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Nutrient absorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346532/what-color-should-glacier-algae-be
#1
Roman J Dial, Gerard Q Ganey, S McKenzie Skiles
Red-colored secondary pigments in glacier algae play an adaptive role in melting snow and ice. We advance this hypothesis using a model of color-based absorption of irradiance, an experiment with colored particles in snow, and the natural history of glacier algae. Carotenoids and phenols-astaxanthin in snow-algae and purpurogallin in ice-algae-shield photosynthetic apparatus by absorbing over-abundant visible wavelengths, then dissipating the excess radiant energy as heat. This heat melts proximal ice crystals, providing liquid-water in a 0°C environment and freeing-up nutrients bound in frozen water...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338739/interventions-for-preventing-or-treating-malnutrition-in-homeless-problem-drinkers-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Sharea Ijaz, Helen Thorley, Katie Porter, Clare Fleming, Tim Jones, Joanna Kesten, Loubaba Mamluk, Alison Richards, Elsa M R Marques, Jelena Savović
BACKGROUND: Excessive drinking leads to poor absorption of nutrients and homeless problem-drinkers often have nutritionally inadequate diets. Depletion of nutrients such as vitamin B1 can lead to cognitive impairment, which can hinder efforts to reduce drinking or engage with services. This review aimed to assess effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent or treat malnutrition in homeless problem-drinkers. METHODS: We systematically searched nine electronic databases and 13 grey literature sources for studies evaluating interventions to improve nutrition in homeless populations, without regional or language restrictions...
January 16, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325602/bile-acid-metabolism-in-liver-pathobiology
#3
John Y L Chiang, Jessica M Ferrell
Bile acids facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion to maintain bile acid homeostasis, which is essential for protecting liver and other tissues and cells from cholesterol and bile acid toxicity. Bile acid metabolism is tightly regulated by bile acid synthesis in the liver and bile acid biotransformation in the intestine. Bile acids are endogenous ligands that activate a complex network of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 to regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic homeostasis and energy metabolism...
January 11, 2018: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323882/quantitative-shotgun-proteomics-associates-molecular-level-cadmium-toxicity-responses-with-compromised-growth-and-reproduction-in-a-marine-copepod-under-multigenerational-exposure
#4
Minghua Wang, Chen Zhang, Jae-Seong Lee
In this study, the copepod Tigriopus japonicus was exposed to different cadmium (Cd) treatments (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 50 µg/L in seawater) for five generations (F0-F4), followed by a two-generation (F5-F6) recovery period in clean seawater. Six life-history traits (survival, developmental time of nauplius phase, developmental time to maturation, number of clutches, number of nauplii/clutch, and fecundity) were examined for each generation. Metal accumulation was also analyzed for generations F0-F6. Additionally, proteome profiling was performed for the control and 50 µg/L Cd-treated F4 copepods...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321871/leaf-trait-variations-associated-with-habitat-affinity-of-tropical-karst-tree-species
#5
Nalaka Geekiyanage, Uromi Manage Goodale, Kunfang Cao, Kaoru Kitajima
Karst hills, that is, jagged topography created by dissolution of limestone and other soluble rocks, are distributed extensively in tropical forest regions, including southern parts of China. They are characterized by a sharp mosaic of water and nutrient availability, from exposed hilltops with poor soil development to valleys with occasional flooding, to which trees show species-specific distributions. Here we report the relationship of leaf functional traits to habitat preference of tropical karst trees. We described leaf traits of 19 tropical tree species in a seasonal karst rainforest in Guangxi Province, China, 12 species in situ and 13 ex situ in a non-karst arboretum, which served as a common garden, with six species sampled in both...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315060/comparative-study-on-the-removal-efficiency-of-hydrogen-sulfide-h2s-using-three-different-packings
#6
Shihua Pu, Zuohua Liu, Feiyun Yang, Dingbiao Long, Wen Liu, Hao Wang, Kaipei Huang, Xiu Huang
To improve the removal efficiency on hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a biofilter was developed and was made of PVC pipes. The effects of three different packings (i.e., packing A, packing B, and packing C), containing different proportions of activated carbon, sawdust, wormcast, perlite, and pig manure compost, based on different biofilter parameters on H2S removal efficiency were investigated. With the extension of running time, the H2S removal rate of packing A reached up to 90.12%, that of packing B reached a peak at 92...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308681/therapeutic-considerations-of-sarcopenia-in-heart-failure-patients
#7
Masakazu Saitoh, Nicole Ebner, Stephan von Haehling, Stefan D Anker, Jochen Springer
Sarcopenia is a common feature, and affects 20-47% of patients with heart failure (HF). Sarcopenia is also an independent predictor of impaired functional capacity, even after adjusting for clinical relevant variables, which is associated with adverse outcome in patients with HF. Areas covered: Several different pathophysiological pathways are involved in sarcopenic processes including altered nutrient intake and absorption, hormonal factor, inflammatory processes, oxidative stress, cellular proteolysis, and unhealthy lifestyle...
