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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684893/comparison-of-the-moca-and-bearni-tests-for-detection-of-cognitive-impairment-in-in-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorders
#1
Stéphanie Pelletier, Régis Alarcon, Valérie Ewert, Margot Forest, Bertrand Nalpas, Pascal Perney
INTRODUCTION: Screening of cognitive impairment is a major challenge in alcoholics seeking treatment, since cognitive dysfunction may impair the overall efficacy of rehabilitation programs and consequently increase relapse rate. We compared the performance of two screening tools: the MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment), which is widely used in patients with neurological diseases and already used in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD), and the BEARNI (Brief Evaluation of Alcohol-Related Neuropsychological Impairments), a recent test specifically developed for the alcoholic population...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684822/sexual-dysfunction-among-nigerian-women-with-epilepsy
#2
Luqman Ogunjimi, Joseph Yaria, Akintomiwa Makanjuola, Adesola Ogunniyi
OBJECTIVES: Sexual dysfunction (SD) has been shown to be more prevalent among females with epilepsy (FWE) when compared with controls. Identified risk factors for SD among FWE include depression, antiepileptic drug (AED) type, epileptic lateralization, and temporal lobe involvement. Despite a huge population of FWE in sub-Saharan Africa and by extension Nigeria, there are limited studies on the effect of AEDs and epilepsy on sexual function among FWE in the region. We therefore studied predictors and patterns of SD among Nigerian FWE...
April 20, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684768/aberrant-parasympathetic-reactivity-to-acute-psychosocial-stress-in-male-patients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#3
Elizabeth H Andersen, Gregory F Lewis, Aysenil Belger
Autonomic dysfunction represents a core domain of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SCZ), with aberrant physiologic arousal underlying maladaptive social and cognitive behaviors. Antagonistic parasympathetic and sympathetic systems support autonomic flexibility to appropriately regulate arousal and respond to environmental challenges, which can be modeled using physiologic measures. SCZ patients consistently show heightened basal stress, however, their parasympathetic reactivity to an acute psychosocial stressor is poorly understood...
April 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684751/shedding-new-light-on-disorders-of-consciousness-diagnosis-the-dynamic-functional-connectivity
#4
Antonino Naro, Alessia Bramanti, Antonino Leo, Alberto Cacciola, Alfredo Manuli, Placido Bramanti, Rocco S Calabrò
It has been proposed that awareness may depend on the highly-dynamic functional connectivity of large-scale cortico-thalamo-cortical networks. We investigated how brain connectivity changes over time in the resting state in a group of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DoC). To this end, we assessed dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) in the resting state by analyzing the time-dependent EEG phase synchronization in five frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ). Patients in Minimally Conscious State (MCS) showed changes in DFC matrices and topography over time (mainly in the γ range), which were significantly different from those observed in patients with Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS)...
April 4, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684720/cicer-arietinum-extract-ameliorate-%C3%AE-irradiation-disorders-via-modulation-of-oxidative-antioxidative-pathway
#5
Amany A Sayed, Osama A Abbas, Mona A Saad, Mohamed-Assem S Marie
Ionized radiations trigger thoughtful adverse hazards through multiple organ dysfunctions. Recently, antioxidant-based biodrugs are used to prevent and treat ionizing radiation hazards. The present study aimed to investigate the prospective ameliorative effect of Cicer arietinum extract (CAE) against γ-irradiation and the pathway of this amelioration in male albino rats. Twenty four rats were allocated into four groups; (i) control group, (ii) CAE group in which rats treated with a dosage of 500 mg CAE/kg b...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684666/systematic-review-of-preservation-solutions-for-allografts-for-liver-transplantation-based-on-a-network-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Fengying Rao, Jian Yang, Cheng Gong, Rong Huang, Qi Wang, Jun Shen
AIMS: The aim of this work was to determine the best preservation solutions for allografts for liver transplantation by quantitative network meta-analysis. METHODS: Global electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials. Seven pieces of parametric data were extracted from included studies for pooled estimation. A consistency model was used for direct and indirect comparisons. The cumulative probability P value was utilized to rank the solutions...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684642/innate-and-adaptive-immunity-in-atherosclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Kapka Miteva, Rosalinda Madonna, Raffaele De Caterina, Sophie Van Linthout
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the large and medium-size arteries characterized by the subendothelial accumulation of cholesterol, immune cells, and extracellular matrix. At the early onset of atherogenesis, endothelial dysfunction takes place. Atherogenesis is further triggered by the accumulation of cholesterol-carrying low-density lipoproteins, which acquire properties of damage-associated molecular patterns and thereby trigger an inflammatory response. Following activation of the innate immune response, mainly governed by monocytes and macrophages, the adaptive immune response is started which further promotes atherosclerotic plaque formation...
