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Nutrient absorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917742/amino-acid-utilization-and-body-composition-of-growing-pigs-fed-processed-soybean-meal-or-rapeseed-meal-with-or-without-amino-acid-supplementation
#1
T G Hulshof, A F B van der Poel, W H Hendriks, P Bikker
Feed ingredients used in swine diets are often processed to improve nutritional value. However, (over-)processing may result in chemical reactions with amino acids (AAs) that decrease their ileal digestibility. This study aimed to determine effects of (over-)processing of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) on post-absorptive utilization of ileal digestible AAs for retention and on body AA composition of growing pigs. Soybean meal and RSM were processed by secondary toasting in the presence of lignosulfonate to obtain processed soybean meal (pSBM) and processed rapeseed meal (pRSM)...
December 5, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910138/canine-and-feline-colostrum
#2
S Chastant-Maillard, C Aggouni, A Albaret, A Fournier, H Mila
Puppy and kitten survival over the first weeks is particularly dependent on colostrum, a specific secretion of the mammary gland produced during the first 2 days post-partum. Colostrum is a source of nutrients and immunoglobulins. It also contributes to the digestive tract maturation. Colostrum differentiates from milk mainly based on its concentration in immunoglobulins G: 20-30 g/L in dog colostrum, 40-50 g/L in cats' vs <1 g/L in milk. IgG concentration rapidly drops after parturition (-50% in 24 hr)...
November 30, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909993/impact-of-culture-conditions-on-the-chlorophyll-content-of-microalgae-for-biotechnological-applications
#3
REVIEW
Veronica da Silva Ferreira, Celso Sant'Anna
Chlorophyll is a commercially important natural green pigment responsible for the absorption of light energy and its conversion into chemical energy via photosynthesis in plants and algae. This bioactive compound is widely used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Chlorophyll has been consumed for health benefits as a nutraceutical agent with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and antimicrobial properties. Microalgae are photosynthesizing microorganisms which can be extracted for several high-value bioproducts in the biotechnology industry...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898914/postprandial-portal-fluxes-of-essential-amino-acids-volatile-fatty-acids-and-urea-nitrogen-in-growing-pigs-fed-a-high-fiber-diet-supplemented-with-a-multi-enzyme-cocktail
#4
A K Agyekum, E Kiarie, M C Walsh, C M Nyachoti
The present study investigated the effects of adding a multi-enzyme cocktail (MC) to a high-fiber diet on net portal-drained viscera (PDV) fluxes of essential AA (EAA), volatile fatty acids (VFA), and blood urea-N (BUN) in growing pigs. Five female pigs (22.8 ± 1.6 kg BW), with catheters in the portal vein, ileal vein, and carotid artery, were fed 3 isocaloric-nitrogenous diets at 4% of their BW once daily at 0900 h for 7 d in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. The diets contained corn and soybean meal with 0% (control) or 30% distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS; HF) produced from a 1:1 mixture of wheat and corn...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898890/postprandial-portal-glucose-and-lactate-fluxes-insulin-production-and-portal-vein-drained-viscera-oxygen-consumption-in-growing-pigs-fed-a-high-fiber-diet-supplemented-with-a-multi-enzyme-cocktail
#5
A K Agyekum, E Kiarie, M C Walsh, C M Nyachoti
Information on effects of supplementing fibrous diets with exogenous enzymes on nutrient absorption and energetic demands of visceral organs is scarce. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of supplementing a high-fiber (HF) diet with a multi-enzyme cocktail (MC) on net glucose and lactate portal fluxes, insulin production, and O consumption by the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and whole animal in growing pigs. The MC supplied (analyzed values) 5,397 U of xylanase, 162 U of β-glucanase, and 2,000 U of protease per kg of diet, and guaranteed minimum activities of 1,000 U of α-amylase and 25 U of pectinase per kg of diet...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898793/increasing-soluble-phosphate-species-by-treatment-of-phosphate-rocks-with-acidic-waste
#6
Wedisson O Santos, Dean Hesterberg, Edson M Mattiello, Leonardus Vergütz, Matheus S C Barreto, Ivo R Silva, Luiz F S Souza Filho
The development of efficient fertilizers with a diminished environmental footprint will help meet the increasing demand for food and nutrients by a growing global population. Our objective was to evaluate whether an acidic mine waste (AMW) could be used beneficially by reacting it with sparingly soluble phosphate rocks (PRs) to produce more soluble P fertilizer materials. Three PRs from Brazil and Peru were reacted with different concentrations of AMW. Changes in mineralogy and P species were determined using a combination of X-ray diffraction and phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy, in addition to extractable P concentrations...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896869/identifying-the-location-of-epidermal-growth-factor-responsive-element-involved-in-the-regulation-of-type-iib-sodium-phosphate-cotransporter-expression-in-porcine-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#7
T Xing, X Tan, Q Yu, T Yang, R Fang
