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Nutrient absorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527800/from-pre-to-postweaning-transformation-of-the-young-calf-s-gastrointestinal-tract
#1
Sarah J Meale, Frederique Chaucheyras-Durand, Harma Berends, Le Luo Guan, Michael A Steele
The ruminant gastrointestinal tract (GIT) faces the challenge of protecting the host from luminal contents and pathogens, while supporting the absorption and metabolism of nutrients for growth and maintenance. The GIT of the calf in early life undergoes some of the most rapid microbial and structural changes documented in nature, and these adaptations in GIT function make the young calf susceptible to GIT diseases and disorders. Despite these challenges, the calf's GIT has a certain degree of plasticity and can sense nutrient supply and respond to bioactive ingredients...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525609/e-cigarettes-and-weight-loss-product-design-innovation-insights-from-industry-patents
#2
Harkirat Singh, Ryan David Kennedy, Lisa Lagasse, Lauren M Czaplicki, Joanna E Cohen
Objective: There is emerging evidence that e-cigarettes are being used by some to mitigate weight gain after quitting smoking, and being used to help control weight. This study sought to identify and describe patents related to innovations for e-cigarette devices associated and weight loss. Methods: Relevant patents were identified using Google Patents with the core search terms: "electronic cigarette" OR "e-cigarette" OR "vaporizer" OR "vapourizer" AND "nicotine" AND "weight loss" OR "weight control" OR "obesity" OR "hunger"...
May 19, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524627/weight-loss-interventions-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
F B Seganfredo, C A Blume, M Moehlecke, A Giongo, D S Casagrande, J V N Spolidoro, A V Padoin, B D Schaan, C C Mottin
Imbalances in the gut microbiota, the bacteria that inhabit the intestines, are central to the pathogenesis of obesity. This systematic review assesses the association between the gut microbiota and weight loss in overweight/obese adults and its potential manipulation as a target for treating obesity. This review identified 43 studies using the keywords 'overweight' or 'obesity' and 'microbiota' and related terms; among these studies, 17 used dietary interventions, 11 used bariatric surgery and 15 used microbiota manipulation...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515162/dietary-protein-and-the-health-nutrition-agriculture-connection-in-india
#4
REVIEW
Sumedha Minocha, Tinku Thomas, Anura V Kurpad
The connection between the production, availability, and consumption of high-quality food is becoming very important in developing countries. The requirement of protein is linked to its quality, or its digestibility and ability to meet human indispensable amino acid requirements. This requirement is particularly relevant in India, where commonly consumed cereal-based diets and cereal-based food subsidy programs offer low-quality protein and therefore pose a risk of quality protein deficiency. The production of and access to sustainable sources of high-quality protein will be important parts of mitigating risks to human health...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512779/structure-of-protein-emulsion-in-food-impacts-intestinal-microbiota-caecal-luminal-content-composition-and-distal-intestine-characteristics-in-rats
#5
Martin Beaumont, Daphné Jaoui, Véronique Douard, Damien Mat, Fanny Koeth, Bénédicte Goustard, Camille Mayeur, Stanislas Mondot, Anais Hovaghimian, Steven Le Feunteun, Catherine Chaumontet, Anne-Marie Davila, Daniel Tomé, Isabelle Souchon, Camille Michon, Gilles Fromentin, François Blachier, Marion Leclerc
SCOPE: Few studies have evaluated in vivo the impact of food structure on digestion, absorption of nutrients and on microbiota composition and metabolism. In this study we evaluated in rat the impact of two structures of protein emulsion in food on gut microbiota, luminal content composition, and intestinal characteristics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats received for 3 weeks two diets of identical composition but based on lipid-protein matrices of liquid fine (LFE) or gelled coarse (GCE) emulsion...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507168/nutritional-interventions-and-the-il-6-response-to-exercise
#6
REVIEW
Stephen R Hennigar, James P McClung, Stefan M Pasiakos
IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a wide range of biologic effects. In response to prolonged exercise, IL-6 is synthesized by contracting skeletal muscle and released into circulation. Circulating IL-6 is thought to maintain energy status during exercise by acting as an energy sensor for contracting muscle and stimulating glucose production. If tissue damage occurs, immune cells infiltrate and secrete cytokines, including IL-6, to repair skeletal muscle damage. With adequate rest and nutrition, the IL-6 response to exercise is attenuated as skeletal muscle adapts to training...