April 20, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684628/inflammatory-markers-and-their-possible-effects-on-cognitive-function-in-women-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#8
Risa Imai, Hiroaki Hori, Mariko Itoh, Mingming Lin, Madoka Niwa, Keiko Ino, Sei Ogawa, Makiko Ishida, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Mie Matsui, Hiroshi Kunugi, Tatsuo Akechi, Toshiko Kamo, Yoshiharu Kim
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with increased inflammation, albeit with some controversy. Another key feature of PTSD is compromised function in wide-ranging cognitive domains. Increased peripheral inflammation can contribute to cognitive dysfunction, although this relationship has not been studied in patients with PTSD. Here, we examined blood inflammatory markers in adult patients with PTSD compared to healthy controls taking account of potentially confounding effects of childhood maltreatment and comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD), and explored the association between inflammation and cognition...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684593/renal-function-n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-propeptide-big-endothelin-and-patients-with-heart-failure-and-preserved-ejection-fraction
#9
Ingrid Gergei, Bernhard K Krämer, Hubert Scharnagl, Tatjana Stojakovic, Winfried März
Renal dysfunction may limit the clinical application of NT-proBNP in the diagnosis of heart failure. In general practice, where echocardiography is not readily available, a biomarker for the diagnosis of a heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) would be useful. Since cardiac diseases frequently coincide with renal disease, there is a high need of valid risk stratification methods in patients affected with both. We therefore examined NT-proBNP and another biomarker, Big-Endothelin-1, as a marker of HFpEF in patients with CKD...
April 20, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684588/extracellular-vesicle-mediated-long-range-communication-in-stressed-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cell-monolayers
#10
Navjot Shah, Masakii Ishii, Carlene Brandon, Zsolt Ablonczy, Jingwen Cai, Yutao Liu, James Chou, Bärbel Rohrer
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) alterations in age-related macular degeneration occur in patches, potentially involving long-distance communication between damaged and healthy areas. Communication along the epithelium might be mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs). To test this hypothesis, EVs were collected from supernatants of polarized ARPE-19 and primary porcine RPE monolayers for functional and biochemical assays. EVs from oxidatively stressed donor cells reduced barrier function in recipient RPE monolayers when compared to control EVs...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684508/methylene-blue-ameliorates-olfactory-dysfunction-and-motor-deficits-in-a-chronic-mptp-probenecid-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
K C Biju, Robert C Evans, Kripa Shrestha, Daniel C B Carlisle, Jonathan Gelfond, Robert A Clark
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are very prominent and early features in Parkinson's disease (PD) and in animal models of PD. Thus, antioxidant therapy for PD has been proposed, but in clinical trials such strategies have met with very limited success. Methylene blue (MB), a small-molecule synthetic heterocyclic organic compound that acts as a renewable electron cycler in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, manifesting robust antioxidant and cell energetics-enhancing properties, has recently been shown to have significant beneficial effects in reducing nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss and motor impairment in acute toxin models of PD...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684493/evidence-of-similar-protective-effects-afforded-by-white-tea-and-its-active-component-egcg-on-oxidative-stress-mediated-hepatic-dysfunction-during-benzo-a-pyrene-induced-toxicity
#12
Sangeeta Rangi, Sunil Kumar Dhatwalia, Priti Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar, D K Dhawan
The present study was conducted to unravel the comparative efficacy of White Tea (WT) and Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in affording protection against benzo (a) pyrene (BaP) induced hepatotoxicity. The animals were randomly divided into six groups viz., normal control (NC), BaP, EGCG, WT, WT + BaP and EGCG + BaP treated. 50 mg/kg of BaP was given orally twice a week for 4 weeks. WT extract (1%) and EGCG (1% WT equivalent) were given on alternate days for 12 weeks (4 weeks prior, during and after BaP treatment)...
April 20, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684492/putrescine-as-indicator-of-manganese-neurotoxicity-dose-response-study-in-human-sh-sy5y-cells
#13
Jolyn Fernandes, Joshua D Chandler, Ken H Liu, Karan Uppal, Young-Mi Go, Dean P Jones
Disrupted polyamine metabolism with elevated putrescine is associated with neuronal dysfunction. Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient that causes neurotoxicity in excess, but methods to evaluate biochemical responses to high Mn are limited. No information is available on dose-response effects of Mn on putrescine abundance and related polyamine metabolism. The present research was to test the hypothesis that Mn causes putrescine accumulation over a physiologically adequate to toxic concentration range in a neuronal cell line...
April 20, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684467/vitamin-c-for-the-treatment-of-sepsis-the-scientific-rationale
#14
REVIEW
Paul E Marik
Most vertebrates can synthesize vitamin C with synthesis increasing during stress. Humans, however, have lost the ability to synthesize vitamin C. Vitamin C is an important anti-oxidant and an enzyme cofactor for many important biological reactions. Sepsis results in the overwhelming production of reactive oxygen species with widespread endothelial, cellular and mitochondrial injury leading to progressive organ failure. Sepsis is associated with an acute deficiency of vitamin C. In experimental sepsis models, intravenous vitamin C reduces organ injury and improves survival...
