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Optimum nutrition

Gregory C Jones, Christopher A R Sainsbury
Cystic fibrosis is a common genetic condition and abnormal glucose handling leading to cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is a frequent comorbidity. CFRD is mainly thought to be the result of progressive pancreatic damage resulting in beta cell dysfunction and loss of insulin secretion. Whilst Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing is still recommended for diagnosing CFRD, the relationship between glucose abnormalities and adverse outcomes in CF is complex and occurs at stages of dysglycaemia occurring prior to diagnosis of diabetes by World Health Organisation criteria...
October 17, 2016: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Delphine Vincent, Aaron Elkins, Mark R Condina, Vilnis Ezernieks, Simone Rochfort
Cow's milk is an important source of proteins in human nutrition. On average, cow's milk contains 3.5% protein. The most abundant proteins in bovine milk are caseins and some of the whey proteins, namely beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, and serum albumin. A number of allelic variants and post-translationally modified forms of these proteins have been identified. Their occurrence varies with breed, individuality, stage of lactation, and health and nutritional status of the animal. It is therefore essential to have reliable methods of detection and quantitation of these proteins...
2016: PloS One
Mark R Corkins, Stephen R Daniels, Sarah D de Ferranti, Neville H Golden, Jae H Kim, Sheela N Magge, Sarah Jane Schwarzenberg
Nutrition is a critical factor for appropriate child and adolescent development. Appropriate nutrition changes according to age. Nutrition is an important element for prevention of disease development, especially for chronic diseases. Many children and adolescents live in environments that do not promote optimum nutrition. Families must work to provide improved food environments to encourage optimum nutrition. Early primordial prevention of risk factors for chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, is important, and dietary habits established early may be carried through adult life...
November 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
Anna Wiernicka, Małgorzata Matuszczyk, Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Ewa Toporowska-Kowalska, Katarzyna Popińska, Urszula Chlebowczyk-Grzybowska, Ewa Hapyn, Jarosław Kierkuś
BACKGROUND: The appropriate time to initiate enteral nutrition after the placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube has been an area of limited research. There are no sufficient randomised prospective controlled trials in the paediatric population comparing the safety and tolerance of early feeding (3 h) after PEG placement. In order to reduce the period of fasting, inadequate nutritional support, and hospitalisation time, we decided to devise this study. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a multicentre, randomised, open-label trial designed to evaluate the tolerance and safety of early enteral nutrition after PEG placement in children...
October 7, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Martin Alain Mune Mune, Samuel R Minka
BACKGROUND: Cowpea is a source of low-cost and good nutritional quality protein for utilization in food formulations in replacement of animal proteins. Therefore, it is necessary that cowpea protein exhibits good functionality, particularly protein solubility which affects the others functional properties. The objective of this study was to produce cowpea protein hydrolysate exhibiting optimum solubility by the adequate combination of hydrolysis parameters namely time, solid to liquid ratio and enzyme to substrate ratio, and to determine functional properties and molecular characterization of the hydrolysate...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Jangwoo Lee, Seung Gu Shin, Jinmo Ahn, Gyuseong Han, Kwanghyun Hwang, Woong Kim, Seokhwan Hwang
Seven white rot fungal species were tested for growth as mycelia using swine wastewater (SW), an agro-waste with tremendous environmental footprint, as the sole nutrient source. The SW contained high concentrations of carbon and nitrogen components, which could support nutritional requirements for mycelial growth. Out of the seven species, Pleurotus ostreatus and Hericium erinaceus were successfully cultivated on the SW medium using solid-state fermentation. Response surface methodology was employed to determine the combination of pH, temperature (T), and substrate concentration (C) that maximizes mycelial growth rate (Kr) for the two species...
