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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156005/abiofilm-a-resource-of-anti-biofilm-agents-and-their-potential-implications-in-targeting-antibiotic-drug-resistance
#1
Akanksha Rajput, Anamika Thakur, Shivangi Sharma, Manoj Kumar
Biofilms play an important role in the antibiotic drug resistance, which is threatening public health globally. Almost, all microbes mimic multicellular lifestyle to form biofilm by undergoing phenotypic changes to adapt adverse environmental conditions. Many anti-biofilm agents have been experimentally validated to disrupt the biofilms during last three decades. To organize this data, we developed the 'aBiofilm' resource (http://bioinfo.imtech.res.in/manojk/abiofilm/) that harbors a database, a predictor, and the data visualization modules...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155870/a-modified-delphi-study-to-determine-the-level-of-consensus-across-the-european-union-on-the-structures-processes-and-desired-outcomes-of-the-management-of-polypharmacy-in-older-people
#2
Derek Stewart, Kathrine Gibson-Smith, Katie MacLure, Alpana Mair, Albert Alonso, Carles Codina, Antonio Cittadini, Fernando Fernandez-Llimos, Glenda Fleming, Dimitra Gennimata, Ulrika Gillespie, Cathy Harrison, Ulrike Junius-Walker, Przemysław Kardas, Thomas Kempen, Moira Kinnear, Pawel Lewek, Joao Malva, Jennifer McIntosh, Claire Scullin, Birgitt Wiese
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate use of multiple medicines (inappropriate polypharmacy) is a major challenge in older people with consequences of increased prevalence and severity of adverse drug reactions and interactions, and reduced medicines adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of consensus amongst key stakeholders in the European Union (EU) in relation to aspects of the management of polypharmacy in older people. METHODS: Forty-six statements were developed on aspects of healthcare structures, processes and desired outcomes, with consensus defined at ≥ 80% agreement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154799/integrative-omics-data-analyses-of-repeated-dose-toxicity-of-valproic-acid-in-vitro-reveal-new-mechanisms-of-steatosis-induction
#3
Simone G J van Breda, Sandra M H Claessen, Marcel van Herwijnen, Daniël H J Theunissen, Danyel G J Jennen, Theo M C M de Kok, Jos C S Kleinjans
Valproic acid (VPA) is a very potent anti-cancer and neuro-protective drug probably by its HCAC inhibiting properties, which may cause steatosis in the liver. The present study investigates the effect of repetitive VPA treatment of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) on whole genome gene expression-, DNA methylation-, and miRNA changes, using microarrays and integrated data analyses. PHH were exposed to a non-cytotoxic dose of VPA for 5days daily which induced lipid accumulation. Part of the PHH was left untreated for 3days for studying the persistence of 'omics' changes...
November 14, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150845/effect-of-sorbitol-on-the-pharmacokinetic-profile-of-lamivudine-oral-solution-in-adults-an-open-label-randomized-study
#4
Kimberly Adkison, Allen Wolstenholme, Yu Lou, Zhiping Zhang, Amy Eld, Teodora Perger, Harald Vangerow, Katy Hayward, Mark Shaefer, Cynthia McCoig
In children aged ≤4 years, the relative bioavailability of lamivudine oral solution was 37% lower than that of a tablet formulation. An open-label, 4-way crossover study was conducted in healthy adults to evaluate the effect of sorbitol, a common liquid excipient, on the pharmacokinetics of lamivudine oral solution (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02634073). Sixteen subjects were randomized to 1 of 4 sequences consisting of 4 doses of lamivudine 300 mg (10 mg/mL) alone or with sorbitol 3.2, 10.2, or 13...
November 18, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148077/drug-related-deaths-in-hospital-inpatients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
E Montané, A L Arellano, Y Sanz, J Roca, M Farré
OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of drug-related deaths (DRD) in a university hospital in 2015, to describe their characteristics, and to discover risk factors of DRD. METHODS: An analytic and retrospective cohort study. Patients with a death diagnose predefined from a list of medical conditions potentially caused by drugs were the selected cases for further review. Causality assessment was evaluated by a local drug safety committee. RESULTS: Out of 1,135 inpatients deaths, 73 DRD were included (6 were hospital-acquired)...
November 17, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139041/drug-safety-analysis-in-a-real-life-cohort-of-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-polypharmacy
#6
Saskia Müller-Rebstein, Claudia Trenkwalder, Jens Ebentheuer, Wolfgang H Oertel, Carsten Culmsee, Günter U Höglinger
BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is common in geriatric Parkinson's disease (PD) patients in advanced disease stages with multiple comorbidities, bearing multiple risks for drug safety in theory. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to empirically identify the most frequent and relevant contraindications and drug interactions actually occurring and compromising drug safety in PD in real life. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in a multimorbid cohort of PD patients with polypharmacy admitted to a specialized hospital...
