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Vitamin absorption

Alex Brito, Edwin Habeych, Irma Silva-Zolezzi, Nicola Galaffu, Lindsay H Allen
Vitamin B-12 (B-12) deficiency is still relatively common in low-, medium-, and high-income countries, mainly because of dietary inadequacy and, to a lesser extent, malabsorption. This narrative review is based on a systematic search of evidence on methods to assess B-12 bioavailability and technologies to enhance its absorption. A total of 2523 scientific articles identified in PubMed and 1572 patents identified in Orbit Intelligence were prescreened. Among the reviewed methods, Schilling's test and/or its food-based version (using cobalamin-labeled egg yolk) were used for decades but have been discontinued, largely because they required radioactive cobalt...
June 20, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Erika Johnson, Long Vu, Laura E Matarese
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) occurs in patients who have had extensive resection. The primary physiologic consequence is malabsorption, resulting in fluid and electrolyte abnormalities and malnutrition. Nutrient digestion, absorption, and assimilation may also be diminished by disturbances in the production of bile acids and digestive enzymes. Small bowel dilation, dysmotility, loss of ileocecal valve, and anatomical changes combined with acid suppression and antimotility drugs increase the risk of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, further contributing to malabsorption...
June 21, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Laura Gence, Adrien Servent, Patrick Poucheret, Abel Hiol, Claudie Dhuique-Mayer
Citrus pectin is known to influence carotenoid bioaccessibility and absorption in humans, but limited attention has been given to the influence of pectin structure related to the particle size from differentially processed citrus food matrices. In this context, this study aims to investigate the nutritional health benefits of an innovative Citrus clementina concentrate, which is a new citrus-based food made by cross-flow microfiltration. This concentrated citrus-based food was selectively enriched 8-fold in β-cryptoxanthin (43-55 μg g-1) and β-carotene (6-9 μg g-1) as well as 6-fold in pectin (376-462 mg per 100 g)...
June 12, 2018: Food & Function
Boyuan Mu, Min Li
In this study, tetradecanol/graphene aerogel form-stable composite phase change materials were prepared by physical absorption. Two kinds of graphene aerogels were prepared using vitamin C and ethylenediamine to enhance the thermal conductivity of tetradecanol and prevent its leakage during phase transition. The form-stable composite phase change material exhibited excellent thermal energy storage capacity. The latent heat of the tetradecanol/graphene aerogel composite phase change materials with 5 wt.% graphene aerogel was similar to the theoretical latent heat of pure tetradecanol...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kasper Eersels, Hanne Diliën, Joseph W Lowdon, Erik Steen Redeker, Renato Rogosic, Benjamin Heidt, Marloes Peeters, Peter Cornelis, Petra Lux, Chris P Reutelingsperger, Leon J Schurgers, Thomas J Cleij, Bart van Grinsven
Vitamin K was originally discovered as a cofactor required to activate clotting factors and has recently been shown to play a key role in the regulation of soft tissue calcification. This property of vitamin K has led to an increased interest in novel methods for accurate vitamin K detection. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) could offer a solution, as they have been used as synthetic receptors in a large variety of biomimetic sensors for the detection of similar molecules over the past few decades, because of their robust nature and remarkable selectivity...
June 11, 2018: Nutrients
Haiyang Liu, Hong Liu
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone secreted by the bone. It is not only involved in the pathophysiological process of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but also associated with the poor prognosis. In patients with CKD, serum FGF23 levels are elevated in early phase. The increased FGF23 levels gradually lead to myocardial hypertrophy, inflammatory, vascular calcification, and low level of vitamin D, which contribute to the progress of CKD, cardiovascular complications and even death. Presently, there are several ways to reduce FGF23 levels, including decrease of intake and block of phosphorus absorption, supplement of FGF23 antibody and pseudo calcium or renal transplantation...
May 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Seung Ju Park, Seok-Hyeon Beak, Da Jin Sol Jung, Sang Yeob Kim, In Hyuk Jeong, Min Yu Piao, Hyeok Joong Kang, Dilla Mareistia Fassah, Sang Weon Na, Seon Pil Yoo, Myunggi Baik
Intramuscular fat (IMF) content in skeletal muscle including the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM), also known as marbling fat, is one of the most important factors determining beef quality in several countries including Korea, Japan, Australia and the United States. Genetics and breed, management, and nutrition affect IMF deposition. Japanese Black cattle breed has the highest IMF content in the world, and Korean cattle (also called Hanwoo) the second highest. Here, we review results of research on genetic factors (breed and sex differences and heritability) that affect IMF deposition...
