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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454297/association-between-hyperpolarization-activated-channel-in-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-and-gastrointestinal-dysmotility-induced-by-malignant-ascites
#1
Tieyun Guo, Jiade Li, Jing Li, Dan Kong, Chunli Bi, Zheng He, Dai Tang, Xiaoming Jin, Lianhong Jin
Advanced malignant ascites is accompanied by gastrointestinal dysmotility, and patients often feel abdominal pain, abdominal distention, nausea and constipation. Gastrointestinal dysmotility is not only painful for the patients, but it reduces the absorption of nutrients and affects the physical recovery of patients with malignant ascites. It is reported that changes in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are responsible for the gastrointestinal dysmotility induced by malignant ascites, but the mechanism is not completely understood...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445388/maternal-methyl-donor-supplementation-during-gestation-counteracts-the-bisphenol-a-induced-impairment-of-intestinal-morphology-disaccharidase-activity-and-nutrient-transporters-gene-expression-in-newborn-and-weaning-pigs
#2
Hong Liu, Jun Wang, Daolin Mou, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Bin Feng, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Jian Li, De Wu
This study was conducted to explore whether exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy could change intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring using pigs as a model, and whether methyl donor (MET) could counteract the BPA-induced impacts. Fifty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were divided into four dietary groups throughout gestation: control diet (CON); control diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg); control diet supplemented with MET (3 g/kg betaine, 400 mg/kg choline, 150 μg/kg vitamin B12, and 15 mg/kg folic acid); and control diet with BPA and MET supplementation (BPA + MET)...
April 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441031/lead-accumulation-and-distribution-in-maize-seedlings-relevance-to-biomass-sproduction-and-metal-phytoextraction
#3
Dmitry I Bashmakov, Alina N Kluchagina, Przemysław Malec, Kazimierz Strzałka, Alexander S Lukatkin
Among trace metals, lead is a highly toxic contaminant, being hazardous to humans and animals. Application of maize plants for phytoremediation of polluted soils and waters has recently been of particular interest. The aim of this work is to investigate the Pb-phytoextraction potential of the maize cv. Tzariza used widely in Eastern European agriculture. Maize seedlings were exposed in a nutrient solution to 0.1 - 10000 µM of Pb2+ for 21 days. Lead accumulated mostly in conductive tissues and shoots at 0...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440467/structural-and-evolutionary-divergence-of-aquaporins-in-parasites-review
#4
Zi-Xin Ni, Jian-Min Cui, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Bao-Quan Fu
Aquaporins are ubiquitous proteins that belong to the major intrinsic protein family. Previous studies have indicated that aquaporins are involved in multiple physiological processes in parasites, such as nutrient absorption and end product efflux, and thus, would be promising pharmacological agents in the fight against parasite infection. In the present paper, the authors analyzed the evolutionary relationship of parasitic aquaporins by re‑constructing of a phylogenic tree using neighbor‑joining and maximum likelihood methods...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436589/short-chain-fatty-acids-augment-rat-duodenal-mucosal-barrier-function
#5
Wan Salman Wan Saudi, Markus Sjöblom
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced by bacterial fermentation in the large intestine, particularly from diets containing fibres and carbohydrates. The small intestinal epithelium is exposed to SCFAs derived mainly from oral bacteria or food supplementation. Although luminal nutrients are important in regulation of intestinal functions the role of SCFAs in regulation of small intestinal mucosal barrier function and motility has not been fully described. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of acetate and propionate on duodenal mucosal barrier function and motility...