November 14, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138563/squarticles-as-the-nanoantidotes-to-sequester-the-overdosed-antidepressant-for-detoxification
#7
Chun-Han Chen, Tse-Hung Huang, Ahmed O Elzoghby, Pei-Wen Wang, Chia-Wen Chang, Jia-You Fang
The increasing death rate caused by drug overdose points to an urgent demand for the development of novel detoxification therapy. In an attempt to detoxify tricyclic antidepressant overdose, we prepared a lipid nanoemulsion, called squarticles, as the nanoantidote. Squalene was the major lipid matrix of the squarticles. Here, we present the animal study to investigate both the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of squarticles on amitriptyline intoxication. The anionic and cationic squarticles had average diameters of 97 and 122 nm, respectively...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135907/efavirenz-therapeutic-range-in-hiv-1-treatment-naive-participants
#8
Cindy J Bednasz, Charles S Venuto, Qing Ma, Eric S Daar, Paul E Sax, Margaret A Fischl, Ann C Collier, Kimberly Y Smith, Camlin Tierney, Yang Yang, Gregory E Wilding, Gene D Morse
BACKGROUND: Efavirenz is currently suggested as an alternative to recommended antiretroviral (ARV) regimens by the Department of Health and Human Services for the treatment of HIV-1 in ARV-naive patients. A mid-dosing interval therapeutic range between 1000 and 4000 ng/mL for efavirenz has been proposed in the literature, with patients more likely to experience virologic failure below this range and adverse effects above. The current study reports an analysis of virologic outcome between those above, below, or within the reported efavirenz therapeutic range (1000-4000 ng/mL) and within subgroups...
December 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135696/effect-of-a-scenario-tailored-opioid-messaging-program-on-parents-risk-perceptions-and-opioid-decision-making
#9
Terri Voepel-Lewis, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher, Carol J Boyd, Philip T Veliz, Sean Esteban McCabe, Monica Weber, Alan R Tait
OBJECTIVES: Poor parental understanding of prescription opioid risks is associated with potentially dangerous decisions that can contribute to adverse drug events (ADE) in children and adolescents. This study examined whether an interactive Scenario-Tailored Opioid Messaging Program (STOMP™) would (1) enhance opioid risk perceptions and (2) improve the safety of parents' decision-making. METHODS: 546 parents were randomized to receive the STOMP™ versus Control information and 516 completed the program...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135584/concomitant-medication-polypharmacy-interactions-and-imperfect-adherence-are-common-in-australian-adults-on-suppressive-art
#10
Krista J Siefried, Limin Mao, Lucette A Cysique, John Rule, Michelle L Giles, Don E Smith, James Mcmahon, Tim R Read, Catriona Ooi, Ban K Tee, Mark Bloch, John de Wit, Andrew Carr
OBJECTIVES: We quantified concomitant medication (CM) polypharmacy, pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) interactions, adverse effects and adherence in Australian adults on effective ART. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Patients recruited into a nation-wide cohort and assessed for prevalence and type of CM (including polypharmacy, defined as ≥5 CMs), PK or PD interactions, potential CM adverse effects and CM adherence. Factors associated with CM polypharmacy and with imperfect adherence were identified using multivariable logistic regression...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133212/quantitative-and-systems-pharmacology-2-in-silico-polypharmacology-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-ligands-via-network-based-approaches
#11
Zengrui Wu, Weiqiang Lu, Weiwei Yu, Tianduanyi Wang, Weihua Li, Guixia Liu, Hankun Zhang, Xiufeng Pang, Jin Huang, Mingyao Liu, Feixiong Cheng, Yun Tang
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest super family with more than 800 membrane receptors. Currently, over 30% of the approved drugs target human GPCRs. However, only approximately 30 human GPCRs have been resolved three-dimensional crystal structures, which limits traditional structure-based drug discovery. Recent advances in network-based systems pharmacology approaches have demonstrated powerful strategies for identifying new targets of GPCR ligands. In this study, we proposed a network-based systems pharmacology framework for comprehensive identification of new drug-target interactions on GPCRs...
November 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129847/effects-of-ketoconazole-on-cyclophosphamide-metabolism-evaluation-of-cyp3a4-inhibition-effect-using-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models
#12
Le Yang, Chenyang Yan, Feng Zhang, Bo Jiang, Shouhong Gao, Youtian Liang, Lifeng Huang, Wansheng Chen
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is widely used in anticancer therapy regimens and 2-dechloroethylcyclophosphamide (DECP) is its side-chain dechloroethylated metabolite. N-dechloroethylation of CP mediated by the enzyme CYP3A4 yields nephrotoxic and neurotoxic chloroacetaldehyde (CAA) in equimolar amount to DECP. This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of ketoconazole (KTZ) on CP metabolism through in vitro and in vivo drug-drug interaction (DDI) research. Long-term treatment of KTZ induces hepatic injury; thus single doses of KTZ at low, middle, and high levels (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) were investigated for pharmacokinetic DDI with CP...
November 13, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128024/mycobacterial-infections-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
Tahuanty Pena, Julia Klesney-Tait
Mycobacterial infections are uncommon in solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients but carry significant morbidity and mortality. Donor screening strategies for tuberculosis should be emphasized in high-risk populations. Both tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections can have pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations of infections. Recommended treatment regimens typically involve multiple drugs with significant adverse effects and drug interactions.