Phosphate is an important mineral nutrient for both human and animals in growth and physiological functions; thus, much effort in the past has been made to clarify the mechanisms governing its absorption. Previous studies have found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits phosphate absorption in human intestinal cells via modulating the interaction of transcriptional factor c-myb with sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) gene promoter. This finding provoked our interest in determining the effect of EGF on NaPi-IIb gene expression in intestinal cells of pigs and the location of EGF-responsive element in the gene promoter...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881759/effects-of-sea-ice-cover-on-satellite-detected-primary-production-in-the-arctic-ocean
#8
Mati Kahru, Zhongping Lee, B Greg Mitchell, Cynthia D Nevison
The influence of decreasing Arctic sea ice on net primary production (NPP) in the Arctic Ocean has been considered in multiple publications but is not well constrained owing to the potentially large errors in satellite algorithms. In particular, the Arctic Ocean is rich in coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) that interferes in the detection of chlorophyll a concentration of the standard algorithm, which is the primary input to NPP models. We used the quasi-analytic algorithm (Lee et al 2002 Appl. Opti...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876791/an-amino-acid-based-oral-rehydration-solution-aa-ors-enhanced-intestinal-epithelial-proliferation-in-mice-exposed-to-radiation
#9
Liangjie Yin, Reshu Gupta, Lauren Vaught, Astrid Grosche, Paul Okunieff, Sadasivan Vidyasagar
Destruction of clonogenic cells in the crypt following irradiation are thought to cause altered gastrointestinal function. Previously, we found that an amino acid-based oral rehydration solution (AA-ORS) improved gastrointestinal function in irradiated mice. However, the exact mechanisms were unknown. Electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, qPCR, and Western blot analysis were used to determine that AA-ORS increased proliferation, maturation, and differentiation and improved electrolyte and nutrient absorption in irradiated mice...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866806/enhanced-nutrient-removal-and-mechanisms-study-in-benthic-fauna-added-surface-flow-constructed-wetlands-the-role-of-tubifex-tubifex
#10
Yan Kang, Jian Zhang, Huijun Xie, Zizhang Guo, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Shuang Liang
This study designed a combined benthic fauna-T. orientalis-substrate-microbes surface-flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) through the addition of T. tubifex. Results showed that, the removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus in the tested SFCWs achieved 81.14±4.16% and 70.49±7.60%, which were 22.27% and 27.35% higher than that without T. tubifex. Lower nitrate (2.11±0.79mg/L) and ammonium (0.75±0.64mg/L) were also observed in the tested SFCWs, which were 3.46mg/L and 0.52mg/L lower than that without T...
November 9, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864674/interactions-between-giardia-duodenalis-sm-proteins-and-their-association-with-spliceosomal-snrnas
#11
Vanessa Gómez, Moisés Wasserman
Giardia duodenalis is a parasite that colonises the intestines of humans and other vertebrates, causing diarrhoea and poor nutrient absorption. G. duodenalis is sometimes considered an early diverging eukaryote, and its genome exhibits simplified molecular machinery for many cellular processes, which makes it an interesting model to study. The spliceosome, one of the most complex molecular machines in the eukaryotic cell, is responsible for intron excision and exon splicing. Just over a decade ago, it was believed that the G...
November 18, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859814/black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis-and-domestic-horse-equus-caballus-hindgut-microflora-demonstrate-similar-fermentation-responses-to-grape-seed-extract-supplementation-in%C3%A2-vitro
#12
N F Huntley, H D Naumann, A L Kenny, M S Kerley
The domestic horse is used as a nutritional model for rhinoceros maintained under human care. The validity of this model for browsing rhinoceros has been questioned due to high prevalence of iron overload disorder (IOD) in captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Iron chelators, such as tannins, are under investigation as dietary supplements to ameliorate or prevent IOD in prone species. Polyphenolic compounds variably affect microbial fermentation, so the first objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE; a concentrated source of condensed tannins; CT) on black rhinoceros hindgut fermentation...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859112/mycorrhizal-fungi-and-roots-are-complementary-in-foraging-within-nutrient-patches
#13
Lei Cheng, Weile Chen, Thomas S Adams, Xing Wei, Le Li, Michael Luke McCormack, Jared L DeForest, Roger T Koide, David M Eissenstat
The roots of the majority of tree species are associated with either arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) or ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. The absorptive roots of tree species also vary widely in their diameter. The linkages between root thickness, mycorrhiza type and nutrient foraging are poorly understood. We conducted a large root ingrowth experiment in the field to investigate how absorptive roots of varying thickness and their associated fungi (AM vs. EM) exploit different nutrient patches (inorganic and organic) in a common garden...
