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Nutrient absorption

Benjamin T Wall, Nicholas A Burd, Rinske Franssen, Stefan Hm Gorissen, Tim Snijders, Joan M Senden, Annemie P Gijsen, Luc J C van Loon
: Protein ingestion before sleep augments post-exercise muscle protein synthesis during overnight recovery. PURPOSE: It is unknown whether post-exercise and pre-sleep protein consumption modulates post-prandial protein handling and myofibrillar protein synthetic responses the following morning. Sixteen healthy young (24±1 y) men performed unilateral resistance-type exercise (contralateral leg acting as a resting control) at 20:00 h. Participants ingested 20 g protein immediately after exercise plus 60 g protein pre-sleep (PRO group; n=8) or equivalent boluses of carbohydrate (CON; n=8)...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
K M Meiburger, S Y Nam, E Chung, L J Suggs, S Y Emelianov, F Molinari
Blood vessels are the only system to provide nutrients and oxygen to every part of the body. Many diseases can have significant effects on blood vessel formation, so that the vascular network can be a cue to assess malicious tumor and ischemic tissues. Various imaging techniques can visualize blood vessel structure, but their applications are often constrained by either expensive costs, contrast agents, ionizing radiations, or a combination of the above. Photoacoustic imaging combines the high-contrast and spectroscopic-based specificity of optical imaging with the high spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging, and image contrast depends on optical absorption...
November 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Stefano Fiorucci, Angela Zampella, Giuseppe Cirino, Mariarosaria Bucci, Eleonora Distrutti
Bile acids are end product of cholesterol metabolism generated in the liver and released in the intestine. In addition to their role in nutrient absorption, bile acids are increasingly recognized as regulatory signals which exert their function beyond the intestine by activating a network of membrane and nuclear receptors. The best characterized of these bile acid activated receptors, GPBAR1 (also known as TGR5) and the Farnesosid-x-receptor (FXR) have also been detected in the vascular system and their activation mediate the vasodilatory effects of bile acids in the systemic and splanchnic circulation...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
João Araújo Barros-Neto, Adelmir Souza-Machado, Durval Campos Kraychete, Rosangela Passos de Jesus, Matheus Lopes Cortes, Michele Dos Santos Lima, Mariana Carvalho Freitas, Tascya Morganna de Morais Santos, Gustavo Freitas de Sousa Viana, José Antonio Menezes-Filho
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional disorders have been reported to be important causal factors that can intensify or cause a painful response in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. AIM: To assess the habitual intake of and the serum and erythrocyte levels of selenium and zinc in patients with chronic myofascial pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study of 31 patients with chronic myofascial pain (group I) and 31 subjects without pain (group II)...
2016: PloS One
Cuiping Wang, Xinying Lin, Dongmei Guo, Lili Ding, Haifeng Guo, Guifa Xu, Xi Cui, Xia Wang
The objective of this study was to investigate the zinc fractional absorption of young Chinese men and women from the Shandong rural region under the routine dietary pattern by stable isotope technique. Ten men and 10 women, aged 20 to 35 years, and with a representative diet during the experiment were recruited from the Shandong rural region. Stable (67)Zn was used as a tracer to label ZnCl2, and Yb was used to monitor the excretion of (67)Zn in urine and feces. All volunteers were given rice containing 4...