January 7, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304379/optical-properties-and-composition-changes-in-chromophoric-dissolved-organic-matter-along-trophic-gradients-implications-for-monitoring-and-assessing-lake-eutrophication
#8
Yunlin Zhang, Yongqiang Zhou, Kun Shi, Boqiang Qin, Xiaolong Yao, Yibo Zhang
Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is an important optically active substance in aquatic environments and plays a key role in light attenuation and in the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus biogeochemical cycles. Although the optical properties, abundance, sources, cycles, compositions and remote sensing estimations of CDOM have been widely reported in different aquatic environments, little is known about the optical properties and composition changes in CDOM along trophic gradients. Therefore, we collected 821 samples from 22 lakes along a trophic gradient (oligotrophic to eutrophic) in China from 2004 to 2015 and determined the CDOM spectral absorption and nutrient concentrations...
December 26, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304025/considerations-for-secondary-prevention-of-nutritional-deficiencies-in-high-risk-groups-in-high-income-countries
#9
REVIEW
Maaike J Bruins, Julia K Bird, Claude P Aebischer, Manfred Eggersdorfer
Surveys in high-income countries show that inadequacies and deficiencies can be common for some nutrients, particularly in vulnerable subgroups of the population. Inadequate intakes, high requirements for rapid growth and development, or age- or disease-related impairments in nutrient intake, digestion, absorption, or increased nutrient losses can lead to micronutrient deficiencies. The consequent subclinical conditions are difficult to recognize if not screened for and often go unnoticed. Nutrient deficiencies can be persistent despite primary nutrition interventions that are aimed at improving dietary intakes...
January 5, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299657/accumulation-of-137cs-by-carnivorous-aquatic-macrophytes-utricularia-spp-on-the-savannah-river-site
#10
Alexis M Korotasz, Albert L Bryan
Plants are an important mode of transfer of contaminants from sediments into food webs. In aquatic ecosystems, contaminant uptake by macrophytes can vary by path of nutrient uptake (roots vs. absorption from water column). Carnivorous plants likely have additional exposure through consumption of small aquatic organisms. This study expanded on previous research suggesting that bladderworts (Genus Utricularia) accumulate radiocesium (137Cs) and examined for (1) a potential association between sediment and plant concentrations and (2) differences in 137Cs accumulation among rooted and free floating Utricularia species...
January 3, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297969/binding-targets-of-termiticidal-lectins-from-the-bark-and-leaf-of-myracrodruon-urundeuva-in-the-gut-of-nasutitermes-corniger-workers
#11
Thâmarah A Lima, Leonardo P Dornelles, Ana Patrícia S Oliveira, Caio C S Guedes, Sueden O Souza, Roberto A Sá, Russolina B Zingali, Thiago H Napoleão, Patrícia M G Paiva
BACKGROUND: Lectins, carbohydrate-binding proteins, from the bark (MuBL) and leaf (MuLL) of Myracrodruon urundeuva are termiticidal agents against Nasutitermes corniger workers, and have been shown to induce oxidative stress and cell death in the midgut of these insects. In this study, we investigated the binding targets of MuBL and MuLL in the gut of N. corniger workers by determining the effects of these lectins on the activity of digestive enzymes. In addition, we used mass spectrometry to identify peptides from gut proteins that adsorbed to MuBL-Sepharose and MuLL-Sepharose columns...
January 3, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286303/disturbed-vitamin-a-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#12
REVIEW
Ali Saeed, Robin P F Dullaart, Tim C M A Schreuder, Hans Blokzijl, Klaas Nico Faber
Vitamin A is required for important physiological processes, including embryogenesis, vision, cell proliferation and differentiation, immune regulation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Many of vitamin A's functions are executed through retinoic acids that activate transcriptional networks controlled by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs).The liver plays a central role in vitamin A metabolism: (1) it produces bile supporting efficient intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients like vitamin A; (2) it produces retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) that distributes vitamin A, as retinol, to peripheral tissues; and (3) it harbors the largest body supply of vitamin A, mostly as retinyl esters, in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)...
