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Vitamin absorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230720/role-of-vitamin-a-retinoic-acid-in-regulation-of-embryonic-and-adult-hematopoiesis
#1
REVIEW
Ana Cañete, Elena Cano, Ramón Muñoz-Chápuli, Rita Carmona
Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient throughout life. Its physiologically active metabolite retinoic acid (RA), acting through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs), is a potent regulator of patterning during embryonic development, as well as being necessary for adult tissue homeostasis. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy increases risk of maternal night blindness and anemia and may be a cause of congenital malformations. Childhood Vitamin A deficiency can cause xerophthalmia, lower resistance to infection and increased risk of mortality...
February 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225873/alert-for-bone-alterations-and-low-serum-concentrations-of-vitamin-d-in-patients-with-intestinal-inflammatory-disease
#2
Lorete Maria da Silva Kotze, Carolina Tabata Costa, Murilo Franco Cavassani, Renato Mitsunori Nisihara
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestine that can reduce the absorption of nutrients such as vitamin D and calcium. OBJECTIVE: To investigate bone alterations and serum levels of vitamin D in patients with IBD. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study based on a review of medical records of patients from a private office in Curitiba, PR, Brazil...
January 1, 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223907/comparative-bioavailability-and-utilization-of-particular-forms-of-b12-supplements-with-potential-to-mitigate-b12-related-genetic-polymorphisms
#3
REVIEW
Cristiana Paul, David M Brady
CONTEXT: Three natural forms of vitamin B12 are commercially available: methylcobalamin (MeCbl), adenosylcobalamin (AdCbl), and hydroxycobalamin (OHCbl), all of which have been shown in clinical studies to improve vitamin B12 status. They are bioidentical to the B12 forms occurring in human physiology and animal foods. In contrast, cyanocobalamin (CNCbl), a synthetic B12 compound used for food fortification and in some supplements, occurs only in trace amounts in human tissues as a result of cyanide intake from smoking or other sources...
February 2017: Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217521/association-of-dental-and-skeletal-fluorosis-with-calcium-intake-and-serum-vitamin-d-concentration-in-adolescents-from-a-region-endemic-for-fluorosis
#4
Prerna P Patel, Pinal A Patel, M Mughal Zulf, Bhrugu Yagnik, Neha Kajale, Rubina Mandlik, Vaman Khadilkar, Shashi A Chiplonkar, Supriya Phanse, Vivek Patwardhan, Priscilla Joshi, Ashish Patel, Anuradha V Khadilkar
CONTEXT: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. AIM: To examine (a) prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES) and (b) association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10-13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90), from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India)...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216567/wine-flavonoids-in-health-and-disease-prevention
#5
Iva Fernandes, Rosa Pérez-Gregorio, Susana Soares, Nuno Mateus, Victor de Freitas
Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water) that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue...
February 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216084/vitamin-d-supplementation-guidelines
#6
Pawel Pludowski, Michael F Holick, William B Grant, Jerzy Konstantynowicz, Mario R Mascarenhas, Afrozul Haq, Vladyslav Povoroznyuk, Nataliya Balatska, Ana Paula Barbosa, Tatiana Karonova, Ema Rudenka, Waldemar Misiorowski, Irina Zakharova, Alena Rudenka, Jacek Łukaszkiewicz, Ewa Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Natalia Łaszcz, Pawel Abramowicz, Harjit P Bhattoa, Sunil J Wimalawansa
Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215696/recurrent-venous-thrombosis-under-rivaroxaban-and-carbamazepine-for-symptomatic-epilepsy
#7
Claudia Stöllberger, Josef Finsterer
BACKGROUND: The direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) rivaroxaban, an oral Factor Xa inhibitor, is increasingly used as an alternative to vitamin-K-antagonists (VKAs). Absorption and elimination of DOACs are dependent on the permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter protein system, and DOACs are substrates of the hepatic cytochrome P 450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzymes. Therefore, drug-interactions may occur when DOACs are administered with drugs affecting the activity of P-gp or CYP3A4 systems...
