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Vitamin absorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729836/an-overview-of-herbal-products-and-secondary-metabolites-used-for-management-of-type-two-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Ajda Ota, Nataša P Ulrih
Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724883/calcium-prepartions-do-not-inhibit-allergic-reactions-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Klaudia Matysiak, Michał Matuszewski, Wojciech Feleszko
INTRODUCTION    Massive consumption of dietary supplements, including vitamins and minerals, has recently became a serious public issue in Europe. When ingested, they may negatively affect pharmacological activity of various medications, including anti-allergic drugs. Calcium preparations are well-known and commonly used in some European countries as a popular remedy for allergy-related skin reactions, such as itching, erythema and wheals, as well as insect bites. However, their action has not been reliably proven yet...
June 27, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716079/the-human-jejunum-has-an-endogenous-microbiota-that-differs-from-those-in-the-oral-cavity-and-colon
#3
Olof H Sundin, Antonio Mendoza-Ladd, Mingtao Zeng, Diana Diaz-Arévalo, Elisa Morales, B Matthew Fagan, Javier Ordoñez, Philip Velez, Nishaal Antony, Richard W McCallum
BACKGROUND: The upper half of the human small intestine, known as the jejunum, is the primary site for absorption of nutrient-derived carbohydrates, amino acids, small peptides, and vitamins. In contrast to the colon, which contains 10(11)-10(12) colony forming units of bacteria per ml (CFU/ml), the normal jejunum generally ranges from 10(3) to 10(5) CFU per ml. Because invasive procedures are required to access the jejunum, much less is known about its bacterial microbiota. Bacteria inhabiting the jejunal lumen have been investigated by classical culture techniques, but not by culture-independent metagenomics...
July 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710526/exposure-effects-and-absorption-of-lead-in-american-woodcock-scolopax-minor-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Amanda D French, Warren C Conway, Jaclyn E Cañas-Carrell, David M Klein
Due to long term declines of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor) and widespread distribution of environmentally available lead (Pb) throughout their geographic range, it is important to assess if Pb exposure is a potential contributor to these declines. Woodcock are exposed to Pb through various environmental sources and are known to exhibit relatively high bone-Pb concentrations. Absorption of Pb by birds, and woodcock specifically, is not well understood. Some studies show that interactions among calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, and vitamin D levels may play an important role in Pb absorption...
July 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704538/intestinal-calcium-and-bile-salts-facilitate-germination-of-clostridium-difficile-spores
#5
Travis J Kochan, Madeline J Somers, Alyssa M Kaiser, Michelle S Shoshiev, Ada K Hagan, Jessica L Hastie, Nicole P Giordano, Ashley D Smith, Alyxandria M Schubert, Paul E Carlson, Philip C Hanna
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is an anaerobic gram-positive pathogen that is the leading cause of nosocomial bacterial infection globally. C. difficile infection (CDI) typically occurs after ingestion of infectious spores by a patient that has been treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. While CDI is a toxin-mediated disease, transmission and pathogenesis are dependent on the ability to produce viable spores. These spores must become metabolically active (germinate) in order to cause disease. C. difficile spore germination occurs when spores encounter bile salts and other co-germinants within the small intestine, however, the germination signaling cascade is unclear...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702423/food-ingredients-that-inhibit-cholesterol-absorption
#6
REVIEW
Elliot D Jesch, Timothy P Carr
Cholesterol is a vital component of the human body. It stabilizes cell membranes and is the precursor of bile acids, vitamin D and steroid hormones. However, cholesterol accumulation in the bloodstream (hypercholesterolemia) can cause atherosclerotic plaques within artery walls, leading to heart attacks and strokes. The efficiency of cholesterol absorption in the small intestine is of great interest because human and animal studies have linked cholesterol absorption with plasma concentration of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol...