September 30, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Anna T Grazul-Bilska, Vilaivan Khanthusaeng, Casie S Bass, Samantha L Kaminski, Chainarong Navanukraw, Dale A Redmer
The aim of this study was to evaluate lipid droplet (LD) expression in uteri of FSH-treated or nontreated sheep administered with arginine (Arg) or vehicle (saline, Sal) and fed a control (C), excess (overfed, O) or restricted (underfed, U) diet. In experiment 1, ewes from each diet were randomly assigned to Arg or Sal treatments administered three times daily starting on Day 0 of the first estrous cycle until blood sample and uterine tissue collection at the early- or mid-luteal phase of the second estrous cycle or the late-luteal phase of the first estrous cycle...
September 2, 2016: Theriogenology
Jesús Alberto Pérez-Romero, Susana Redondo-Gómez, Enrique Mateos-Naranjo
Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element for plants, and its excess impairs plant performance. Physiological impacts of Cd excess are well known in non-tolerant plants, however this information is scarce for Cd-tolerant plants. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of five different Cd levels (0, 0.05, 0.20, 0.65 and 1.35 mM Cd) on the growth, photosynthetic apparatus (PSII chemistry), gas exchange characteristics, photosynthetic pigments profiles, water relations and nutritional balance of the Cd-accumulator Salicornia ramosissima...
September 15, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Sadaf Anwaar, Qaisar Maqbool, Nyla Jabeen, Mudassar Nazar, Fazal Abbas, Bushra Nawaz, Talib Hussain, Syed Z Hussain
In this study, we have investigated the effect of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) on callogenesis and regeneration of Oryza sativa L (Super Basmati, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, and Basmati 385). In this regard, CuO-NPs have been bio-synthesized via Azadirachta indica leaf extract. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis depicts average particle size of 40 ± 5 nm with highly homogenous and spherical morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been employed to confirm the phase purity of the synthesized NPs...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Giovanni Antonio Lutzu, Lanlan Zhang, Zhaohui Zhang, Tianzhong Liu
Porphyridium cruentum is one of the most valued microalgae species able to produce both pigments and exopolysaccharides. Conventional liquid suspended cultivation in ponds and photobioreactors show its disadvantages in lower cultivation efficiency and higher stirring power consumption due to the high viscosity of the medium by the accumulation of polysaccharides. In this work, a new method of culture (called attached cultivation) based on the growth of microalgae using a supporting surface was successfully applied to the cultivation of P...
September 10, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Xingli Liu, Taihua Mu, Hongnan Sun, Miao Zhang, Jingwang Chen, Maire Laure Fauconnier
We investigated the nutritional quality of steamed and baked breads containing 35% potato flour from four potato cultivars. Compared with traditional wheat varieties, potato-wheat steamed and baked breads contained higher dietary fiber (1.87-fold), K (2.68-fold), vitamin C (28.56-fold), and total polyphenol (1.90-fold) contents and greater antioxidant activity (1.23-fold). Moreover, the estimated glycemic index of potato-wheat breads ranged from 61.20 (Hongmei-wheat baked bread) to 67.36 (Atlantic-wheat steamed bread), which was lower than that of wheat steamed bread (70...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Sumit Gaur, Rupali Agnihotri
Trace mineral micronutrients are imperative for optimum host response. Populations worldwide are prone to their insufficiency owing to lifestyle changes or poor nutritional intake. Balanced levels of trace minerals like iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and copper (Cu) are essential to prevent progression of chronic conditions like periodontitis. Their excess as well as deficiency is detrimental to periodontal health. This is specifically true in relation to Fe. Furthermore, some trace elements, e.g. Se, Zn and Cu are integral components of antioxidant enzymes and prevent reactive oxygen species induced destruction of tissues...
August 31, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Xiaoting Ye, Fei Lu, Tianming Yao, Renyou Gan, Zhongquan Sui
Impact of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) on nutritional properties of normal maize starch (NMS) under various reaction conditions was investigated. NMS was adjusted to moisture levels of 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% and heated at 80, 100, 120 and 140°C for 4, 8, 12 and 16h. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to obtain the optimal combination of moisture level (X1: 20-30%), length of heating (X2: 4-12h), and temperature (X3: 100-140°C). The optimum reaction condition decreased rapidly digestible starch (RDS) from 87...
