheen Aman
The current study reported the statistically designed experimental method to enhance the biocatalytic efficacy of dextransucrase from Weissella confusa. Various environmental and nutritional parameters were optimized using multiple responses under submerged fermentation environment. Statistical models were constructed to screen the influence of nine factors on the biocatalysis of dextransucrase. Among them, fermentation time, pH, sucrose and peptone exhibited significant probability (P < 0.05) and considered as substantial constituents in accordance with Plackett-Burman design...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mariangela Rondanelli, Milena Anna Faliva, Alessandra Miccono, Maurizio Naso, Mara Nichetti, Antonella Riva, Fabio Guerriero, Manuela De Gregori, Gabriella Peroni, Simone Perna
Emerging literature suggests that diet constituents may play a modulatory role in chronic pain (CP) through management of inflammation/oxidative stress, resulting in attenuation of pain. We performed a narrative review to evaluate the existing evidence regarding the optimum diet for the management of CP, and we built a food pyramid on this topic. The present review also describes the activities of various natural compounds contained in foods (i.e. phenolic compounds in extra-virgin olive oil (EVO)) listed on our pyramid, which have comparable effects to drug management therapy...
June 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
María Paz Cubillos Celis, Patricia Mena Nannig
New nutritional approaches to treat extreme premature babies have demonstrated relevant eviden ce of metabolic disturbances with early hypophosphatemia, especially in patients with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). They have shown late hypophosphatemia, as well, which is characteristic in the metabolic bone disease. A sytematic search of literature describing metabolic disturbances of phosphorus in preterm newborns is presented, related to the use of early parenteral nutrition and also in the context of metabolic bone disease...
February 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Russany Silva da Costa, Camilo Barroso Teixeira, Taís Vanessa Gabbay Alves, Roseane M Ribeiro-Costa, Alessandro A Casazza, Bahar Aliakbarian, Attilio Converti, José O C Silva Júnior, Patrizia Perego
Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum.) is a popular Amazonian fruit because of its intense aroma and nutritional value, whose lipid fraction is alternatively used in cosmetics. To preserve active principles and ensure their controlled release, extract was microencapsulated by spray drying. Influence of spray-drying conditions on microencapsulation of cupuassu seed by-product extract was investigated according to a 33 -Box Behnken factorial design, selecting inlet temperature, maltodextrin concentration and feed flowrate as independent variables, and total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, antiradical power, yields of drying and microencapsulation as responses...
April 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
Jayeeta Hazarika, Meena Khwairakpam
Primary paper mill sludge (PPMS) is the major waste expelled from the pulp and paper industries contributing soil and water pollution through the recalcitrant organic and inorganic constituents. These pollutants can, however, be transformed into a high-value soil ameliorating material with nominal investment and time. Current study therefore evaluated the potential of rotary drum composting PPMS for 20 days to delineate an environmentally sustainable option. Five trials with proportions of PPMS, cow dung and saw dust: Trial 1 (10:0:0), Trial 2 (8:1:1), Trial 3 (7:2:1), Trial 4 (6:3:1) and Trial 5 (5:4:1) were performed for evaluation of degrading and nutritive ability along with the fate of pollutants for total mass of 150 kg...
April 3, 2018: Waste Management
Sarah S Singh, Courtney S Pilkerton, Carl D Shrader, Stephanie J Frisbee
BACKGROUND: Current primary prevention guidelines for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prioritize risk identification, risk stratification using clinical and risk scores, and risk reduction with lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy. Subclinical atherosclerosis is an early indicator of atherosclerotic burden and its timely recognition can slow or prevent progression to CVD. Thus, individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis are a priority for primary prevention. This study takes a practical approach to answering a challenge commonly faced by primary care practitioners: in patients with no known CVD, how can individuals likely to have subclinical atherosclerosis be easily identified using existing clinical data and/or information provided by the patient? METHODS: Using NHANES (1999-2004), 6091 men and women aged ≥40 years without any CVD comprised the primary prevention population for this study...