June 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691768/microbiome-inflammation-epigenetic-alterations-and-mental-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Reza Alam, Hamid M Abdolmaleky, Jin-Rong Zhou
Major mental diseases such as autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder are debilitating illnesses with complex etiologies. Recent findings show that the onset and development of these illnesses cannot be well described by the one-gene; one-disease approach. Instead, their clinical presentation is thought to result from the regulative interplay of a large number of genes. Even though the involvement of many genes are likely, up regulating and activation or down regulation and silencing of these genes by the environmental factors play a crucial role in contributing to their pathogenesis...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650324/formulation-evaluation-and-release-rate-characteristics-of-medicated-jelly-of-vitamin-c
#8
Khalid A Ibrahim, Asma Nawaz, Shamim Mumtaz, Furqan Muhammad Iqbal, Ahmad Khan, Shahiquz Zaman, Nasser M Abd El-Salam, Naseem Ullah, Tajamul Husain, Syed Nisar Hussain Shah
Medicated jelly formulations are patient friendly dosage form for pediatric, geriatric and dysphagic patients. These formulations offer rapid dissolution and absorption of drugs through oral mucosa therefore show the early onset of action. The objective of the study was to develop and evaluate oral jelly formulations of vitamin C. Slurry method was adopted using glucose 103gm, sugar 67gm, gelatin 10gm and sorbitol 6.56gm. Preformulation studies were performed including the organoleptic profile, pH, and solubility of both drugs...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649107/-aging-and-homeostasis-management-of-disorders-in-bone-and-calcium-metabolism-associated-with-ageing
#9
Yasuhiro Takeuchi
Disorders in bone and calcium metabolism associated with aging are based on secondary hyperparathyroidism due to impaired intestinal calcium absorption caused by insufficient vitamin D actions and augmented bone resorption due to sex hormone deficiency. Both of them are involved in the development of osteoporosis that increases risk of fractures. Therefore, the most important thing for management of disorders in bone and calcium metabolism associated with aging is to prevent fractures with appropriate drugs for osteoporosis...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642916/the-antioxidant-effect-of-beackea-frutescence-microemulsions-dietary-supplements-on-skin-absorption-studies
#10
Mohd Zul Helmi Rozaini, Armiza Ahmad, Azizul Idris, Chen Fei Low, Mohd Effendy Abdul Wahid
Objective: To study the effect of two different microemulsions containing Beackea frutescence supplements composed of nerolidool, selenium and vitamin E on absorption effect related to skin health and skin aging. Materials and methods: A total of 39 volunteers with normal and healthy skin were divided into three groups (n = 13) and supplemented for a period of 12 weeks. Group 1 received a mixture of lutein (3 mg/day), lycopene (3 mg/day), α-tocopherol (10 mg/day), selenium (75 μg/day) and β-nerolidool (4...
December 2016: Acta Biomaterialia Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637034/recovery-of-food-intake-after-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer-based-on-a-large-scale-gastric-cancer-cohort
#11
Bang Wool Eom, Jeongseon Kim, Deok Hee Kim, Young-Il Kim, Hong Man Yoon, Soo-Jeong Cho, Jong Yeul Lee, Chan Gyoo Kim, Il Ju Choi, Young-Woo Kim, Byung-Ho Nam, Keun Won Ryu
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed at evaluating the food intake and nutritional status of patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer based on a large-scale gastric cancer cohort. METHODS: An observational prospective cohort study for gastric cancer has been conducted since 2010. From the cohort data, we selected the data for patients who completed at least 2 days of 3-day diet diaries and who underwent subtotal gastrectomy (STG) or total gastrectomy (TG)...
June 22, 2017: Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615947/treatment-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-the-clinical-utility-of-etelcalcetide
#12
REVIEW
Mario Cozzolino, Andrea Galassi, Ferruccio Conte, Michela Mangano, Luca Di Lullo, Antonio Bellasi
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), a very frequent, severe, and worsening complication of chronic kidney disease, is characterized by high serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), parathyroid gland hyperplasia, and disturbances in mineral metabolism. Clinically, SHPT shows renal osteodystrophy, vascular calcification, cardiovascular damage, and fatal outcome. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is the main physiological regulator of PTH secretion; its activation by calcium rapidly inhibits PTH. Another important player in regulating mineral metabolism is vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is under the influence of vitamin D and influences the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate, PTH gene expression, and bone calcium mobilization...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608585/effect-of-dietary-conjugated-linoleic-acid-on-vitamin-a-status-of-lactating-rats-and-their-offspring
#13
J O Zeitz, E Most, K Eder
The absorption and metabolism of vitamin A is linked with that of lipids. It is known that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) affects the lipid metabolism in growing and lactating animals. In the present study, the hypothesis was investigated that dietary CLA influences vitamin A status of lactating rats and their pups during the suckling period. For this purpose, Wistar Han rats were fed either a control diet (control group, n = 14) or a diet containing 0.87% of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 (1:1) CLA (CLA group, n = 14) during pregnancy and lactation...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605609/effects-of-macro-and-micro-nutrients-on-exercise-induced-hepcidin-response-in-highly-trained-endurance-athletes
#14
Dylan Timothy Dahlquist, Trent Stellingwerff, Brad Pendleton Dieter, Donald C McKenzie, Michael S Koehle
Iron deficiency (ID) has ergolytic effects on athletic performance. Exercise induced inflammation impedes iron absorption in the digestive tract by up-regulating the expression of the iron regulatory protein, hepcidin. Limited research indicates the potential of specific macro- and micro- nutrients on blunting exercise induced hepcidin. Therefore, we investigated the effects of post-exercise supplementation with protein and carbohydrate (CHO) and vitamins D3 and K2 on the post-exercise hepcidin response. Ten highly-trained male cyclists (age: 26...