April 20, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684437/sleep-dysfunction-following-neonatal-ischemic-seizures-are-differential-by-neonatal-age-of-insult-as-determined-by-qeeg-in-a-mouse-model
#15
S K Kang, S Ammanuel, S Thodupunuri, D A Adler, M V Johnston, S D Kadam
Neonatal seizures associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) pose a challenge in their acute clinical management and are often followed by long-term neurological consequences. We used a newly characterized CD-1 mouse model of neonatal ischemic seizures associated with age-dependent (P7 vs. P10) seizure severity and phenobarbital efficacy (i.e.; PB-resistant vs. PB-efficacious respectively) following unilateral carotid ligation. The long-term consequences following untreated neonatal seizures in P7 vs...
April 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684426/mitochondria-targeting-nanomedicine-an-effective-and-potent-strategy-against-aminoglycosides-induced-ototoxicity
#16
Shuang Zhou, Yanhui Sun, Xiao Kuang, Shanshan Hou, YinXian Yang, Zhenjie Wang, Hongzhuo Liu
We report a proof-of-concept for the development of mitochondria-targeting nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) to protect against a wide range of gentamicin-induced ototoxicity symptoms in a zebrafish model. The polymeric NPs were functionalized with a mitochondrial-homing peptide (d‑Arg‑Dmt‑Orn‑Phe‑NH2 ) and exhibited greater mitochondrial uptake and lower gentamicin uptake in hair cells via mechanotransduction (MET) channels and tuned machinery in the hair bundle than the ordinary NPs did...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684405/moderate-perinatal-thyroid-hormone-insufficiency-alters-visual-system-function-in-adult-rats
#17
William K Boyes, Laura Degn, Barbara Jane George, Mary E Gilbert
Thyroid hormone (TH) is critical for many aspects of neurodevelopment and can be disrupted by a variety of environmental contaminants. Sensory systems, including audition and vision are vulnerable to TH insufficiencies, but little data are available on visual system development at less than severe levels of TH deprivation. The goal of the current experiments was to explore dose-response relations between graded levels of TH insufficiency during development and the visual function of adult offspring. Pregnant Long Evans rats received 0 or 3 ppm (Experiment 1), or 0, 1, 2, or 3 ppm (Experiment 2) of propylthiouracil (PTU), an inhibitor of thyroid hormone synthesis, in drinking water from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PN) 21...
April 20, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684345/transplantation-of-creg-modified-embryonic-stem-cells-improves-cardiac-function-after-myocardial-infarction-in-mice
#18
Jian Zhang, Xiaoxiang Tian, Chengfei Peng, Chenghui Yan, Yang Li, Mingyu Sun, Jian Kang, Erhe Gao, Yaling Han
Engraftment of embryonic stem cells (ESC) has been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach for post-infarction cardiac dysfunction. However, only mild function improvement has been achieved due to low survival rate and paracrine dysfunction of transplanted stem cells. Cellular repressor of E1A stimulated genes (CREG) has been reported to be a secreted glycoprotein implicated in promoting survival and differentiation of many cell types. Therefore we hypothesized that transplantation of genetically modified ESC with CREG (CREG-ESC) can improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction in mice...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684344/er-stress-attenuation-by-aloe-derived-polysaccharides-in-the-protection-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-from-free-fatty-acid-induced-lipotoxicity
#19
K S Kim, M H Chung, S Y Park, J M Cha, J H Baek, S Y Lee, S-Y Choi
Insulin resistance, a pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, is associated with obesity. Lipotoxicity in obesity leads to the dysfunction and death of pancreatic β-cells and inadequate insulin production, thereby aggravating type 2 diabetes. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of Aloe vera polysaccharides (APs) as an anti-hyperglycemic agent and their mechanisms of action. Gel polysaccharides from Aloe extracts were separated using ultrafiltration devices with molecular weight-cutoff membranes, and the protective effect of APs on pancreatic β-cells in response to free fatty acids (FFAs) was determined...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684334/the-mkk7-inhibitor-peptide-gadd45%C3%AE-i-attenuates-er-stress-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-ht22-cells-involvement-of-jnk-wnt-pathway
#20
Guang-Hua Xu, Bing-Jun Song, Dan Liu, Yu-Hua Chen, Yuan Zhou, Wen-Bo Liu, Hua Li, Tian-Lin Long, Rui Zhang, Wei Liu
JNK, a member of the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) superfamily, plays a key role in cell death in many neurological disorders, but systemic inhibition of JNK has detrimental side effects. JNK can be regulated by two direct upstream kinases: MAPK kinase 4 (MKK4) and MAPK kinase 7 (MKK7). Here, we investigated the effect of GADD45β-I, a recently designed cell-permeable inhibitor peptide for MKK7, on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal HT22 cells. We found that treatment with the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (TM) increased the phosphorylation of JNK and MKK7 in HT22 cells, which was nullified by GADD45β-I...
April 20, 2018: Brain Research
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