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Vitamin absorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219785/higher-absorption-of-vitamin-c-from-food-than-from-supplements-by-breastfeeding-mothers-at-early-stages-of-lactation
#1
Dorota Martysiak-Żurowska, Maciej Zagierski, Ewa Woś-Wasilewska, Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of vitamin C supply in the diet of lactating women on vitamin C concentrations in human milk (n = 97) sampled at different stages of lactation. Vitamin C levels were measured by liquid chromatography. Dietary intake of vitamin C was determined based on 3-day food dairies kept by breastfeeding mothers. Maternal dietary intakes of vitamin C from natural sources on lactation day 90 (n = 18) were significantly higher than on lactation days 15 (n = 42) and 30 (n = 37)...
December 8, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199170/what-is-the-long-term-acid-inhibitor-treatment-in-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-what-are-the-potential-problems-related-to-long-term-acid-inhibitor-treatment-in-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-how-should-these-cases-be-followed
#2
İbrahim Hatemi, Sinem Nihal Esatoğlu
The meta-analyses of observational studies (OBS) showed the risk of any fracture and hip fracture slightly increased with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment depending on the dose and regardless of time. This was not observed with histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RA). The risk of bacterial overgrowth and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis were increased with PPI therapy, but not with H2RA. In meta-analyses of OBS, a slight increase was observed in the risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the early stages (<1 month) of PPI use and particularly at high doses...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188844/poly-ferrocenylsilane-electrolytes-as-a-gold-nanoparticle-foundry-two-in-one-redox-synthesis-and-electrosteric-stabilization-and-sensing-applications
#3
J Song, Y N Tan, D Jańczewski, M A Hempenius, J W Xu, H R Tan, G J Vancso
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated with responsive polymers gained considerable interest due to their controllable size, good stability, and fast environmental response suitable for biological applications and sensing. Here we report on a simple and efficient method for the synthesis of stable and redox responsive AuNPs using organometallic polyelectrolytes in aqueous solutions of HAuCl4. In the redox reaction, positively or negatively charged poly(ferrocenylsilanes) (PFS+/PFS-) served as reducing agents, and also as stabilizing polymers...
November 30, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187046/denosumab-improves-bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-intestinal-failure-receiving-home-parenteral-nutrition-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
Kinga Szczepanek, Michal Pedziwiatr, Stanisław Klek
AIM: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is commonly reported in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). Oral and intravenous calcium, vitamin D, and bisphosphonates have been used to treat BMD but with low efficiency due to their limited absorption and patient compliance. Denosumab is a new drug that helps prevent osteoclast development and activation and led to decreased bone resorption in some studies. The aim of this study was to assess its value in HPN patients. METHODS: Between November 2011 and March 2013, 49 patients receiving HPN (29 women, 20 men, mean age 55...
March 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179169/-bone-remodeling-through-a-phosphate-metabolism
#5
Takeshi Miyamoto
Phosphorus is the second abundant mineral stored in bones, and disturbance of phosphate metabolisms results in various disease developments such as hypophosphatemic rickets. Blood phosphorus levels are regulated by dietary intake or its absorption from intestine, proximal tubular reabsorption, and number of factors plays roles for maintaining phosphate homeostasis. Vitamin D stimulates intestinal phosphorus absorption, and phosphorus promotes FGF23 secretion from osteocytes. FGF23 inhibits Cyp27b1, an enzyme to produce an active vitamin D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, through FGF receptor/Klotho complex...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178045/considering-choline-as-methionine-precursor-lipoproteins-transporter-hepatic-promoter-and-antioxidant-agent-in-dairy-cows
#6
REVIEW
Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Farzana Abbasi, Rab N Soomro, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Mervat A Abdel-Latif, Wen Li, Ren Hao, Feifei Sun, Bello M Bodinga, Khawar Hayat, Junhu Yao, Yangchun Cao
During the transition period, fatty liver syndrome may be caused in cows undergo negative energy balance, ketosis or hypocalcemia, retained placenta or mastitis problems. During the transition stage, movement of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) increases into blood which declines the hepatic metabolism or reproduction and consequently, lactation performance of dairy cows deteriorates. Most of studies documented that, choline is an essential nutrient which plays a key role to decrease fatty liver, NEFA proportion, improve synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, maintain lactation or physiological function and work as anti-oxidant in the transition period of dairy cows...