May 31, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Fernando Carrasco, Karen Basfi-Fer, Pamela Rojas, Attila Csendes, Karin Papapietro, Juana Codoceo, Jorge Inostroza, Nancy F Krebs, Jamie L Westcott, Leland V Miller, Manuel Ruz
Background: Although Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is known to reduce calcium absorption (CA), the effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and its long-term implications on CA have not yet been studied. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in CA and its relation with modifications of bone mineral density (BMD), intakes of calcium and vitamin D, vitamin D status, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations ≤24 mo after SG and RYGBP, respectively...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Spyridon N Karras, Theocharis Koufakis, Hana Fakhoury, Kalliopi Kotsa
The teleological purpose of an ongoing pregnancy is to fulfill its fundamental role of a successful, uncomplicated delivery, in conjunction with an optimal intrauterine environment for the developing fetus. Vitamin D metabolism is adapted to meet both these demands during pregnancy; first by stimulation of calcium absorption for adequate intrauterine bone mineral accrual of the fetus, and second, by enhancing systemic and local maternal tolerance to paternal and fetal alloantigens. Vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) is one of the key biomolecules that optimize vitamin D homeostasis and also contributes as an immune regulator for a healthy, ongoing pregnancy...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Haisheng He, Yi Lu, Jianping Qi, Weili Zhao, Xiaochun Dong, Wei Wu
Biomimetic nanocarriers are emerging as efficient vehicles to facilitate dietary absorption of biomacromolecules. In this study, two vitamins, thiamine and niacin, are employed to decorate liposomes loaded with insulin, thus facilitating oral absorption via vitamin ligand-receptor interactions. Both vitamins are conjugated with stearamine, which works to anchor the ligands to the surface of liposomes. Liposomes prepared under optimum conditions have a mean particle size of 125-150 nm and an insulin entrapment efficiency of approximately 30%-36%...
January 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Gabriela Maria D'Angelo Costa, Claudinéia Aparecida Sales de Oliveira Pinto, Vânia Rodrigues Leite-Silva, André Rolim Baby, Maria Valéria Robles Velasco
Vitamin D3 supplementation is important to prevent and treat hypovitaminosis that is a worldwide public health issue. Most types of supplementation are by oral route or fortification foods. The alternative route must be investigated, as transdermal route, for people with fat malabsorption or other diseases that impair the absorption of vitamin D3 . This study focused on verifying the feasibleness of vitamin D3 skin retention and permeation with the presence of chemical penetration enhancers (soybean lecithin, isopropyl palmitate, propylene glycol, ethoxydiglycol, and cereal alcohol) at different pharmaceutical forms (gel and cream) through a human skin...
June 4, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Hella Hultin, Katharina Stevens, Magnus Sundbom
BACKGROUND: By treating obesity, one of the major epidemics of this past century, through bariatric surgery, we may cause complications due to malnourishment in a growing population. At present, vitamin D deficiency is of interest, especially in patients with inferior absorption of fat-soluble nutrients after biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS). METHODS: Twenty BPD/DS patients, approximately 4 years postoperatively, were randomized to either intramuscular supplementation of vitamin D with a single dose of 600,000 IU cholecalciferol, or a control group...
June 4, 2018: Obesity Surgery
V Raj, S Ojha, F C Howarth, P D Belur, S B Subramanya
The water-soluble vitamin, thiamine forms an important part of the diet because of its role in the energy metabolism. The protective effects of thiamine against diabetic vascular complications have been well documented. However, slower absorption and reduced bioavailability is a major limiting factor for its clinical use. To overcome this issue, lipid-soluble derivatives of thiamine (allithiamines) was developed. Among the many synthetic lipophilic derivatives of thiamine, benfotiamine (BFT) is regarded as the first choice based on its safety and clinical efficacy data...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Guangyu Liu, Weijuan Huang, Oksana Babii, Xiaoyu Gong, Zhigang Tian, Jingqi Yang, Yixiang Wang, René L Jacobs, Vine Donna, Afsaneh Lavasanifar, Lingyun Chen
Food protein and lipid based nanoparticles have attracted recent interest as a means of delivering nutraceuticals. Nanoparticle encapsulation of nutraceuticals faces challenges to overcome for it to be readily applied in the food industry, such as low encapsulation efficiency for hydrophilic compounds and poor stability once in the gastrointestinal tract. This research introduces a new protein-lipid composite nanoparticle with a three-layered structure (a barley protein layer, α-tocopherol layer and phospholipid layer) and an inner aqueous compartment to load hydrophilic nutraceuticals...