April 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Thomas Bauer, Sven Reese, Petra Koelle
Mediterranean and Russian tortoises (Testudo spp.) are popular companion animals (pets), despite ongoing controversy concerning privately keeping reptiles. The arguments used during these controversial discussions have often been based on outdated facts. Therefore, a survey was developed to evaluate the current population structure, husbandry conditions, diet regime, and health status of Testudo species in captivity. More than 75% of the 1075 respondents housed their tortoises in an outdoor enclosure containing a greenhouse or cold frame, which is considered the most species-appropriate way of husbandry...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Kazi Istiaque Sanin, M Munirul Islam, Mustafa Mahfuz, A M Shamsir Ahmed, Dinesh Mondal, Rashidul Haque, Tahmeed Ahmed
The prevalence of stunting among children below 5 years of age is higher in the slum-dwelling population of Bangladesh compared to that in both urban and rural areas. Studies have reported that several factors such as inadequate nutrition, low socio-economic status, poor hygiene and sanitation and lack of maternal education are the substantial predictors of childhood stunting. Almost all these factors are universally present in the slum-dwelling population of Bangladesh. However, few studies have prospectively examined such determinants of stunting among slum populations...
2018: PloS One
Rashi Vishwakarma, Dolly Wattal Dhar, Sunil Pabbi
Chlorella sp. MCC 7 and Botryococcus sp. MCC 31 were investigated to enable large-scale biodiesel production from minimal constituents in the growth medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to maximise the biomass productivity and lipid yield using only nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) as urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash. The optimum values were 0.42 g/L nitrogen; 0.14 g/L phosphorus and 0.22 g/L potassium for Chlorella sp.; and 0.46 g/L; 0.14 g/L and 0.25 g/L for Botryococcus sp...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Lesley Rees
Adequacy of dialysis is a term that has been used for many years based on measurement of small solute clearance using urea and creatinine. This has been shown in some but not all studies in adults to correlate with survival. However, small solute clearance is just one minor part of the effectiveness of dialysis and in fact 'optimum' dialysis, rather than 'adequate' dialysis is what most paediatric nephrologists would want for their patients. Additional ways to assess the success of dialysis in children would include dialysis access complications and longevity, preservation of residual kidney function, body composition, biochemical and haematological control, nutrition and growth, discomfort during the dialysis process and psychosocial adjustment including hospitalisation and school attendance...
March 26, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Samrat Das, Pimily Langthasa, Dharmeswar Barhoi, Puja Upadhaya, Sarbani Giri
BACKGROUND: Recently, high concentrations of arsenic have been documented in ground waters of Southern Assam, India. Indiscriminate smokeless tobacco consumption is a common practice in this region. Correlation between nutritional status and arsenic and smokeless tobacco-induced health effects has not been taken up in humans or other test systems. METHODS: Mice were divided into groups based on protein (casein) content in the diet: High protein (40%), optimum protein (20%), and low protein (5%)...
March 22, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Alison Luther, Joseph Gabriel, Richard P Watson, Nader K Francis
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in perioperative care, post-operative clinical and functional outcomes after major abdominal surgery can be suboptimal. Prehabilitation programmes attempt to optimise a patient's preoperative condition to improve outcomes. Total body prehabilitation includes structured exercise, nutritional optimisation, psychological support and cessation of negative health behaviours. This systematic review aims to report on the current literature regarding the impact of total body prehabilitation prior to major abdominal surgery...
March 15, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Maria Hayes
By 2050, the world population is estimated to reach 9.6 billion, and this growth continues to require more food, particularly proteins. Moreover, the Westernisation of society has led to consumer demand for protein products that taste good and are convenient to consume, but additionally have nutritional and health maintenance and well-being benefits. Proteins provide energy, but additionally have a wide range of functions from enzymatic activities in the body to bioactivities including those associated with heart health, diabetes-type 2-prevention and mental health maintenance; stress relief as well as a plethora of other health beneficial attributes...
March 14, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
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