November 25, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176817/individual-and-community-factors-contributing-to-anemia-among-women-in-rural-baja-california-mexico
#7
Molly A Moor, Miguel A Fraga, Richard S Garfein, Hooman H Rashidi, John Alcaraz, Donna Kritz-Silverstein, John P Elder, Stephanie K Brodine
INTRODUCTION: Anemia is a public health concern among women in rural Baja California, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to identify the individual and community factors contributing to the disproportionately high prevalence of anemia among women in this region. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 118 women (15-49 years) was performed in a rural colonia (small settlement) in Baja California, Mexico in 2012. Participants completed a survey comprised of demographic, socioeconomic, health, and dietary questions and provided a capillary blood sample...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173522/vitamins-and-minerals-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
REVIEW
Fayez K Ghishan, Pawel R Kiela
Indiscriminate use of multivitamin/mineral supplements in the general population may be misguided, but patients with chronic Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) should be monitored and compensated for nutritional deficiencies. Mechanistic links between vitamin/mineral deficiencies and IBD pathology has been found for some micronutrients and normalizing their levels is clinically beneficial. Others, like vitamin A, although instinctively desirable, produced disappointing results. Restoring normal levels of the selected micronutrients requires elevated doses to compensate for defects in absorptive or signaling mechanisms...
December 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172090/nutritional-status-and-diet-as-predictors-of-children-s-lead-concentrations-in-blood-and-urine
#9
Katarzyna Kordas, Rachael Burganowski, Aditi Roy, Fabiana Peregalli, Valentina Baccino, Elizabeth Barcia, Soledad Mangieri, Virginia Ocampo, Nelly Mañay, Gabriela Martínez, Marie Vahter, Elena I Queirolo
Lead exposure remains an important public health problem. Contaminated foods may act as a source of lead exposure, while certain nutrients may reduce lead absorption. We examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary patterns and the intake of several nutrients and foods with blood (Pb-B) and urinary (Pb-U) lead concentrations in children (5-8y) from Montevideo, Uruguay. From two 24-hour recalls completed by caregivers, we derived the mean daily intake of select nutrients and food groups (dairy, milk, fruit, root vegetables, foods rich in heme and non-heme iron), as well as "nutrient dense" and "processed" food patterns...
November 21, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165370/vitamin-e-bioavailability-mechanisms-of-intestinal-absorption-in-the-spotlight
#10
REVIEW
Emmanuelle Reboul
Vitamin E is an essential fat-soluble micronutrient whose effects on human health can be attributed to both antioxidant and non-antioxidant properties. A growing number of studies aim to promote vitamin E bioavailability in foods. It is thus of major interest to gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of vitamin E absorption, which remain only partly understood. It was long assumed that vitamin E was absorbed by passive diffusion, but recent data has shown that this process is actually far more complex than previously thought...
November 22, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160302/role-of-cyp24a1-vdr-and-gc-gene-polymorphisms-on-deferasirox-pharmacokinetics-and-clinical-outcomes
#11
S Allegra, J Cusato, S De Francia, A Arduino, F Longo, E Pirro, D Massano, A De Nicolò, A Piga, A D'Avolio
β-Thalassemia patients develop deficiency in vitamin D absorption and liver hydroxylation, resulting in extremely low calcitriol levels. We explored the role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in vitamin D metabolism, transport and activity on deferasirox pharmacokinetics and outcomes (effectiveness trough levels (Ctrough) and the area under the curve (AUC) cutoffs of 20 μg ml(-1) and 360 μg ml(-1) h(-1), respectively; nonresponse AUC limit of 250 μg ml(-1) h(-1)). Ninety-nine β-thalassemic patients were enrolled...
November 21, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156559/tocotrienols-a-family-of-molecules-with-specific-biological-activities
#12
REVIEW
Raffaella Comitato, Roberto Ambra, Fabio Virgili
Vitamin E is a generic term frequently used to group together eight different molecules, namely: α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherol and the corresponding tocotrienols. The term tocopherol and eventually Vitamin E and its related activity was originally based on the capacity of countering foetal re-absorption in deficient rodents or the development of encephalomalacia in chickens. In humans, Vitamin E activity is generally considered to be solely related to the antioxidant properties of the tocolic chemical structure...
November 18, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153160/a-100-year-review-calf-nutrition-and-management
#13
A F Kertz, T M Hill, J D Quigley, A J Heinrichs, J G Linn, J K Drackley
The first calf paper, published in the May 1919 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), described factors affecting birth body weight of different breeds of calves. Other studies were done on nonmilk ingredients, growth charts were developed, and early weaning was followed to conserve milk fed to calves. Calf papers did not report use of statistics to control or record variation or to determine whether treatment means were different. Many experiments were more observational than comparative. Typically fewer than 5 calves, and sometimes 1 or 2 calves, were used per treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149831/molecular-mechanisms-triggered-by-bile-acids-on-iintestinal-ca2-absorption
#14
Ana Marchionatti, Maria Rivoira, Valeria Rodriguez, Adriana Perez, Nori Tolosa de Talamoni
Bile acids (BAs) are synthesized in the liver and are among the main components of bile. For many years, it was thought that they have only a role as emulsifiers of fat in the small intestine facilitating the absorption of lipids and lipid soluble vitamins. Lately, they are also considered important signaling molecules, not only by regulating their own synthesis, but also having a role in several metabolic diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of deoxycholic, ursodeoxycholic and litocholic acids and their combination upon the intestinal Ca2+ absorption...