May 30, 2018: Nanoscale
Vanessa Meyer, Liza Bornman
Caudal-type homeobox protein 2 (CDX-2) is an intestine-specific transcription factor (TF), with a polymorphic binding site (Cdx-2, rs11568820, A/G) in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR). The molecular mechanism underlying Cdx-2 association with conditions like osteoporosis, which depends on intestinal VDR expression and calcium absorption, is believed to be due to higher affinity of CDX-2 for the ancestral A allele compared to the G allele. However, it is unclear why the polymorphism is associated with diseases like tuberculosis, which is dependent on VDR expression in immune cells that do not express CDX-2...
May 28, 2018: Immunogenetics
Ai Mun Cheong, Chin Ping Tan, Kar Lin Nyam
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by complexation of beta-cyclodextrin with sodium caseinate and Tween 20 have been shown to have higher bioaccessibility of vitamin E and total phenolic content than nonemulsified kenaf seed oil in the previous in vitro gastrointestinal digestion study. However, its oral bioavailability was unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of in vivo oral bioavailability of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions in comparison with nonemulsified kenaf seed oil and kenaf seed oil macroemulsions during the 180 min of gastrointestinal digestion...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Björn Lindkvist, Catarina Nilsson, Mats Kvarnström, Jan Oscarsson
BACKGROUND: Levels of faecal elastase-1 (FE-1), a marker of exocrine pancreatic function, are lower in patients with type 2 diabetes than without diabetes. We aimed to investigate the association between FE-1 and nutritional status, gastrointestinal symptoms, and lipid absorption. METHODS: This randomized, open-label, crossover study included 315 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 18-70 years treated with oral antidiabetics, with HbA1c 6.5-9.0% and BMI 18-40 kg/m2 ...
May 19, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Mariel J Hernandez, Luciene M Dos Reis, Igor D Marques, Maria J Araujo, Cesar A M Truyts, Ivone B Oliveira, Fellype C Barreto, Elias David-Neto, Melani R Custodio, Rosa M Moyses, Ezequiel Bellorin-Font, Vanda Jorgetti
PURPOSE: Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. An imbalance in the differentiation of these lineages could affect the preservation of bone integrity. Several studies have suggested the importance of this imbalance in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis after kidney transplant (KT), but the role of bone marrow adiposity in this process is not well known, and if the treatment with the anti-absorptive (zoledronic acid-ZA) drugs could attenuate bone loss. Thus, our objective was compare bone marrow adiposity, osteoblasts and osteocytes before and after KT, verify an association between bone remodeling process (Turnover, Volume, and Mineralization-TMV classification), the osteocyte sclerostin expression to evaluate if there is a role of Wnt pathway, as well as the effect of ZA on these cells...
2018: PloS One
Nicholas A Miller, Aniruddha Deb, Roberto Alonso-Mori, James M Glownia, Laura M Kiefer, Arkaprabha Konar, Lindsay B Michocki, Marcin Sikorski, Danielle L Sofferman, Sanghoon Song, Megan J Toda, Theodore E Wiley, Diling Zhu, Pawel M Kozlowski, Kevin J Kubarych, James E Penner-Hahn, Roseanne J Sension
Polarized ultrafast time-resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) allows characterization of excited state dynamics following excitation. Excitation of vitamin B12 , cyanocobalamin (CNCbl), in the αβ-band at 550 nm and the γ-band at 365 nm was used to uniquely resolve axial and equatorial contributions to the excited state dynamics. The structural evolution of the excited molecule is best described by a coherent ballistic trajectory on the excited state potential energy surface. Prompt expansion of the Co cavity by ca...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Hatice Beyazal Polat, Munevver Serdaroglu Beyazal
Vitamin D deficiency has been reported in patients with gastrointestinal disorders. Little is known on the potentially deleterious effect of cholecystectomy on vitamin D levels and osteoporosis. We found that 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone mineral density were lower in patients with prior cholecystectomy. PURPOSE: The influence of bile salts on vitamin D absorption is well-known, and increased incidence of vitamin D deficiency has been reported in patients with gastrointestinal disorders...
May 22, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
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