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Nutritional balance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329237/mtor-pathways-in-cancer-and-autophagy
#1
REVIEW
Mathieu Paquette, Leeanna El-Houjeiri, Arnim Pause
TOR (target of rapamycin), an evolutionarily-conserved serine/threonine kinase, acts as a central regulator of cell growth, proliferation and survival in response to nutritional status, growth factor, and stress signals. It plays a crucial role in coordinating the balance between cell growth and cell death, depending on cellular conditions and needs. As such, TOR has been identified as a key modulator of autophagy for more than a decade, and several deregulations of this pathway have been implicated in a variety of pathological disorders, including cancer...
January 12, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322349/development-of-a-chemically-defined-platform-fed-batch-culture-media-for-monoclonal-antibody-producing-cho-cell-lines-with-optimized-choline-content
#2
Shinobu Kuwae, Ichiko Miyakawa, Tomohiro Doi
A chemically defined platform basal medium and feed media were developed using a single Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line that produces a monoclonal antibody (mAb). Cell line A, which showed a peak viable cell density of 5.9 × 106 cells/mL and a final mAb titer of 0.5 g/L in batch culture, was selected for the platform media development. Stoichiometrically balanced feed media were developed using glucose as an indicator of cell metabolism to determine the feed rates of all other nutrients. A fed-batch culture of cell line A using the platform fed-batch medium yielded a 6...
January 11, 2018: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321537/computational-investigation-of-environment-noise-interaction-in-single-cell-organisms-the-merit-of-expression-stochasticity-depends-on-the-quality-of-environmental-fluctuations
#3
Anja Lück, Lukas Klimmasch, Peter Großmann, Sebastian Germerodt, Christoph Kaleta
Organisms need to adapt to changing environments and they do so by using a broad spectrum of strategies. These strategies include finding the right balance between expressing genes before or when they are needed, and adjusting the degree of noise inherent in gene expression. We investigated the interplay between different nutritional environments and the inhabiting organisms' metabolic and genetic adaptations by applying an evolutionary algorithm to an agent-based model of a concise bacterial metabolism. Our results show that constant environments and rapidly fluctuating environments produce similar adaptations in the organisms, making the predictability of the environment a major factor in determining optimal adaptation...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320449/changing-trends-in-nutritional-behavior-among-university-students-in-greece-between-2006-and-2016
#4
Charikleia Kyrkou, Foteini Tsakoumaki, Maria Fotiou, Aristea Dimitropoulou, Maria Symeonidou, Georgios Menexes, Costas G Biliaderis, Alexandra-Maria Michaelidou
The objective of the present survey was to study the dietary behavior of university students residing away from the family home. In this context, we (a) compared their dietary habits in two time periods, namely 2006 and 2016; and (b) explored the possible impact of gender on the behavioral changes in nutritional choices. A total of four hundred and five university students (2006, n = 242; 2016, n = 163) participated in the study. Dietary assessment was carried out using a qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire, while data about demographic and lifestyle factors were also collected...
January 10, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316320/human-microbiota-blood-group-antigens-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
D Rose Ewald, Susan C J Sumner
Far from being just "bugs in our guts," the microbiota interacts with the body in previously unimagined ways. Research into the genome and the microbiome has revealed that the human body and the microbiota have a long-established but only recently recognized symbiotic relationship; homeostatic balance between them regulates body function. That balance is fragile, easily disturbed, and plays a fundamental role in human health-our very survival depends on the healthy functioning of these microorganisms. Increasing rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases, as well as epidemics in obesity and diabetes in recent decades are believed to be explained, in part, by unintended effects on the microbiota from vaccinations, poor diets, environmental chemicals, indiscriminate antibiotic use, and "germophobia...
January 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310847/effects-of-long-term-near-term-and-real-time-energy-balance-and-blood-progesterone-concentrations-on-the-pregnancy-rate-of-contemporary-dairy-cows
#6
N A Gomez, A J Conley, P H Robinson
This study aimed to contribute to understanding the interface between reproductive and nutritional energetic physiology in contemporary dairy cattle. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 32) between 70 and 180 days in milk were used in a study starting 10 d prior to the artificial insemination (AI) date and were estrous synchronized using a hormonal regimen. Fourteen cows were determined pregnant on day 39 post-AI. Coccygeal blood samples of all cows were collected on d -10 and -3 prior to AI to determine estrous cyclicity, as well as at AI and at 6, 13 and 20 d post-AI...