November 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137784/surface-modified-sio2-nanoparticles-by-thiamine-and-ultrasonication-synthesis-of-pcl-sio2-vb1-ncs-morphology-thermal-mechanical-and-bioactivity-investigations
#15
Shadpour Mallakpour, Zahra Khani
The influence of silica (SiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) on the properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) was investigated. Due to the intense tendency of SiO2 NPs to aggregation and their high surface energy, the surface of SiO2 NPs was treatment via Vitamin B1 (VB1) as a biosafe coupling agent. Novel PCL/SiO2-VB1 nanocomposites (NC) films by variety of percentage of SiO2-VB1 NPs were prepared under ultrasonic irradiation as an eco-friendly and fast procedure following by casting method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis exposed the presence of SiO2 NPs into the polymer matrix...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134690/faecal-calcium-excretion-does-not-decrease-during-long-term-feeding-of-a-low-calcium-diet-in-adult-dogs
#16
S Schmitt, J Mack, E Kienzle, L G Alexander, P J Morris, A Colyer, B Dobenecker
According to a previous meta-analysis, adult dogs do not notably increase calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract when calcium intake is decreased. This results in a negative calcium balance even with a moderate calcium reduction. In this study we wanted to verify (i) whether a negative calcium balance occurs at a calcium intake equivalent to NRC (2006) (Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats, 2006, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC) minimal requirements, and if so (ii) whether the negative calcium balance will persist for up to 6 months on a low-calcium diet...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125700/bioavailability-and-pharmacokinetics-of-trpv1-antagonist-mavatrep-jnj-39439335-tablet-and-capsule-formulations-in-healthy-men-two-open-label-crossover-single-dose-phase-1-studies
#17
Prasarn Manitpisitkul, Kevin Shalayda, Lucille Russell, Panna Sanga, Yinka Williams, Bhavna Solanki, Joseph Caruso, John A Moyer
To improve room temperature stability and oral bioavailability of mavatrep (JNJ-39439335, a transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype-1 antagonist), various formulations were initially developed and evaluated in 2 phase 1 open-label, randomized, 3-way crossover studies in healthy participants. Study 1 evaluated 2 new overencapsulated tablet formulations (formulations B and C) relative to an overencapsulated early tablet formulation (formulation A), using mavatrep HCl salt form. Because these tablets were still not room-temperature stable, in study 2: two free-base solid dispersion amorphous formulations (formulations D and E) were evaluated relative to the best encapsulated formulation from study 1 (formulation C) and also food effect...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123941/bile-acids-as-global-regulators-of-hepatic-nutrient-metabolism
#18
Phillip B Hylemon, Kazuaki Takabe, Mikhail Dozmorov, Masayuki Nagahashi, Huiping Zhou
Bile acids (BA) are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver. They are essential for promotion of the absorption of lipids, cholesterol, and lipid-soluble vitamins from the intestines. BAs are hormones that regulate nutrient metabolism by activating nuclear receptors (farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor, vitamin D) and G protein-coupled receptors (e.g., TGR5, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2)) in the liver and intestines. In the liver, S1PR2 activation by conjugated BAs activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and AKT signaling pathways, and nuclear sphingosine kinase 2...
June 2017: Liver Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118282/the-role-of-bile-acids-in-glucose-metabolism-and-their-relation-with-diabetes
#19
José Alberto González-Regueiro, Lidia Moreno-Castañeda, Misael Uribe, Norberto C Chávez-Tapia
Bile acids (BAs), the end products of cholesterol catabolism, are essential for the absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins; but they have also emerged as novel signaling molecules that act as metabolic regulators. It has been well described that the enterohepatic circulation, a nuclear (FXR) and a cytoplasmic (TGR5/M-BAR) receptor aid in controlling hepatic bile acid synthesis. Modulating bile acid synthesis greatly impacts in metabolism, because these receptors also are implicated in glucose, lipid, and energy expenditure...
October 4, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108038/prepartum-daylight-exposure-increases-serum-calcium-concentrations-in-dairy-cows-at-the-onset-of-lactation
#20
R Özçelik, R M Bruckmaier, L E Hernández-Castellano
In dairy cows, hypocalcemia is caused by the sudden calcium demand by the mammary gland at the onset of lactation. Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D; 1,25-VitD) increases the intestinal calcium absorption and the renal calcium reabsorption. Daylight contributes to the formation of 1,25-VitD, as it transforms 7-dehydrocholesterol into cholecalciferol, a 1,25-VitD precursor. Calving pens are usually set in quiet places where cows can stay calm and relaxed before parturition. However, those pens often have poor lighting conditions and therefore cows may become vitamin D deficient because of inadequate daylight exposure...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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