October 15, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Maurizio Koch
Microbes are mostly important for the digestion of food, the absorption of some micronutrients, and the production of vitamins. The microbiota stimulates lymphoid structures in the gastrointestinal mucosa and decrease pathogens by competing for nutrients and space. Bacterial translocation is defined as the escape of gut bacteria and their products through the intestinal mucosa to the outside of the intestine as portovenous or systemic circulation. This is induced by a leaky gut barrier. There is evidence for a role of intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Jose Antonio Moreno, Joana Díaz-Gómez, Carmina Nogareda, Eduardo Angulo, Gerhard Sandmann, Manuel Portero-Otin, José C E Serrano, Richard M Twyman, Teresa Capell, Changfu Zhu, Paul Christou
Carotenoids are important dietary nutrients with health-promoting effects. The biofortification of staple foods with carotenoids provides an efficient delivery strategy but little is known about the fate and distribution of carotenoids supplied in this manner. The chicken provides a good model of human carotenoid metabolism so we supplemented the diets of laying hens using two biofortified maize varieties with distinct carotenoid profiles and compared the fate of the different carotenoids in terms of distribution in the feed, the hen's livers and the eggs...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Linda J Fothergill, Brid Callaghan, Leni R Rivera, TinaMarie Lieu, Daniel P Poole, Hyun-Jung Cho, David M Bravo, John B Furness
TRPA1 is a ligand-activated cation channel found in the intestine and other tissues. Components of food that stimulate TRPA1 receptors (phytonutrients) include allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde and linalool, but these may also act at other receptors. Cells lining the intestinal mucosa are immunoreactive for TRPA1 and Trpa1 mRNA occurs in mucosal extracts, suggesting that the TRPA1 receptor is the target for these agonists. However, in situ hybridisation reveals Trpa1 expression in 5-HT containing enteroendocrine cells, not enterocytes...
October 10, 2016: Nutrients
G O Latunde-Dada, W Yang, M Vera Aviles
Interest in the consumption of insects (entomophagy) as an alternative environmentally sustainable source of protein in the diet of humans has recently witnessed a surge. As knowledge of the nutrient composition and, in particular, the bioavailability of minerals from insects, is currently sparse. This study evaluated the availability of Fe, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn from four commonly eaten insects and compared these to sirloin beef. Soluble iron from the samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Małgorzata Szczuko, Natalia Komorniak, Monika Hoffmann, Joanna Walczak, Agata Jaroszek, Bartosz Kowalewski, Krzysztof Kaseja, Dominika Jamioł-Milc, Ewa Stachowska
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y-bypass (RYGB) on anthropometric and biochemical parameters, including changes in glucose levels, lipid profile and liver function. Drastic decrease in all lipid fractions a few weeks or months after the surgery could be regarded as favourable, but low level of HDL is an independent risk factor for heart diseases. Extreme load on the liver without preparation of the patient to the surgery can have negative consequences...
October 11, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Zhipeng Li, André-Denis G Wright, Huazhe Si, Xiaoxu Wang, Wenxi Qian, Zhigang Zhang, Guangyu Li
The rumen microbiota plays important roles in nutrient metabolism and absorption of the host. However, it is poorly understood how host genetic variation shapes the community structure of the rumen microbiota and its metabolic phenotype. Here, we used sika deer (Cervus nippon) and elk (Cervus elaphus) to produce the following two types of hybrid offspring: sika deer ♀ × elk ♂ (SEH) and elk ♀ × sika deer ♂ (ESH). Then, we examined the rumen microbiome and metabolites in the parents and their hybrid offspring...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Yunqiao Zhou, Tieyu Wang, Zhaoze Jiang, Xiaoxiao Kong, Qifeng Li, Yajun Sun, Pei Wang, Zhaoyang Liu
In the present study, the concentrations and proportions of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water and sediments (in different seasons) from the Qing River were investigated. The highest concentration of PFASs in water (207.59 ng L(-1)) was found in summer. The composition of PFASs in water changed with time, perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) was the predominant compound in spring and summer, while long-chain PFASs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), started to increase in autumn and winter...
October 3, 2016: Chemosphere
Jiqiao Yang, Qiuwen Tan, Qingyu Fu, Yaojie Zhou, Yuanyuan Hu, Shenli Tang, Yuting Zhou, Junhui Zhang, Juanjuan Qiu, Qing Lv
Gastrointestinal microbiome plays as a symbiont which provides protection effect against invading pathogens, aids in the immune system development, nutrient reclamation and absorption as well as molecule breakdown. And it may avert carcinogenesis through these biological activities. By now, studies have been carried out to elaborate the association between gastrointestinal microbiome and breast cancer. It has been implicated that breast cancer was substantially associated with estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent functions of gastrointestinal microbiome...