January 4, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307890/the-germ-organ-theory-of-non-communicable-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Mariana X Byndloss, Andreas J Bäumler
Gut dysbiosis is associated with many non-communicable human diseases, but the mechanisms maintaining homeostasis remain incompletely understood. Recent insights suggest that during homeostasis, epithelial hypoxia limits oxygen availability in the colon, thereby maintaining a balanced microbiota that functions as a microbial organ, producing metabolites contributing to host nutrition, immune education and niche protection. Dysbiosis is characterized by a shift in the microbial community structure from obligate to facultative anaerobes, suggesting oxygen as an important ecological driver of microbial organ dysfunction...
January 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300728/intensive-insulin-therapy-increases-glutathione-synthesis-rate-in-surgical-icu-patients-with-stress-hyperglycemia
#8
Gianni Biolo, Benedetta Massolino, Filippo Giorgio Di Girolamo, Nicola Fiotti, Filippo Mearelli, Sara Mazzucco, Carlos Bertuzzi, Renzo Lazzarini, Alfonso Colombatti, Marcello De Cicco
OBJECTIVE: The glutathione system plays an essential role in antioxidant defense after surgery. We assessed the effects of intensive insulin treatment (IIT) on glutathione synthesis rate and redox balance in cancer patients, who had developed stress hyperglycemia after major surgery. METHODS: We evaluated 10 non-diabetic cancer patients the day after radical abdominal surgery combined with intra-operative radiation therapy. In each patient, a 24-hr period of IIT, aimed at tight euglycemic control, was preceded, or followed, by a 24-hr period of conventional insulin treatment (CIT) (control regimen)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300415/physical-performance-and-serum-25-oh-vitamin-d-status-in-community-dwelling-old-mobility-limited-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Å von Berens, T Cederholm, R A Fielding, T Gustafsson, D Kirn, J Laussen, M Nydahl, T G Travison, K Reid, A Koochek
OBJECTIVES: To examine the potential association between serum 25(OH) vitamin D and the performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) including the sub-components; five repeated chair stands test, 4 meters walk test and balance in older mobility-limited community-dwelling men and women. DESIGN: A cross sectional study was performed in American and Swedish subjects who were examined for potential participation in a combined exercise and nutrition intervention trial...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298363/dietary-and-nutrition-recommendations-in-pediatric-primary-care-a-call-to-action
#10
Sayward E Harrison, Deborah Greenhouse
Rapid increases in childhood obesity reflect widespread changes in diet and physical activity, which are of significant concern because obesity increases a child's risk for negative health outcomes and frequently creates a pathway to adult obesity. Diet and nutrition play a key role in maintaining energy balance and preventing weight gain; therefore, they are obvious targets for obesity prevention efforts. Primary care providers are in an optimal position to convey messages about healthy eating to children and families, and specific guidelines exist for how to incorporate diet and nutrition prevention into primary care...
January 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297143/curse-of-fluorosis
#11
REVIEW
M M Patil, Bhavana B Lakhkar, Shailaja S Patil
Fluoride was identified to have caries preventive properties and was widely used for fluoridation of water since 1940, especially in developed countries. After this there was sudden increase in the use of fluorides in food items and in oral medicinal products like toothpastes and mouth washes. Inadvertent use of above has lead to increase in fluorosis as a public health problem. In many places high fluorides are naturally present in earth crust leading to high water fluoride content increasing the risk of fluorosis...
January 3, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284432/mujeres-fuertes-y-corazones-saludables-adaptation-of-the-strongwomen-healthy-hearts-program-for-rural-latinas-using-an-intervention-mapping-approach
#12
Cynthia K Perry, Jean C McCalmont, Judy P Ward, Hannah-Dulya K Menelas, Christie Jackson, Jazmyne R De Witz, Emma Solanki, Rebecca A Seguin
OBJECTIVE: To describe our use of intervention mapping as a systematic method to adapt an evidence-based physical activity and nutrition program to reflect the needs of rural Latinas. METHODS: An intervention mapping process involving six steps guided the adaptation of an evidence based physical activity and nutrition program, using a community-based participatory research approach. We partnered with a community advisory board of rural Latinas throughout the adaptation process...