February 3, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191525/obesity-diabetes-and-the-role-of-bile-acids-in-metabolism
#8
Gerald H Tomkin, Daphne Owens
Bile acids have many activities over and above their primary function in aiding absorption of fat and fat soluble vitamins. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol, and thus are involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids stimulate glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) production in the distal small bowel and colon, stimulating insulin secretion, and therefore, are involved in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Bile acids through their insulin sensitising effect play a part in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184212/the-daily-consumption-of-cola-can-determine-hypocalcemia-a-case-report-of-postsurgical-hypoparathyroidism-related-hypocalcemia-refractory-to-supplemental-therapy-with-high-doses-of-oral-calcium
#9
Valentina Guarnotta, Serena Riela, Marina Massaro, Sebastiano Bonventre, Angela Inviati, Alessandro Ciresi, Giuseppe Pizzolanti, Salvatore Benvenga, Carla Giordano
The consumption of soft drinks is a crucial factor in determining persistent hypocalcemia. The aim of the study is to evaluate the biochemical mechanisms inducing hypocalcemia in a female patient with usual high consumption of cola drink and persistent hypocalcemia, who failed to respond to high doses of calcium and calcitriol supplementation. At baseline and after pentagastrin injection, gastric secretion (Gs) and duodenal secretion (Ds) samples were collected and calcium and total phosphorus (Ptot) concentrations were evaluated...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182848/simultaneous-determination-of-8-b-vitamins-in-rat-intestinal-perfusate-to-identify-effects-of-osmotic-pressures-on-absorptions
#10
Xiaobo Wang, Jian Xiao, Hui Zhou, Ying Qiu, Hui Peng, Yangyang Sun, Jiwen Zhang, Wei Qian, Lixin Sun
A rapid and accurate HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine eight B-vitamins (VBs, namely thiamine, riboflavin, niacinamide, calcium pantothenic, pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid, and cyanocobalamin) and phenolsulfonphthalein in rat intestinal perfusate. Chromatography separation was achieved using an Inertsil ODS-3 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) at the temperature of 40 °C. Gradient elution mode was applied at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-30 mM K2 HPO4 (pH 5...
February 9, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176881/functional-coupling-of-human-microphysiology-systems-intestine-liver-kidney-proximal-tubule-blood-brain-barrier-and-skeletal-muscle
#11
Lawrence Vernetti, Albert Gough, Nicholas Baetz, Sarah Blutt, James R Broughman, Jacquelyn A Brown, Jennifer Foulke-Abel, Nesrin Hasan, Julie In, Edward Kelly, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Jonathan Repper, Nina Senutovitch, Janet Stabb, Catherine Yeung, Nick C Zachos, Mark Donowitz, Mary Estes, Jonathan Himmelfarb, George Truskey, John P Wikswo, D Lansing Taylor
Organ interactions resulting from drug, metabolite or xenobiotic transport between organs are key components of human metabolism that impact therapeutic action and toxic side effects. Preclinical animal testing often fails to predict adverse outcomes arising from sequential, multi-organ metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. Human microphysiological systems (MPS) can model these interactions and are predicted to dramatically improve the efficiency of the drug development process. In this study, five human MPS models were evaluated for functional coupling, defined as the determination of organ interactions via an in vivo-like sequential, organ-to-organ transfer of media...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169552/lactoferrin-and-the-lactoferrin-sophorolipids-assembly-can-be-internalized-by-dermal-fibroblasts-and-regulate-gene-expression
#12
Rulan Jiang, Yasushi A Suzuki, Xiaogu Du, Bo Lönnerdal
Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding multifunctional protein, mainly present in external secretions. Lf is known to penetrate skin and may thus exert its multiple functions in skin. Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipid biosurfactants, which have been shown to enhance absorption of commercial bovine Lf (CbLf) in model skin via forming an assembly with CbLf. In this study, uptake and post-internalization localization of bovine Lf (bLf), CbLf, and human Lf (hLf) with or without forming assemblies with SLs in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn) were determined using (125)I-labeled Lfs and confocal microscopy, respectively...
February 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165804/improved-oral-absorption-and-anti-lung-cancer-activity-of-paclitaxel-loaded-mixed-micelles
#13
Jian Hou, E Sun, Zhen-Hai Zhang, Jing Wang, Lei Yang, Li Cui, Zhong-Cheng Ke, Xiao-Bin Tan, Xiao-Bin Jia, Huixia Lv
The aim of this study was to establish a paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded mixed micelle delivery system (PTX-TP-M) with vitamin E-TPGS (TPGS) and Plasdone®S-630 Copovidone (PVPS630) as carriers to improve the solubility, oral absorption, and anti-tumor activity of PTX against lung cancer. In this study, PTX-TP-M was prepared using the ethanol thin-film dispersion method followed by characterization of the binary mixed micelles system. The average size of the PTX-TP-M was 83.5 ± 1.8 nm with a polydispersity index of 0...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153652/in-vitro-permeation-and-disposition-of-niacinamide-in-silicone-and-porcine-skin-of-skin-barrier-mimetic-formulations
#14
Tasnuva Haque, Majella E Lane, Bruno C Sil, Jonathan M Crowther, David J Moore
Niacinamide (NIA) is an amide form of vitamin B3 which is used in cosmetic formulations to improve various skin conditions and it has also been shown to increase stratum corneum thickness following repeated application. In this study, three doses (5, 20 and 50μL per cm(2)) of two NIA containing oil-in-water skin barrier-mimetic formulations were evaluated in silicone membrane and porcine ear skin and compared with a commercial control formulation. Permeation studies were conducted over 24h in Franz cells and at the end of the experiment membranes were washed and niacinamide was extracted...