December 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280097/current-treatment-paradigms-in-pediatric-short-bowel-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Raghav Chandra, Anil Kesavan
Pediatric short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a serious condition which occurs in children with congenital or acquired reduction in length of the small intestine. SBS results in excessive fluid loss, nutrient malabsorption, electrolyte abnormalities, increased susceptibility to infections, parenteral nutrition associated complications and affects weight gain and growth. In children, SBS is debilitating and uniformly fatal without treatment. The primary goal of treatment is to restore enteral autonomy and reduce long-term dependence on parenteral support by increasing the absorptive potential of the remnant intestine...
December 26, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278531/nutritional-implications-of-dietary-interventions-for-managing-gastrointestinal-disorders
#14
Heidi M Staudacher, Matthew Kurien, Kevin Whelan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize some of the key dietary interventions recommended for common gastrointestinal disorders and to discuss recent evidence regarding their nutritional implications. RECENT FINDINGS: The gluten-free diet has been shown to negatively influence overall diet quality. The gluten-free diet is essential in celiac disease, although it is increasingly used for other perceived health benefits for which an analysis of perceived benefit should be weighed against any nutritional risks...
December 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274697/a-review-of-mathematical-modeling-and-simulation-of-controlled-release-fertilizers
#15
REVIEW
Sayed Ameenuddin Irfan, Radzuan Razali, KuZilati KuShaari, Nurlidia Mansor, Babar Azeem, Ashlee N Ford Versypt
Nutrients released into soils from uncoated fertilizer granules are lost continuously due to volatilization, leaching, denitrification, and surface run off. These issues have caused economic loss due to low nutrient absorption efficiency and environmental pollution due to hazardous emissions and water eutrophication. Controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) can change the release kinetics of the fertilizer nutrients through an abatement strategy to offset these issues by providing the fertilizer content in synchrony with the metabolic needs of the plants...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248228/effects-of-magnesium-source-and-monensin-on-nutrient-digestibility-and-mineral-balance-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#16
A W Tebbe, D J Wyatt, W P Weiss
The interaction of monensin and 2 supplemental Mg sources (MgO and MgSO4) on total-tract digestion of minerals and organic nutrients and milk production was evaluated in lactating dairy cattle. Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows (139 ± 35 DIM) were used in a split-plot experiment with 0 or 14 mg/kg diet DM of monensin as the whole-plot treatments and Mg source as split-plot treatments. During the entire experiment (42 d), cows remained on the same monensin treatment but received a different Mg source in each period (21 d) of the Latin square...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239290/re-evaluation-of-the-life-cycle-of-eimeria-maxima-tyzzer-1929-in-chickens-gallus-domesticus
#17
J P Dubey, M C Jenkins
A time-course study was conducted to resolve discrepancies in the literature and better define aspects of the Eimeria maxima life cycle such, as sites of development and both morphology and number of asexual stages. Broiler chickens were inoculated orally with five million E. maxima oocysts (APU1), and were necropsied at regular intervals from 12 to 120 h p.i. Small intestine tissue sections and smears were examined for developmental stages. The jejunum contained the highest numbers of developmental stages...
December 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234672/vamp8-mucin-exocytosis-attenuates-intestinal-pathogenesis-by-entamoeba-histolytica
#18
COMMENT
Steve Cornick, France Moreau, Herbert Y Gaisano, Kris Chadee
The intestinal mucosa encounters a barrage of ingested insults within the host yet under homeostasis elegantly facilitates nutrient absorption and sustenance of the commensal microbiota. An essential defence mechanism employed by the host is limiting the spatial niche various microbes may occupy as executed by the fluid mucus layer. Pathogens that violate their restricted niche within the intestinal mucosa are first expelled by robust mucus secretion from goblet cells thus by-passing the need for an immune response...
November 27, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228768/recovery-of-mrs3%C3%AE-mrs4%C3%AE-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-cells-under-iron-sufficient-conditions-and-the-role-of-fe580
#19
Michael J Moore, Joshua Wofford, Andrew Dancis, Paul Alan Lindahl
Mrs3 and Mrs4 are mitochondrial inner membrane proteins that deliver an unidentified cytosolic iron species into the matrix for use in iron-sulfur-cluster (ISC) and heme biosynthesis. The Mrs3/4 double-deletion strain (ΔΔ) grew slowly in iron-deficient glycerol/ethanol medium but recovered to WT rates in iron-sufficient medium. ΔΔ cells grown under both iron-deficient and iron-sufficient respiring conditions accumulated large amounts of iron relative to WT cells, indicating iron homeostatic dysregulation regardless of nutrient iron status...
December 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226031/sodium-salt-medium-chain-fatty-acids-and-bacillus-based-probiotic-strategies-to-improve-growth-and-intestinal-health-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#20
Paula Simó-Mirabet, M Carla Piazzon, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Álvaro Ortiz, Mónica Puyalto, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Background: The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance...
2017: PeerJ
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