April 24, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431176/effect-of-melatonin-on-renewal-of-chicken-small-intestinal-mucosa
#6
J Li, R X Li, G Liu, C F Lv, Y L Mi, C Q Zhang
A higher concentration of melatonin (MEL) in the intestine - even more than that in the plasma and pineal gland - implies its putative important role in the gastrointestinal structural or functional regulation. However, little evidence has shown that MEL can regulate the physiological functions of the intestinal mucosa. In this study, fertilized chicken eggs were treated with MEL (0.1 to 10 μg/d) from embryonic d 12 (E12) to post-hatching d 6 (D6), and the small intestine samples were collected at D6 to determine the changes in mucosal construction and function...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430654/alpha-ketoglutarate-suppresses-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-inflammatory-pathway-and-enhances-the-pxr-regulated-detoxification-pathway
#7
Liuqin He, Huan Li, Niu Huang, Xihong Zhou, Junquan Tian, Tiejun Li, Jing Wu, Yanan Tian, Yulong Yin, Kang Yao
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a critical nutritional factor in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. However, the relative mechanism of AKG has not been well understood. It was recently shown that the interaction between nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory pathway and pregnane X receptor (PXR)-regulated detoxification pathway is a check and balance mechanism for keeping the homeostatic state of the intestine, preventing the onset of intestinal inflammation which may lead to cancer. In the current study we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet and intestinal porcine epithelial cells-J2 models to investigate the effects of dietary AKG supplementation on the intestinal immune system and PXR regulated target expression...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428860/complex-trait-relationships-between-leaves-and-absorptive-roots-coordination-in-tissue-n-concentration-but-divergence-in-morphology
#8
Ruili Wang, Qiufeng Wang, Ning Zhao, Guirui Yu, Nianpeng He
Leaves and absorptive roots (i.e., first-order root) are above- and belowground plant organs related to resource acquisition; however, it is controversy over whether these two sets of functional traits vary in a coordinated manner. Here, we examined the relationships between analogous above- and belowground traits, including chemical (tissue C and N concentrations) and morphological traits (thickness and diameter, specific leaf area and root length, and tissue density) of 154 species sampling from eight subtropical and temperate forests...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426765/allatotropin-a-pleiotropic-neuropeptide-that-elicits-mosquito-immune-responses
#9
Salvador Hernández-Martínez, Minerva Sánchez-Zavaleta, Kevin Brito, Antonia Herrera-Ortiz, Sheila Ons, Fernando G Noriega
Allatotropins (AT) are neuropeptides with pleotropic functions on a variety of insect tissues. They affect processes such as juvenile hormone biosynthesis, cardiac rhythm, oviduct and hindgut contractions, nutrient absorption and circadian cycle. The present work provides experimental evidence that AT elicits immune responses in two important mosquito disease vectors, Anopheles albimanus and Aedes aegypti. Hemocytes and an immune-competent mosquito cell line responded to AT by showing strong morphological changes and increasing bacterial phagocytic activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424511/response-of-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-roots-to-the-presence-of-beneficial-and-pathogenic-fungi-by-transcriptome-analysis
#10
Kun Hao, Feng Wang, Xiangqun Nong, Mark Richard McNeill, Shaofang Liu, Guangjun Wang, Guangchun Cao, Zehua Zhang
Entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae obtain survival benefit meanwhile promote the nutrient absorption of root as an endophyte. However, little is known concerning molecular mechanisms in the process. We performed the transcriptome sequencing of A. hypogaea roots inoculated M. anisopliae and pathogenic Fusarium axysporum, respectively. There were 81323 unigenes from 132023 transcripts. Total 203 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) respond to the two fungi, including specific 76 and 34 DEGs distributed respectively in M...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418618/investigation-of-arsenotrophic-microbiome-in-arsenic-affected-bangladesh-groundwater
#11
Munawar Sultana, Taslin Jahan Mou, Santonu Kumar Sanyal, Farzana Diba, Zahid Hayat Mahmud, Anowar Khasru Parvez, M Anwar Hossain
Arsenotrophic bacteria contribute to the nutrient cycling in arsenic (As) affected groundwater. This study employed a culture-independent and -dependent investigation of arsenotrophic microbiomes in As affected groundwater samples collected from Madhabpur, Sonatengra, and Union Porishod in Singair Upazila, Manikganj, Bangladesh. Total As contents, detected by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) of the samples, were 47 µg/L (Madhabpur, SNGW-1), 53 µg/L (Sonatengra, SNGW-2), and 12 µg/L (Union porishod, SNGW-3), whereas the control well (SNGW-4; depths >150 m) showed As content of 6 µg/L...