December 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280410/iron-balance-and-iron-supplementation-for-the-female-athlete-a-practical-approach
#13
Charles R Pedlar, Carlo Brugnara, Georgie Bruinvels, Richard Burden
Maintaining a positive iron balance is essential for female athletes to avoid the effects of iron deficiency and anaemia and to maintain or improve performance. A major function of iron is in the production of the oxygen and carbon dioxide carrying molecule, haemoglobin, via erythropoiesis. Iron balance is under the control of a number of factors including the peptide hormone hepcidin, dietary iron intake and absorption, environmental stressors (e.g. altitude), exercise, menstrual blood loss and genetics. Menstruating females, particularly those with heavy menstrual bleeding are at an elevated risk of iron deficiency...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280370/adherence-to-nutrition-guidelines-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-diseases-cvd-as-a-secondary-prevention
#14
Agnieszka Woźniak, Monika Krótki, Anna Anyżewska, Magdalena Górnicka, Agata Wawrzyniak
Background: The appropriate nutrition is an important component of the secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate if the patients with cardiovascular disease were informed of the role of appropriate nutrition in prevention or received nutrition guidelines and to assess the dietary intake compared to recommendations for patients with cardiovascular disease who received or not nutrition guidelines Material and Methods: The study was conducted among patients with cardiovascular disease (n = 127) of cardiological hospital clinic, aged 62 ± 11...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276791/the-geometric-framework-for-nutrition-as-a-tool-in-precision-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Stephen J Simpson, David G Le Couteur, David E James, Jacob George, Jenny E Gunton, Samantha M Solon-Biet, David Raubenheimer
Fundamental questions in nutrition include, "What constitutes a nutritionally balanced diet?", "What are the consequences of failing to achieve diet balance?", and "How does diet balance change across the lifecourse and with individual circumstances?". Answering these questions requires coming to grips with the multidimensionality and dynamic nature of nutritional requirements, foods and diets, and the complex relationships between nutrition and health, while at the same time avoiding becoming overwhelmed by complexity...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274121/brain-metabolic-sensing-and-metabolic-signaling-at-the-level-of-an-astrocyte
#16
Nephtali Marina, Egor Turovsky, Isabel N Christie, Patrick S Hosford, Anna Hadjihambi, Alla Korsak, Richard Ang, Svetlana Mastitskaya, Shahriar Sheikhbahaei, Shefeeq M Theparambil, Alexander V Gourine
Astrocytes support neuronal function by providing essential structural and nutritional support, neurotransmitter trafficking and recycling and may also contribute to brain information processing. In this article we review published results and report new data suggesting that astrocytes function as versatile metabolic sensors of central nervous system (CNS) milieu and play an important role in the maintenance of brain metabolic homeostasis. We discuss anatomical and functional features of astrocytes that allow them to detect and respond to changes in the brain parenchymal levels of metabolic substrates (oxygen and glucose), and metabolic waste products (carbon dioxide)...
December 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249889/the-effect-of-early-childhood-stunting-on-children-s-cognitive-achievements-evidence-from-young-lives-ethiopia
#17
Tassew Woldehanna, Jere R Behrman, Mesele W Araya
Background: There is little empirical evidence on the effect of childhood malnutrition on children's cognitive achievements in low income countries like Ethiopia. A longitudinal data is thus vital to understand the factors that influence cognitive development of children over time, particularly how early childhood stunting affects cognitive achievement of children up to the age of 8 years. Objective: To examine the effect of early childhood stunting on cognitive achievements of children using longitudinal data that incorporate anthropometric measurements and results of cognitive achievement tests such as Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Cognitive Development Assessment quantitative tests...
2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, YaʾItyoṗyā ṭénā Lemāt Maṣḥét
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247732/amaranth-quinoa-and-chia-protein-isolates-physicochemical-and-structural-properties
#18
REVIEW
Débora N López, Micaela Galante, María Robson, Valeria Boeris, Darío Spelzini
An increasing use of vegetable protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods which can replace animal proteins in the human diet. Amaranth, chia and quinoa seeds contain proteins which have biological and functional properties that provide nutritional benefits due to their reasonably well-balanced aminoacid content. This review analyses these vegetable proteins and focuses on recent research on protein classification and isolation as well as structural characterization by means of fluorescence spectroscopy, surface hydrophobicity and differential scanning calorimetry...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243938/iron-deficiency-affects-seizure-susceptibility-in-a-time-and-sex-specific-manner
#19
Michael Rudy, Margot Mayer-Proschel
Iron deficiency (ID) affects more than three billion people worldwide making it the most common micronutrient deficiency. ID is most prevalent during gestation and early life, which is of particular concern since its impact on the developing central nervous system is associated with an increased risk of a wide range of different psychiatric disorders later in life. The cause for this association is not known, but many of these same disorders are also associated with an imbalance between excitation and inhibition (E/I) within the brain...
November 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238536/body-macronutrient-composition-is-predicted-by-lipid-and-not-protein-content-of-the-diet
#20
Joshua P Moatt, Catherine Hambly, Elizabeth Heap, Anna Kramer, Fiona Moon, John R Speakman, Craig A Walling
Diet is an important determinant of fitness-related traits including growth, reproduction, and survival. Recent work has suggested that variation in protein:lipid ratio and particularly the amount of protein in the diet is a key nutritional parameter. However, the traits that mediate the link between dietary macronutrient ratio and fitness-related traits are less well understood. An obvious candidate is body composition, given its well-known link to health. Here, we investigate the relationship between dietary and body macronutrient composition using a first-generation laboratory population of a freshwater fish, the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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