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Vitamin absorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913273/the-endocrine-vitamin-d-system-in-the-gut
#1
Antonio Barbáchano, Asunción Fernández-Barral, Gemma Ferrer-Mayorga, Alba Costales-Carrera, María Jesús Larriba, Alberto Muñoz
The active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has important regulatory actions in the gut through endocrine and probably also intracrine, autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. By activating the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is expressed at a high level in the small intestine and colon, 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates numerous genes that control gut physiology and homeostasis. 1,25(OH)2D3 is a major responsible for epithelial barrier function and calcium and phosphate absorption, and the host's defense against pathogens and the inflammatory response by several types of secretory and immune cells...
November 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908410/elevated-serum-mda-and-depleted-non-enzymatic-antioxidants-macro-minerals-and-trace-elements-are-associated-with-bipolar-disorder
#2
Manjurul Islam Chowdhury, Maimuna Hasan, Mohammad Safiqul Islam, Md Shahid Sarwar, Mohammad Nurul Amin, S M Naim Uddin, Md Zahedur Rahaman, Sujan Banik, Md Saddam Hussain, Kazushige Yokota, Abul Hasnat
Genetic and neurobiological factors are considered to be the major causes of mood and mental disorders. However, over the past few years, increased levels of serum malondialdehyde and altered levels of various non-enzymatic antioxidants and essential minerals involved in abnormal functional activity have been identified as major contributing factors to the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of the serum lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidants (vitamin A, E and C), macro-minerals (calcium, potassium and sodium) and trace elements (zinc, iron and selenium) in patients with bipolar disorder and to explore their role in disease progression...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902451/vitamin-d-and-male-reproductive-system
#3
Pablo R Costanzo, Pablo Knoblovits
Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent worldwide condition and affects people of all ages. The most important role of vitamin D is the regulation of intestinal calcium absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus to maintain muscle and bone homeostasis. Furthermore, in recent years it has been discovered that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is widely distributed in many organs and tissues where vitamin D can perform other actions that include the modulation of the immune response, insulin secretion, anti-proliferative effect on cells of vascular smooth muscle, modulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and regulates cell growth in several organs...
December 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876554/interaction-between-excess-folate-and-low-vitamin-b12-status
#4
REVIEW
Ligi Paul, Jacob Selhub
Current epidemiological evidence suggests that an imbalance of high folate status and low vitamin B12 status is associated with negative health outcomes in older adults and children. Such an imbalance during pregnancy also predisposes women to diabetes and their offspring to insulin resistance and adiposity and low birthweight. In older adults, vitamin B12 status can remain low despite adequate intake due to age-related decline in vitamin B12 absorption. Pregnant women are exposed to folic acid at varying doses depending on the prenatal care prescribed in different countries...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875503/influence-of-partial-external-biliary-diversion-on-the-lipid-profile-in-children-with-progressive-familial-intrahepatic-cholestasis
#5
Irena Jankowska, Piotr Czubkowski, Aldona Wierzbicka, Joanna Pawłowska, Piotr Kaliciński, Piotr Socha
OBJECTIVES: The concentration of bile acids is highly increased in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC). Bile acids are the end products of cholesterol metabolism, and aid in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and dietary fat. The aim of our study was to investigate lipid metabolism in patients with PFIC with focus on the effect of partial external biliary diversion (PEBD). METHODS: In 26 patients with PFIC, who underwent PEBD surgery at the median age of 2...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866273/omeprazole-suppressed-plasma-magnesium-level-and-duodenal-magnesium-absorption-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#6
Narongrit Thongon, Jirawat Penguy, Sasikan Kulwong, Kanyanat Khongmueang, Matthana Thongma
Hypomagnesemia is the most concerned side effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in chronic users. However, the mechanism of PPIs-induced systemic Mg(2+) deficit is currently unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate the direct effect of short-term and long-term PPIs administrations on whole body Mg(2+) homeostasis and duodenal Mg(2+) absorption in rats. Mg(2+) homeostasis was studied by determining the serum Mg(2+) level, urine and fecal Mg(2+) excretions, and bone and muscle Mg(2+) contents. Duodenal Mg(2+) absorption as well as paracellular charge selectivity were studied...