May 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507021/cell-biology-of-tight-junction-barrier-regulation-and-mucosal-disease
#7
Aaron Buckley, Jerrold R Turner
Mucosal surfaces are lined by epithelial cells. In the intestine, the epithelium establishes a selectively permeable barrier that supports nutrient absorption and waste secretion while preventing intrusion by luminal materials. Intestinal epithelia therefore play a central role in regulating interactions between the mucosal immune system and luminal contents, which include dietary antigens, a diverse intestinal microbiome, and pathogens. The paracellular space is sealed by the tight junction, which is maintained by a complex network of protein interactions...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498348/nutrients-turned-into-toxins-microbiota-modulation-of-nutrient-properties-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
REVIEW
Raul Fernandez-Prado, Raquel Esteras, Maria Vanessa Perez-Gomez, Carolina Gracia-Iguacel, Emilio Gonzalez-Parra, Ana B Sanz, Alberto Ortiz, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), accumulation of uremic toxins is associated with an increased risk of death. Some uremic toxins are ingested with the diet, such as phosphate and star fruit-derived caramboxin. Others result from nutrient processing by gut microbiota, yielding precursors of uremic toxins or uremic toxins themselves. These nutrients include l-carnitine, choline/phosphatidylcholine, tryptophan and tyrosine, which are also sold over-the-counter as nutritional supplements. Physicians and patients alike should be aware that, in CKD patients, the use of these supplements may lead to potentially toxic effects...
May 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493487/effect-of-starvation-and-refeeding-on-the-hepatopancreas-of-whiteleg-shrimp-penaeus-vannamei-boone-using-computer-assisted-image-analysis
#9
F Cervellione, C McGurk, T Berger Eriksen, W Van den Broeck
Under normal farming conditions, shrimp can experience starvation periods attributable to disease outbreaks or adverse environmental conditions. Starvation leads to significant morphological changes in the hepatopancreas (HP), being the main organ for absorption and storage of nutrients. In the literature, limited research has described the effect on the HP of periods of starvation followed by refeeding and none in whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) using computer-assisted image analysis (CAIA). This study describes the effect of starvation and starvation followed by refeeding on the HP of whiteleg shrimp using CAIA...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490676/excretion-of-zinc-and-copper-increases-in-men-during-3-weeks-of-bed-rest-with-or-without-artificial-gravity
#10
Hayley N Heacox, Patricia L Gillman, Sara R Zwart, Scott M Smith
Background: Zinc and copper have many physiologic functions and little or no functional storage capability, so persistent losses of either element present health concerns, especially during extended-duration space missions.Objectives: We evaluated the effects of short-term bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, on copper and zinc metabolism to better understand the role of these nutrients in human adaptation to (simulated) spaceflight. We also investigated the effect of artificial gravity on copper and zinc homeostasis...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487600/dietary-compliance-in-celiac-disease
#11
EDITORIAL
Hugh James Freeman
Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disorder that causes severe architectural disturbance in the small intestinal mucosa of genetically-predisposed individuals. Impaired absorption of multiple nutrients results and diarrhea and weight loss develop. Evidence has accumulated that a strict gluten-free diet can result in resolution of diarrhea, weight gain and normalization of nutrient malabsorption. In addition, histopathological changes also normalize, but this histopathological response appears to be time-dependent, sex-dependent and age-dependent...
April 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482069/spatial-transcriptional-profile-of-pept1-mrna-in-the-yolk-sac-and-small-intestine-in-broiler-chickens
#12
H Zhang, E A Wong
The yolk sac and small intestine are 2 important organs responsible for the digestion and absorption of nutrients in chickens during the embryonic and posthatch periods, respectively. The peptide transporter PepT1 is expressed in both the yolk sac and small intestine and plays an important role in the transport of amino acids as short peptides. The objective of this study was to profile the spatial transcriptional patterns of PepT1 mRNA in the yolk sac and small intestine from embryonic and posthatch broilers...
May 6, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480508/cultivation-of-solanum-tuberosum-in-a-former-mining-district-for-a-safe-human-consumption-integrating-simulated-digestion
#13
M J Sierra, R López-Nicolás, C A González-Bermúdez, C Frontela-Saseta, R Millán
BACKGROUND: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a global crop and by far the most important non-cereal crop in the world. Therefore, it is necessary to assure its safe consumption. This is especially relevant in the case of its cultivation in abandoned mining areas, where the population tends to return to agriculture. In the present work, the objective is to evaluate the contribution to the diet of nutrients and contaminants of potato grown in soils from the Almadén area (mining district) by studying the intestinal absorption (in vitro) of the tuber taking into account the preparation methods for its consumption...