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127724/safety-aspects-of-the-use-of-quercetin-as-a-dietary-supplement
#14
REVIEW
Susanne Andres, Sophie Pevny, Rainer Ziegenhagen, Nadiya Bakhiya, Bernd Schäfer, Karen Ildico Hirsch-Ernst, Alfonso Lampen
The flavonoid quercetin is frequently found in low amounts as a secondary plant metabolite in fruits and vegetables. Isolated quercetin is also marketed as a dietary supplement, mostly as the free quercetin aglycone, and frequently in daily doses of up to 1000 mg per day exceeding usual dietary intake levels. The present review is dedicated to safety aspects of isolated quercetin used as single compound in dietary supplements. Among the numerous published human intervention studies, adverse effects following supplemental quercetin intake have been rarely reported and any such effects were mild in nature...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125269/direct-oral-anticoagulants-use-in-elderly-patients-with-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation-state-of-evidence
#15
Giulia Benedetti, Matteo Neccia, Luciano Agati
Non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) increases the risk of stroke by three- to five-fold, especially in elderly patients, creating a huge burden on medical system as well as a negative impact on patients lives. Balancing efficacy and bleeding risk is a challenge when considering anticoagulation therapy in elderly patients, because of their frequent high risk of both stroke and bleeding. Real world data reveal the underuse of anticoagulation in the elderly, especially due to physicians' fear of bleeding, often neglecting the thromboembolic risk...
November 10, 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124918/approaches-to-acute-pain-management-in-older-people
#16
Angela Telford
Pain is a diverse, individual experience and is associated with distress and suffering. Uncontrolled acute pain has been linked to delayed recovery and prolonged hospital stay. Nurses have a duty of care to their patients and acute pain management is integral to this. However, acute pain in older people can be difficult to manage, often because of under-reporting or difficulties in assessment. Older people have altered physiology often compounded by multiple co-morbidities and polypharmacy, all of which affect the appropriateness of, and available, pharmacological pain management strategies...
October 31, 2017: Nursing Older People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124665/evaluation-of-definite-anaphylaxis-drug-allergy-alert-overrides-in-inpatient-and-outpatient-settings
#17
Adrian Wong, Diane L Seger, Sarah P Slight, Mary G Amato, Patrick E Beeler, Julie M Fiskio, David W Bates
INTRODUCTION: Drug-allergy interaction (DAI) alerts are generated when a known adverse sensitivity-inducing substance is prescribed. A recent study at our institution showed that providers overrode most DAI alerts, including those that warned against potentially life-threatening 'anaphylaxis'. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the rate of anaphylaxis overrides, the reasons for these overrides, whether the overrides were appropriate, and if harm occurred from overrides...
November 9, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123330/markov-logic-networks-for-adverse-drug-event-extraction-from-text
#18
Sriraam Natarajan, Vishal Bangera, Tushar Khot, Jose Picado, Anurag Wazalwar, Vitor Santos Costa, David Page, Michael Caldwell
Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a major concern and point of emphasis for the medical profession, government, and society. A diverse set of techniques from epidemiology, statistics, and computer science are being proposed and studied for ADE discovery from observational health data (e.g., EHR and claims data), social network data (e.g., Google and Twitter posts), and other information sources. Methodologies are needed for evaluating, quantitatively measuring, and comparing the ability of these various approaches to accurately discover ADEs...
May 2017: Knowledge and Information Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122794/consensus-validation-of-the-posamino-potentially-serious-alcohol-medication-interactions-in-older-adults-criteria
#19
Alice E Holton, Paul J Gallagher, Cristín Ryan, Tom Fahey, Gráinne Cousins
OBJECTIVES: Older adults are particularly vulnerable to adverse effects from concurrent alcohol and medication use. However, there is limited evidence regarding the prevalence of these adverse outcomes among older adults, and there is a lack of consensus regarding what constitutes an alcohol-interactive medicine. The objective of this study was to develop an explicit list of potentially serious alcohol-medication interactions for use in older adults. DESIGN: Following a systematic review, review of drug compendia and clinical guidance documents, a two-round Delphi consensus method was conducted...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121854/monitoring-interactions-inside-cells-by-advanced-spectroscopies-overview-of-copper-transporters-and-cisplatin
#20
Alessia Lasorsa, Giovanni Natile, Antonio Rosato, Francesco Tadini-Buoninsegni, Fabio Arnesano
BACKGROUND: Resistance, either at the onset of the treatment or developed after an initial positive response, is a major limitation of antitumor therapy. In the case of platinum-based drugs, copper transporters have been found to interfere with drug trafficking by facilitating the import or favoring the platinum export and inactivation. METHODS: The use of powerful spectroscopic, spectrometric and computational methods have allowed a deep structural insight into the mode of interaction of platinum drugs with the metal-binding domains of the transporter proteins...
November 10, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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