November 19, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865490/effect-of-concentrate-supplementation-during-the-dry-period-on-colostrum-quality-and-effect-of-colostrum-feeding-regimen-on-passive-transfer-of-immunity-calf-health-and-performance
#7
A Dunn, A Ashfield, B Earley, M Welsh, A Gordon, M McGee, S J Morrison
The objectives were to evaluate the effect of (1) supplementing concentrates to multiparous Holstein cows during the dry period on colostral and milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration; and (2) feeding calves colostrum at either 5 or 10% of their body weight (BW) on passive transfer of immunity, health, and performance. Holstein multiparous cows (n = 37) were assigned to 1 of 2 nutritional treatments during an 8-wk dry period: (1) offered ad libitum grass silage only (GS) or (2) offered ad libitum access to the same grass silage plus concentrate [total mixed ration in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], providing a mean concentrate DM intake of 3...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865020/nitrogen-induced-transformation-of-vitamin-c-into-multifunctional-up-converting-carbon-nanodots-in-the-visible-nir-range
#8
M Carmen Ortega-Liebana, M Mar Encabo-Berzosa, M Jose Ruedas-Rama, Jose Luis Hueso
Water-soluble, biocompatible, and photoluminescent carbon nanodots have been obtained from the rationalized carbonization of vitamin C, a well-known antioxidant molecule in the presence of an amine co-reactant. Herein, we describe the positive influence of N-doping to induce a unique pH-dependent lifetime decay response that would be potentially attractive in biological backgrounds with intrinsic fluorescence fluctuations. In addition, the selectivity and sensitivity of the N-containing carbon nanoprobes towards the detection of copper ions at ppm levels is critically enhanced in comparison with the un-doped counterpart, especially in the near-infrared (NIR) range...
November 16, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862386/no-detectable-carotenoid-concentrations-in-serum-of-llamas-and-alpacas
#9
J Raila, F J Schweigert, A Stanitznig, B Lambacher, S Franz, S Baldermann, T Wittek
Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments and important for a variety of physiological functions. They are major dietary vitamin A precursors and act as lipophilic antioxidants in a variety of tissues and are associated with important health benefits in humans and animals. All animals must acquire carotenoids from their diet, but to our knowledge, there are no studies investigating the intestinal carotenoid absorption and their blood concentrations in New World camelids. The present study aimed to assess the serum concentrations of selected carotenoids in llamas (n = 13) and alpacas (n = 27)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858919/massive-intoxication-with-rivaroxaban-phenprocoumon-and-diclofenac-a-case-report
#10
Hella Pfeiffer, Larissa Herbst, Bernd Schwarze, Reinhold Eckstein, Volker Weisbach
RATIONALE: Oral anticoagulants and painkillers, some with an additional effect on the coagulation system, are widely used and are therefore prone to abuse and (intentional) overdose. We report the case of a patient with a massive mixed anticoagulant intoxication. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient had ingested 1960 mg rivaroxaban, 31.5 mg phenprocoumon, 1425 mg diclofenac, and 21,000 mg metamizole in suicidal intention. DIAGNOSES: Massive mixed anticoagulant overdose...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854286/-english-disease-historical-notes-on-rickets-the-bone-lung-link-and-child-neglect-issues
#11
REVIEW
Mingyong Zhang, Fan Shen, Anna Petryk, Jingfeng Tang, Xingzhen Chen, Consolato Sergi
Nutritional or classical rickets (here labeled as "rickets") is a worldwide disease involving mostly infants and young children having inadequate sunlight exposure, often associated with a low dietary intake of Vitamin D. Rickets targets all layers of society independently of economic status with historical information spanning more than two millennia. Vitamin D is critical for the absorption of calcium and prevention of rickets in children as well as osteomalacia in adults. The initial and misleading paradigm of the 19th and 20th centuries that rickets may have been the consequence of infection has been, indeed, reversed following the identification of the Vitamin D molecule's important role in the function of the immune system...
November 15, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843822/impact-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-bone-health-need-for-monitoring-treatment-and-prevention-strategies
#12
REVIEW
Ekta Arora, Harmanjit Singh, Yogendra Kumar Gupta
Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide. In India, overall prevalence of epilepsy is reported to be 5.59/1000 population. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) constitute the main-stay of treatment with a large number of AEDs available in the market. High incidence of adverse effects is a major limitation with AEDs. One of the major concerns is significant metabolic effects on the bone. However, little attention has been paid to this issue because most of the bone effects remain subclinical for a long time and may take years to manifest clinically...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833936/meeting-the-vitamin-a-requirement-the-efficacy-and-importance-of-%C3%AE-carotene-in-animal-species
#13
REVIEW
Alice S Green, Andrea J Fascetti
Vitamin A is essential for life in all vertebrate animals. Vitamin A requirement can be met from dietary preformed vitamin A or provitamin A carotenoids, the most important of which is β-carotene. The metabolism of β-carotene, including its intestinal absorption, accumulation in tissues, and conversion to vitamin A, varies widely across animal species and determines the role that β-carotene plays in meeting vitamin A requirement. This review begins with a brief discussion of vitamin A, with an emphasis on species differences in metabolism...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833859/associations-of-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-with-markers-of-inflammation-insulin-resistance-and-obesity-in-black-and-white-community-dwelling-adults
#14
Jennifer L Jackson, Suzanne E Judd, Bhupesh Panwar, Virginia J Howard, Virginia G Wadley, Nancy S Jenny, Orlando M Gutiérrez
AIMS: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin classically known for its role in calcium absorption and bone health. Growing evidence indicates that vitamin D deficiency may be associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, and obesity. However, prior studies examining the association of vitamin D with metabolic risk factors had relatively low representation of individuals of black race, limiting their ability to characterize associations of vitamin D and parameters of metabolic health in black vs...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830502/vitamin-a-absorption-storage-and-mobilization
#15
William S Blaner, Yang Li, Pierre-Jacques Brun, Jason J Yuen, Seung-Ah Lee, Robin D Clugston
It is well established that chylomicron remnant (dietary) vitamin A is taken up from the circulation by hepatocytes, but more than 80 % of the vitamin A in the liver is stored in hepatic stellate cells (HSC). It presently is not known how vitamin A is transferred from hepatocytes to HSCs for storage. Since retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), a protein that is required for mobilizing stored vitamin A, is synthesized solely by hepatocytes and not HSCs, it similarly is not known how vitamin A is transferred from HSCs to hepatocytes...