May 8, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478840/alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases-may-be-due-to-nutritional-deficiencies-secondary-to-unrecognized-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency
#14
Steven R Brenner
Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be related to nutritional deficiencies from exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) with mal-absorption of essential nutrients, vitamins and minerals. EPI occurs in about twenty percent of the elderly population, sometimes without obvious symptoms, a number similar to the incidence of AD. Other Neurological degenerative diseases with potential nutritional components such as Parkinson's disease, frailty of age and Multiple Sclerosis, a disease with increased activity from vitamin D deficiency, may also be related to untreated exocrine pancreatic insufficiency causing impaired absorption of essential dietary elements...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468891/the-effect-of-lipids-a-lipid-rich-ready-to-use-therapeutic-food-or-a-phytase-on-iron-absorption-from-maize-based-meals-fortified-with-micronutrient-powders
#15
Arnaud Monnard, Diego Moretti, Christophe Zeder, Andreas Steingötter, Michael B Zimmermann
Background: Ready-to-use-therapeutic foods (RUTFs) high in lipid, protein, and iron are used to treat malnutrition. Lipids increase gastric residence time, which could increase iron absorption, particularly from poorly soluble iron compounds and in combination with phytase.Objectives: The objectives were to 1) assess the effect on iron absorption of a lipid emulsion given 20 min before or together with an iron-fortified maize meal and 2) assess iron absorption from a micronutrient powder (MNP) given with a nutrient-dense RUTF and/or a microbial phytase...
May 3, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467041/fabrication-of-hybrid-collagen-aerogels-reinforced-with-wheat-grass-bioactives-as-instructive-scaffolds-for-collagen-turnover-and-angiogenesis-for-wound-healing-applications
#16
Dharunya Govindarajan, Natarajan Duraipandy, Kunnavakkam Vinjimur Srivatsan, Rachita Lakra, Purna Sai Korapatti, Ramasamy Jayavel, Manikantan Syamala Kiran
The present study illustrates the progress of the wheat grass bioactive-reinforced collagen-based aerogel system as an instructive scaffold for collagen turnover and angiogenesis for wound healing applications. The reinforcement of wheat grass bioactives in collagen resulted in the design and development of aerogels with enhanced physicochemical and biomechanical properties due to the intermolecular interaction between the active growth factors of wheat grass and collagen fibril. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis revealed an enhanced denaturation temperature when compared to those of native collagen aerogels...
May 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464082/reducing-mineral-usage-in-feedlot-diets-for-nellore-cattle-i-impacts-of-calcium-phosphorus-copper-manganese-and-zinc-contents-on-microbial-efficiency-and-ruminal-intestinal-and-total-digestibility-of-dietary-constituents
#17
D F T Sathler, L F Prados, D Zanetti, B C Silva, S C Valadares Filho, M V C Pacheco, P M Amaral, L N Rennó, M F Paulino
This study evaluated intake, microbial efficiency, and ruminal, small and large intestinal, and total digestibility of DM, OM, CP, and NDF, as well as availability of Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Mn, and Zn in Zebu cattle fed with or without supplemental sources of Ca and P or a micromineral premix. Five rumen- and ileum-cannulated Nellore bulls (BW = 200 ± 10.5 kg; 9 mo) were used in the experiment, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The experiment was developed in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial design to measure the effects of mineral supplementation on intake, digestibility, and site of nutrient absorption...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462704/the-role-of-dietary-approach-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#18
Piero Portincasa, Antony Lembo, Ornella De Bari, Domenica M Di Palo, Anna Maggio, Ilaria Cataldo, Giuseppe Calamita
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal diseases. In IBS multiple pathophysiological mechanisms including alterations in intestinal motility, permeability, nutrient absorption, and intestinal microbiota have been implicated. Foods are commonly reported by patients to be a trigger of symptoms and therefore are likely involved in the generation of symptoms in IBS. Among all possible therapeutic options, a first-line approach to IBS is dietary education and identification of foods potentially responsible for the onset or worsening of symptoms...
April 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462382/gata4-is-sufficient-to-establish-jejunal-versus-ileal-identity-in-the-small-intestine
#19
Cayla A Thompson, Kevin Wojta, Kirthi Pulakanti, Sridhar Rao, Paul Dawson, Michele A Battle
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patterning of the small intestinal epithelium along its cephalocaudal axis establishes three functionally distinct regions: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Efficient nutrient assimilation and growth depend on the proper spatial patterning of specialized digestive and absorptive functions performed by duodenal, jejunal, and ileal enterocytes. When enterocyte function is disrupted by disease or injury, intestinal failure can occur. One approach to alleviate intestinal failure would be to restore lost enterocyte functions...
May 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454747/sglt1-mediated-transport-in-caco-2-cells-is-highly-dependent-on-cell-bank-origin
#20
B Steffansen, M D L Pedersen, A M Laghmoch, C U Nielsen
The Caco-2 cell line is a well-established in vitro model for studying transport phenomena for prediction of intestinal nutrient and drug absorption. However, for substances depending on transporters such predictions are complicated due to variable transporter expression and limited knowledge about transporter function during multiple cell passaging and cell thawings. In the case of SGLT1, a key transporter of oral absorption of D-glucose, one reason for compromised prediction could be inadequate expression of SGLT1 in Caco-2 cells and thereby limited sensitivity in the determination of SGLT1-mediated permeability (PSGLT1)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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