October 5, 2016: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
W M Moura, Y J B Soares, A T Amaral Júnior, G A Gravina, L D Barili, H D Vieira
Genetic parameters and associations between morpho-agronomic traits and nutritional efficiencies of arabica coffee cultivars were estimated to identify promising traits to assist in the selection of coffee genotypes efficient in potassium use, under limiting conditions of this nutrient. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with 20 arabica coffee cultivars grown in nutrient solution with a low potassium level (1.5 mM), using a randomized block design with three replicates. The traits evaluated were plant height, number of leaves, number of nodes, internode length, stem diameter, leaf area, rooting efficiency, potassium absorption efficiency, potassium translocation efficiency, biomass production efficiency, and potassium use efficiency...
September 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Xin Tang, Huawei Liu, Quanmei Chen, Xin Wang, Ying Xiong, Ping Zhao
The solute carrier 6 (SLC6) gene family, initially known as the neurotransmitter transporters, plays vital roles in the regulation of neurotransmitter signaling, nutrient absorption and motor behavior. In this study, a total of 16 candidate genes were identified as SLC6 family gene homologs in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) genome. Spatio-temporal expression patterns of silkworm SLC6 gene transcripts indicated that these genes were highly and specifically expressed in midgut, brain and gonads; moreover, these genes were expressed primarily at the feeding stage or adult stage...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mingliang Jin, Yimin Zhu, Dongyan Shao, Ke Zhao, Chunlan Xu, Qi Li, Hui Yang, Qingsheng Huang, Junling Shi
The intestinal mucosal barriers play essential roles not only in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, but also the innate defense against most intestinal pathogens. In the present study, polysaccharide from the mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum was given via oral administration to rats (100mg/kg body weight, 21days) to investigate its effects on intestinal barrier functions, including the mechanical barrier, immunological barrier and biological barrier function. It was found that the polysaccharide administration could significantly up-regulate the expression of occludin, nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in ileum, markedly improve the levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and IL-4, and decrease the level of diamine oxidase (DAO) in serum...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Zenith Gaye A Orozco, Satoshi Soma, Toyoji Kaneko, Soichi Watanabe
The tissue distribution of slc15a1a, a gene that encodes an oligopeptide transporter, PepT1, and its response to fasting and refeeding were investigated in the intestinal epithelium of Mozambique tilapia for a better understanding of its role on nutrient absorption. The slc15a1a was predominantly expressed in the absorptive epithelia of the anterior part of the intestine, suggesting that digested oligopeptides are primarily absorbed in the anterior intestine. The response of slc15a1a to fasting was evaluated at 1, 2, 4, 7 and 14days after the last feeding...
September 30, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Anne Mößeler, Marion Schmicke, Martin Höltershinken, Martin Beyerbach, Josef Kamphues
Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) is a disease of diverse aetiology-e.g., majority of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) show PEI congenitally. Malnutrition and malabsorption of nutrients impair growth and nutritional status. As reduced fat digestion leads to a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins the supplementation is standard, but absorption is a critical point in PEI-patients. The pancreatic duct ligated (PL) pig is an established model for PEI in humans and has been proven to be a suitable model to compare different vitamin additives for supplementation...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yanfei Chen, Feng Ji, Jing Guo, Ding Shi, Daiqiong Fang, Lanjuan Li
Cirrhosis-associated duodenal dysbiosis is not yet clearly defined. In this research, duodenal mucosal microbiota was analyzed in 30 cirrhotic patients and 28 healthy controls using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing methods. The principal coordinate analysis revealed that cirrhotic patients were colonized by remarkable different duodenal mucosal microbiota in comparison with controls. At the genus level, Veillonella, Megasphaera, Dialister, Atopobium, and Prevotella were found overrepresented in cirrhotic duodenum...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhong Chen, Xiaoying Fu, Jian Kuang, Ju Chen, Hongmei Chen, Jianhao Pei, Huazhang Yang
BACKGROUND: Acarbose slows down the intestinal absorption of carbohydrates, but its effects on the secretion of incretins are still poorly known. This study aimed to examine the effects of single-dose acarbose on the secretion of incretins in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: In this pilot study, twenty-three patients diagnosed with T2DM were randomly assigned to the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) group (n = 11) and the mixed meal test (MMT) group (n = 12)...
September 29, 2016: BMC Endocrine Disorders
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