June 12, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601647/metalloproteomic-and-differential-expression-in-plasma-in-a-rat-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#15
Camila Pereira Braga, José Cavalcante Souza Vieira, Aline de Lima Leite, Ana Angélica Henrique Fernandes, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Pedro de Magalhães Padilha
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia, which in the chronic stage is associated with abnormalities in lipids, protein and, carbohydrate metabolism, as well as oxidative stress. New strategies for prevention and treatment are needed, as type 1 diabetes affects life quality and survival, and involves high-cost treatment. Proteomic and metalloproteomic studies can elucidate the functional and physiological aspects of biomolecules. In the present study, differential proteomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of diabetes in rat plasma associated with copper, selenium, zinc, and magnesium fractionation in control and diabetic rats, as well as diabetic rats treated with insulin...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595683/cholecalciferol-d%C3%A2-versus-ergocalciferol-d%C3%A2-in-older-adults
#16
Simona Dereje, Ilan Muradov, Samira Nazzal, Timothy Nguyen
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally found in very few food sources. It is produced endogenously from ultraviolet light from the sun striking the skin and then triggering vitamin D synthesis and activation. Vitamin D helps promote calcium absorption in the gut, maintains adequate serum calcium and phosphate levels, promotes bone growth, modulates cell growth, and has many other roles. There have been an increasing number of people, especially in older adults, with vitamin D deficiency. This is in part a result of a reduction of sun exposure as people age, increase in use of sunscreen, and other factors...
June 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585690/satisfying-america-s-fruit-gap-summary-of-an-expert-roundtable-on-the-role-of-100-fruit-juice
#17
REVIEW
Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Mario G Ferruzzi, Victor L Fulgoni, Robert Murray, Elizabeth Pivonka, Taylor C Wallace
The 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) recognize the role of 100% fruit juice in health and in helping people meet daily fruit recommendations and state that 100% fruit juice is a nutrient-dense beverage that should be a primary choice, along with water and low-fat/fat-free milk. The DGAs note that children are consuming 100% fruit juice within recommendations (that is, 120 to 180 mL/d for children aged 1 to 6 y and 236 to 355 mL/d for children aged 7 to 18 y). Evidence shows that compared to nonconsumers, those who consume 100% fruit juice come closer to meeting daily fruit needs and have better diet quality...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585624/exploiting-the-biomimetic-and-luminescence-properties-of-multivalent-dendrimer-semiconductor-nanohybrid-materials-in-the-ultra-low-level-determination-of-folic-acid
#18
Somashree Kundu, Susmita Maiti, Tushar Kanti Das, Debasmita Ghosh, Chandra Nath Roy, Abhijit Saha
In view of the enhanced generation of folate receptors in cancerous cells and diseases linked to the deficiency of folic acid, such as anemia, mental devolution, congenital malformation, etc., the development of a simple method for the ultra-sensitive determination of folic acid remains a long-standing issue for practical applications in medicine and biotechnology. Thus, the proposed luminescence based strategy involving multifunctional poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer encapsulated quantum dots (QDs) as a probe provides a simple, fast and efficient method for the selective determination of folic acid at the nano-molar level...
June 6, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578001/1%C3%AE-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-enhances-trpv6-transcription-through-p38-mapk-activation-and-gadd45-expression
#19
Michiyasu Ishizawa, Daisuke Akagi, Jumpei Yamamoto, Makoto Makishima
The active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], acts as a ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and regulates various physiological processes, including calcium and bone metabolism, cellular growth and differentiation, immunity and cardiovascular function. A number of vitamin D derivatives have been synthesized for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory disease, but the adverse effect of hypercalcemic activity due to intestinal calcium absorption has limited wide clinical application...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577750/-strategies-aiming-to-control-hyperphosphatemia-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Pablo Antonio Ureña Torres
Chronic kidney disease is known to be associated with phosphate retention. The mechanisms are complex and the early increase in serum phosphate levels in chronic kidney disease is not strictly related to the dietary phosphate load or to the degree of phosphate retention. It also implicates the activity of intestinal sodium-phosphate cotransporters, the degree of bone turnover and the retention and/or phosphate release from the skeleton, and the feedback mechanisms regulating the phosphaturia. Indeed, the increase in serum phosphate levels is only a reflection of underlying complex mechanisms, and many important factors play a role including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and others...
April 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
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