2016: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816436/hypocalcemia-after-thyroidectomy-in-patients-with-a-history-of-bariatric-surgery
#16
Nathalie Chereau, Cindy Vuillermet, Camille Tilly, Camille Buffet, Christophe Trésallet, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel, Fabrice Menegaux
BACKGROUND: Hypocalcemia is a common complication after total thyroidectomy. Previous bariatric surgery could be a higher factor risk for hypocalcemia due to alterations in calcium absorption and vitamin D deficiency. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate incidence and factors involved in the risk of hypocalcemia (transient and permanent) and the postoperative outcomes of these patients after total thyroidectomy. SETTING: University hospital in Paris, France...
September 28, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797190/toward-the-design-of-photoresponsive-conditional-antivitamins-b12-a-transient-absorption-study-of-an-arylcobalamin-and-an-alkynylcobalamin
#17
Nicholas A Miller, Theodore E Wiley, Kenneth G Spears, Markus Ruetz, Christoph Kieninger, Bernhard Kräutler, Roseanne J Sension
Cobalamins are of widespread importance in biology. Both of the cofactors essential for human metabolism, the organocobalamins coenzyme B12 and methylcobalamin, are highly photolabile, as are other alkylcobalamins. The alkynylcobalamin phenylethynylcobalamin (PhEtyCbl) and the arylcobalamin 4-ethylphenylcobalamin (EtPhCbl) with "atypical" Co-C-bonds to unsaturated carbons, were recently designed as metabolically inert cobalamins, classified as "antivitamins B12". The further development of an ideal light-activated or "conditional" antivitamin B12 would require it to be readily converted by light into an active B12 vitamin form...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792183/molecular-basis-for-vitamin-a-uptake-and-storage-in-vertebrates
#18
REVIEW
Sylwia Chelstowska, Made Airanthi K Widjaja-Adhi, Josie A Silvaroli, Marcin Golczak
The ability to store and distribute vitamin A inside the body is the main evolutionary adaptation that allows vertebrates to maintain retinoid functions during nutritional deficiencies and to acquire new metabolic pathways enabling light-independent production of 11-cis retinoids. These processes greatly depend on enzymes that esterify vitamin A as well as associated retinoid binding proteins. Although the significance of retinyl esters for vitamin A homeostasis is well established, until recently, the molecular basis for the retinol esterification enzymatic activity was unknown...
October 26, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773703/n-glycoform-dependent-interactions-of-megalin-with-its-ligands
#19
Makoto Hirano, Kiichiro Totani, Tomohiko Fukuda, Jianguo Gu, Akemi Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Megalin is a 600-kDa single-spanning transmembrane glycoprotein and functions as an endocytic receptor, distributed not only in the kidney but also in other tissues. Structurally and functionally distinct ligands for megalin have been identified. Megalin has 30 potential N-glycosylation sites in its extracellular domain. We found that megalin interacts with its ligands in a glycoform-dependent manner. METHODS: Distribution of megalin and glycans was histochemically analyzed in mouse kidneys...
October 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761927/hypercalcaemia-induced-kidney-injury-caused-by-the-vitamin-d-analogue-calcitriol-for-psoriasis-a-note-of-caution-when-prescribing-topical-treatment
#20
E Corden, E Higgins, C Smith
A 55-year-old man with severe plaque psoriasis presented with a 2-week history of feeling generally unwell with lethargy and thirst. His symptoms had developed 6 weeks after commencement of the topical vitamin D3 analogue calcitriol. Investigations revealed hypercalcaemia and acute-on-chronic kidney injury, probably directly induced by systemic absorption of vitamin D3 following extensive topical use. Topical calcitriol had been started as a steroid-sparing agent to reduce the patient's liberal potent corticosteroid usage during anti-tumour necrosis factor-alfa therapy...
October 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
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