October 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851758/transmissible-gastroenteritis-virus-infection-enhances-sglt1-and-glut2-expression-to-increase-glucose-uptake
#14
Lei Dai, Wei Wei Hu, Lu Xia, Mi Xia, Qian Yang
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus that causes villus atrophy, followed by crypt hyperplasia, reduces the activities of intestinal digestive enzymes, and disrupts the absorption of intestinal nutrients. In vivo, TGEV primarily targets and infects intestinal epithelial cells, which play an important role in glucose absorption via the apical and basolateral transporters Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), respectively. In this study, we therefore sought to evaluate the effects of TGEV infection on glucose uptake and SGLT1 and GLUT2 expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842933/biokinetics-of-food-additive-silica-nanoparticles-and-their-interactions-with-food-components
#15
Jeong-A Lee, Mi-Kyung Kim, Jae Ho Song, Mi-Rae Jo, Jin Yu, Kyoung-Min Kim, Young-Rok Kim, Jae-Min Oh, Soo-Jin Choi
Nanomaterials have been widely utilized in the food industry in production, packaging, sensors, nutrient delivery systems, and food additives. However, research on the interactions between food-grade nanoparticles and biomolecules as well as their potential toxicity is limited. In the present study, the in vivo solubility, oral absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion kinetics of one of the most extensively used food additives, silica (SiO2) were evaluated with respect to particle size (nano vs bulk) following single-dose oral administration to rats...
November 2, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818663/grafting-a-technique-to-modify-ion-accumulation-in-horticultural-crops
#16
REVIEW
Muhammad A Nawaz, Muhammad Imtiaz, Qiusheng Kong, Fei Cheng, Waqar Ahmed, Yuan Huang, Zhilong Bie
Grafting is a centuries-old technique used in plants to obtain economic benefits. Grafting increases nutrient uptake and utilization efficiency in a number of plant species, including fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals. Selected rootstocks of the same species or close relatives are utilized in grafting. Rootstocks absorb more water and ions than self-rooted plants and transport these water and ions to the aboveground scion. Ion uptake is regulated by a complex communication mechanism between the scion and rootstock...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814033/zooplankton-and-the-ocean-carbon-cycle
#17
Deborah K Steinberg, Michael R Landry
Marine zooplankton comprise a phylogenetically and functionally diverse assemblage of protistan and metazoan consumers that occupy multiple trophic levels in pelagic food webs. Within this complex network, carbon flows via alternative zooplankton pathways drive temporal and spatial variability in production-grazing coupling, nutrient cycling, export, and transfer efficiency to higher trophic levels. We explore current knowledge of the processing of zooplankton food ingestion by absorption, egestion, respiration, excretion, and growth (production) processes...
October 17, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812010/membrane-glycerolipidome-of-soybean-root-hairs-and-its-response-to-nitrogen-and-phosphate-availability
#18
Fang Wei, Brian Fanella, Liang Guo, Xuemin Wang
Root hairs are tubular extensions of specific root epidermal cells important in plant nutrition and water absorption. To determine membrane glycerolipids in root hairs and roots may differ, as well as their respective response to nutrient availability, this study analyzed the membrane glycerolipid species in soybean root hairs and in roots stripped of root hairs, and their response to nitrogen (N) and phosphate (Pi) supplementation. The ratio of phospholipids to galactolipids was 1.5 fold higher in root hairs than in stripped roots...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808040/endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-delineation-of-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#19
Ulrich Rohde
Bariatric surgery (e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)) has proven the most effective way of achieving sustainable weight losses and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicate that the effectiveness of RYGB is mediated by an altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy, which in particular favours release of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner or duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) is an endoscopic deployable minimally invasive and fully reversible technique designed to mimic the bypass component of the RYGB...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804059/collagen-extract-from-marine-finfish-scales-as-a-potential-mosquito-larvicide
#20
K Muthumari, M Anand, M Maruthupandy
Collagen is a peptide being utilized in medical, health care, nutrient and decorative industry. Marine fish scales are one of the good sources of collagen, which is extracted using the advanced enzymatic digestion method. Scales of Sardinella longiceps (Oil Sardine) have a high proportion of collagen. This product is well absorbed with broad adaptive values that encourage the inclusion of nutriments. In this paper, we have performed the isolation and characterization of collagen from S. longiceps fish scales...
December 2016: Protein Journal
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