April 18, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405139/regulation-of-intestinal-permeability-the-role-of-proteases
#12
REVIEW
Hanne Van Spaendonk, Hannah Ceuleers, Leonie Witters, Eveline Patteet, Jurgen Joossens, Koen Augustyns, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Ingrid De Meester, Joris G De Man, Benedicte Y De Winter
The gastrointestinal barrier is - with approximately 400 m(2) - the human body's largest surface separating the external environment from the internal milieu. This barrier serves a dual function: permitting the absorption of nutrients, water and electrolytes on the one hand, while limiting host contact with noxious luminal antigens on the other hand. To maintain this selective barrier, junction protein complexes seal the intercellular space between adjacent epithelial cells and regulate the paracellular transport...
March 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404576/whole-dairy-matrix-or-single-nutrients-in-assessment-of-health-effects-current-evidence-and-knowledge-gaps
#13
Tanja Kongerslev Thorning, Hanne Christine Bertram, Jean-Philippe Bonjour, Lisette de Groot, Didier Dupont, Emma Feeney, Richard Ipsen, Jean Michel Lecerf, Alan Mackie, Michelle C McKinley, Marie-Caroline Michalski, Didier Rémond, Ulf Risérus, Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu, Tine Tholstrup, Connie Weaver, Arne Astrup, Ian Givens
Foods consist of a large number of different nutrients that are contained in a complex structure. The nature of the food structure and the nutrients therein (i.e., the food matrix) will determine the nutrient digestion and absorption, thereby altering the overall nutritional properties of the food. Thus, the food matrix may exhibit a different relation with health indicators compared to single nutrients studied in isolation. The evidence for a dairy matrix effect was presented and discussed by an expert panel at a closed workshop, and the following consensus was reached: 1) Current evidence does not support a positive association between intake of dairy products and risk of cardiovascular disease (i...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402234/apple-snail-perivitellin-precursor-properties-help-explain-predators-feeding-behavior
#14
María Pilar Cadierno, Marcos Sebastián Dreon, Horacio Heras
In contrast with vitellogenin maturation, it is unknown whether gastropod perivitellin precursors are subject to large structural changes. The gastropod reproductive tract includes an accessory organ, the albumen gland (AG), that produces and secretes perivitelline fluid. In the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata, the large, reddish-pink AG provides eggs with perivitellins that are defensive against predators. Although the AG makes a considerable contribution to apple snail biomass, field observations indicate that it is rejected by avian and mammalian predators, although the underlying reason remains unknown...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380506/dietary-cation-anion-difference-may-explain-why-ammonium-urate-nephrolithiasis-occurs-more-frequently-in-common-bottlenose-dolphins-under-human-care-than-in-free-ranging-common-bottlenose-dolphins
#15
A J Ardente, R S Wells, C R Smith, M T Walsh, E D Jensen, T L Schmitt, J Colee, B J Vagt, R C Hill
Ammonium urate nephrolithiasis frequently develops in common bottlenose dolphins () managed under human care but is rare in free-ranging common bottlenose dolphins. In other species, the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) can affect ammonium urate urolith formation by increasing proton excretion as ammonium ions. Therefore, differences in diet between the 2 dolphin populations could affect urolith formation, but the DCAD of most species consumed by free-ranging and managed dolphins is unknown. To compare the nutrient composition of diets consumed by free-ranging and managed bottlenose dolphins, samples ( = 5) of the 8 species of fish commonly consumed by free-ranging bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, FL, and the 7 species of fish and squid commonly fed to managed bottlenose dolphins were analyzed for nutrient content...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370740/a-global-trait-based-approach-to-estimate-leaf-nitrogen-functional-allocation-from-observations
#16
Bardan Ghimire, William J Riley, Charles D Koven, Jens Kattge, Alistair Rogers, Peter B Reich, Ian J Wright
Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients for plant growth and a major constituent of proteins that regulate photosynthetic and respiratory processes. However, a comprehensive global analysis of nitrogen allocation in leaves for major processes with respect to different plant functional types is currently lacking. This study integrated observations from global databases with photosynthesis and respiration models to determine plant-functional-type-specific allocation patterns of leaf nitrogen for photosynthesis (Rubisco, electron transport, light absorption) and respiration (growth and maintenance), and by difference from observed total leaf nitrogen, an unexplained "residual" nitrogen pool...