August 23, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chao Wu, Xinying Wang, Tingting Jiang, Chaojun Li, Li Zhang, Xuejin Gao, Feng Tian, Ning Li, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study was designed to investigate a relatively optimum dose of partial enteral nutrition (PEN) which effectively attenuates intestinal barrier dysfunction initiated by ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: In experiment 1, 60 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to intestinal IRI and assigned to six groups according to the different proportion of EN administrations: namely total parenteral nutrition (TPN or 0%EN), 10%EN, 20%EN, 40%EN, 60%EN, and total enteral nutrition (TEN or 100%) groups, the deficits of intraluminal calorie were supplemented by PN...
2016: Nutrients
Munusamy Madhaiyan, Selvaraj Poonguzhali, Venkatakrishnan Sivaraj Saravanan, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Dhandapani Pragatheswari, Palani Santhanakrishnan, Soon-Jin Kim, Hang-Yeon Weon, Soon-Wo Kwon
A novel siderophore-producing actinomycete, designated PL19T, was isolated from the Scots-pine needles collected from TNAU campus, Coimbatore, India. The isolate was recovered as chemoorganotrophic in nutrition and able to show favorable growth at 30°C, and the optimum pH and NaCl level facilitated the growth includes 6-11 and 0-8% (w/v) respectively. The cells are filamentous and the mycelia formed are basically of wide and intricately branched substrate mycelium from which aerial mycelia arises, which latter differentiate into spores that were warty and arranged spirally...
July 27, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Yasuaki Arakawa
In a healthy condition, trace elements constituting the living body are regulated and maintained their balance of each other and their range of physiological optimum concentration in order to maintain the normal vital functions. When the optimum conditions of their balance and their homeostasis, however, are broken down by deficiency or excess of certain trace element, an excess accumulation or deficiency of specified element is induced and it follows that peculiar disease is caused according to function of each specified element...
July 2016: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Matthew S Broggi, Dattatraya Patil, Yoram Baum, Peter T Nieh, Mehrdad Alemozaffar, John G Pattaras, Kenneth Ogan, Viraj A Master
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between the Onodera Prognostic Nutritional Index (OPNI) and overall survival, as well as recurrence-free survival, in clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients following nephrectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 341 patients who underwent nephrectomy for ccRCC were analyzed. The optimum OPNI cut off score of 44.7 was determined by Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis and patients were placed in either the low or high OPNI group, with OPNI values of ≤ 44...
July 15, 2016: Urology
Denny Z H Levett, Mark Edwards, Mike Grocott, Monty Mythen
The time between contemplation of surgery and the procedure offers a window of opportunity to optimize patients' nutritional, functional and psychological state prior to surgery. Traditionally, preoperative pathways have focused on the underlying disease process and 'fitness for surgery' with physical pre-assessment and risk counselling late in the pathway when little time is available to intervene. With an increasingly elderly and co-morbid surgical population, early physiological assessment and multidisciplinary collaborative decision-making is increasingly important...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
Faith Agbozo, Esi Colecraft, Basma Ellahi
Community-based growth promotion (CBGP) delivered by community volunteers aims at enhancing the traditional growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) program delivered by community health nurses through the promotion of optimum infant and young child feeding (IYCF) leading to improved child growth. This study compared IYCF knowledge and practices among caregiver-child pairs (0-24 months) receiving child welfare services from CBGP (n = 124) and GMP (n = 108) programs. Semistructured questionnaires were used to interview caregivers on IYCF knowledge/practices and validated food frequency questionnaire used to record infants' food intakes...
July 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Subhojit Chakraborty, Rishi Gupta, Kavish Kumar Jain, Ramesh Chander Kuhad
Trichoderma sp. is a potential cellulase producing mesophilic fungi which grow under mild acidic condition. In this study, growth and nutritional conditions were manipulated for the maximum and cost-effective production of cellulase using lab strain Trichoderma sp. RCK65 and checked for its efficiency in hydrolysis of Prosopis juliflora (a woody substrate). Preliminary studies suggested that when 48 h old secondary fungal culture (20 % v/w) was inoculated in wheat bran moistened with mineral salt solution (pH 4...
November 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
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