January 31, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153426/factors-affecting-gastrointestinal-absorption-of-levothyroxine-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Marko Skelin, Tomo Lucijanić, Daniela Amidžić Klarić, Arnes Rešić, Miro Bakula, Ana-Marija Liberati-Čizmek, Hossein Gharib, Dario Rahelić
PURPOSE: Levothyroxine (LT4) is a drug with a narrow therapeutic index, applied in small amounts (micrograms), which makes interactions in the absorption phase clinically significant. The main aim of this article was to review and present the latest information on factors that affect the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. METHODS: Relevant data were collected by using the MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scopus databases with the key words levothyroxine and absorption...
January 30, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151917/chronic-diarrhea-associated-with-high-serum-level-of-immunoglobulin-a-and-diffuse-infiltration-of-plasma-cell-in-small-intestine-a-case-report
#16
Junwen Yang, Shuijiao Chen, Linlin Chen, Miao Ouyang, Fujun Li
RATIONALE: Chronic diarrhea in adult patients due to various causes is very common in clinic, but patient suffering with mal-absorption due to immunoproliferative small intestinal disease was rarely reported in China. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: A 35-year-old female presented with more than three years history of chronic diarrhea, rickets, high serum value of immunoglobulin A protein, and anemia. Bone marrow aspiration suggested that the patient was in a sideropenic and megalobastic anemia stage...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149023/status-of-serum-calcium-vitamin-d-and-parathyroid-hormone-and-hematological-indices-among-lead-exposed-jewelry-workers-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#17
I Mazumdar, K Goswami, Md Suhrab Ali
Jewelry utilizes lead either directly or as a base metal. Costume jewelry requires lead before molding and plating the product with valuable metals. Therefore, such ornaments have a great potential to release heavy metals having health hazards. Also, jewelry makers engaged in preparing German silver, an alloy, apply lead in smelting, alloying, rolling and milling silver wires and pieces. The metal is taken up by blood, soft tissues and bone. The biological effects of lead are dependent upon the level and duration of exposure...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139365/vitamin%C3%A2-a-in-pediatrics-an-update-from-the-nutrition-committee-of-the-french-society-of-pediatrics
#18
M Vidailhet, D Rieu, F Feillet, A Bocquet, J-P Chouraqui, D Darmaun, C Dupont, M-L Frelut, J-P Girardet, R Hankard, J-C Rozé, U Siméoni, D Turck, A Briend
Vitamin A (retinol) fulfills multiple functions in vision, cell growth and differentiation, embryogenesis, the maintenance of epithelial barriers and immunity. A large number of enzymes, binding proteins and receptors facilitate its intestinal absorption, hepatic storage, secretion, and distribution to target cells. In addition to the preformed retinol of animal origin, some fruits and vegetables are rich in carotenoids with provitamin A precursors such as β-carotene: 6μg of β-carotene corresponds to 1μg retinol equivalent (RE)...
January 27, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135083/polarized-xanes-monitors-femtosecond-structural-evolution-of-photoexcited-vitamin-b12
#19
Nicholas A Miller, Aniruddha Deb, Roberto Alonso-Mori, Brady D Garabato, James M Glownia, Laura M Kiefer, Jake Koralek, Marcin Sikorski, Kenneth G Spears, Theodore E Wiley, Diling Zhu, Pawel M Kozlowski, Kevin J Kubarych, James E Penner-Hahn, Roseanne J Sension
Ultrafast, polarization-selective time-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) was used to characterize the photochemistry of vitamin B12, cyanocobalamin (CNCbl), in solution. Cobalamins are important biological cofactors involved in methyl transfer, radical rearrangement, and light-activated gene regulation, while also holding promise as light-activated agents for spatiotemporal controlled delivery of therapeutics. We introduce polarized femtosecond XANES, combined with UV-visible spectroscopy, to reveal sequential structural evolution of CNCbl in the excited electronic state...
January 30, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133513/effect-of-vitamin-d3-on-biosynthesis-of-estrogen-in-porcine-granulosa-cells-via-modulation-of-steroidogenic-enzymes
#20
So-Hye Hong, Jae-Eon Lee, Sung-Min An, Ye Young Shin, Dae Youn Hwang, Seung Yun Yang, Seong-Keun Cho, Beum-Soo An
Vitamin D3 is a fat-soluble secosteroid responsible for enhancing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, and other materials. Vitamin D3 deficiency, therefore, can cause health problems such as metabolic diseases, and bone disorder. Female sex hormones including estrogen and progesterone are biosynthesized mainly in the granulosa cells of ovary. In this study, we isolated granulosa cells from porcine ovary and cultured for the experiments. In order to examine the effect of vitamin D3 on the ovarian granulosa cells, the mRNA and protein levels of genes were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot assay...
January 2017: Toxicological Research
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