March 28, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357686/evaluation-of-cell-interaction-with-polymeric-biomaterials-based-on-hyaluronic-acid-and-chitosan
#17
Mônica Helena Monteiro do Nascimento, Mariselma Ferreira, Sônia Maria Malmonge, Christiane Bertachini Lombello
Tissue engineering involves the development of new materials or devices capable of specific interactions with biological tissues, searching the use of biocompatible materials as scaffolds for in vitro cell growth, and functional tissue development, that is subsequently implanted into patient. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the initial aspects of cell interaction with the polymeric biomaterials blends based on hyaluronic acid with chitosan. The hypothesis approach involves synthesis and analysis of swelling and thermal degradation (thermal gravimetric analysis) of the polymer blend; and Vero cell interaction with the biomaterial, through analysis of cytotoxicity, adhesion and cell morphology...
May 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349378/gastrointestinal-tract-a-promising-target-for-the-management-of-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Shiqiang Xiong, Qiang Li, Daoyan Liu, Zhiming Zhu
The pathogenesis of hypertension remains elusive. Current treatments on hypertension have only achieved modest reductions. Facilitating theoretical research and looking for new therapeutic strategy are urgently needed. Besides food digestion and nutrients absorption, the gastrointestinal tract (GI) has been shown to influence the status of the central nervous system, immune system, metabolism, and cardiovascular homeostasis. Emerging findings demonstrate that endogenous factors derived from GI including gut hormones, autonomic nerve, and gut microbiota play important roles in the regulation of vascular function and/or blood pressure...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346473/oral-administration-of-bifidobacterium-bifidum-g9-1-alleviates-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-through-regulation-of-intestinal-homeostasis-by-inducing-mucosal-protective-factors
#19
Tomohiro Kawahara, Yutaka Makizaki, Yosuke Oikawa, Yoshiki Tanaka, Ayako Maeda, Masaki Shimakawa, Satoshi Komoto, Kyoko Moriguchi, Hiroshi Ohno, Koki Taniguchi
Human rotavirus (RV) infection is a leading cause of dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Since therapeutic approaches to RV gastroenteritis are limited to alleviation of dehydration with oral rehydration solutions, more direct approaches to palliate symptoms of RV gastroenteritis are required. Treatments with probiotics have been increasingly recognized as alternative safe and low cost treatments for moderate infectious diarrhea. In this study, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1), which has been used as an intestinal drug for several decades, was shown to have a remarkable protective effect against RV gastroenteritis in a suckling mice model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342610/intentionally-induced-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-causes-inflammation-affects-metabolism-and-reduces-productivity-in-lactating-holstein-cows
#20
S K Kvidera, M J Dickson, M Abuajamieh, D B Snider, M V Sanz Fernandez, J S Johnson, A F Keating, P J Gorden, H B Green, K M Schoenberg, L H Baumgard
Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of intentionally reduced intestinal barrier function on productivity, metabolism, and inflammatory indices in otherwise healthy dairy cows. Fourteen lactating Holstein cows (parity 2.6 ± 0.3; 117 ± 18 d in milk) were enrolled in 2 experimental periods. Period 1 (5 d) served as the baseline for period 2 (7 d), during which cows received 1 of 2 i.v. treatments twice per day: sterile saline or a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI; 1.5 mg/kg of body weight). Gamma-secretase inhibitors reduce intestinal barrier function by inhibiting crypt cell differentiation into absorptive enterocytes...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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