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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046047/apoptosis-pattern-and-alterations-of-expression-of-apoptosis-related-factors-of-supporting-cells-in-k%C3%A3-lliker-s-organ-in-vivo-in-early-stage-after-birth-in-rats
#1
Jun Liu, Linbin Cai, Yuanyuan He, Jun Yang
Kölliker's organ is a temporary but indispensable structure in the development of the cochlea. Supporting cells (SCs) within it release adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), which may play a crucial role in cochlear development before the onset of hearing. To reveal the apoptosis of Kölliker's organ in new-born rats, we studied the morphological changes and expression of apoptosis-related factors during early postnatal development. We found SCs in Kölliker's organ decreased in number and changed in appearance along the cochlea apex-to-base gradient, and the expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and bcl-2 in Kölliker's organ of the cochlea fluctuated along the course of postnatal development, with an expression peak at postnatal day 3...
August 7, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045880/a-model-for-link-pruning-to-establish-correctly-polarized-and-oriented-tip-links-in-hair-bundles
#2
Nathan Tompkins, Kateri J Spinelli, Dongseok Choi, Peter G Barr-Gillespie
Tip links are thought to gate the mechanically sensitive transduction channels of hair cells, but how they form during development and regeneration remains mysterious. In particular, it is unclear how tip links are strung between stereocilia so that they are oriented parallel to a single axis; why their polarity is uniform despite their constituent molecules' intrinsic asymmetry; and why only a single tip link is present at each tip-link position. We present here a series of simple rules that reasonably explain why these phenomena occur...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045013/is-there-a-relationship-between-melanocytes-and-sensorineural-hearing-loss-clinical-evaluation-of-fifthy-one-alopecia-areata-patients
#3
Hasan Emre Koçak, Ayşe Şermin Filiz Acıpayam, Harun Acıpayam, Bilgen Çakıl Erdoğan, Nimet Yeşim Yıldız, Levent Küfeciler, Mustafa Suphi Elbistanlı, Kamil Hakan Kaya
Melanocytes are located in both the cochlea and vestibular organ of the inner ear. They are present in the hearing organ, in the intermediate layer of stria vascularis in the cochlea. The most important task of the stria vascularis is to provide the endolymph production necessary for normal hearing levels, especially high K(+) concentration, and to protect the positive endocochlear potential. Specifically, intermediate layer melanocytes express ionic channels, such as inwardly rectifying K+ channels and voltage-dependent outwardly rectifying K+...
October 17, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043479/altered-auditory-and-vestibular-functioning-in-individuals-with-low-bone-mineral-density-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Niraj Kumar Singh, Raghav Hira Jha, Aditi Gargeshwari, Prawin Kumar
Alteration in the process of bone remodelling is associated with falls and fractures due to increased bone fragility and altered calcium functioning. The auditory system consists of skeletal structures and is, therefore, prone to getting affected by altered bone remodelling. In addition, the vestibule consists of huge volumes of calcium (CaCO3) in the form of otoconia crystals and alteration in functioning calcium levels could, therefore, result in vestibular symptoms. Thus, the present study aimed at compiling information from various studies on assessment of auditory or vestibular systems in individuals with reduced bone mineral density (BMD)...
October 17, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042071/influence-of-ginkgo-biloba-extract-egb-761-on-expression-of-il-1-beta-il-6-tnf-alfa-hsp-70-hsf-1-and-cox-2-after-noise-exposure-in-the-rat-cochlea
#5
Remzi Dogan, Alev Pektas Sjostrand, Alper Yenıgun, Ersin Karatas, Abdurrahim Kocyigit, Orhan Ozturan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Ginkgo Biloba in early treatment of noise induced hearing loss on expression of IL-6, IL-1 Beta, TNF-alfa, HSP-70, HSF-1 and COX-2 in the rat cochlea. METHODS: Thirty two female rats were randomly divided into four groups (Acoustic Trauma, Ginkgo Biloba, Acoustic Trauma+Ginkgo Biloba, Non Treatment). Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was applied in all the groups. At the end of the study, IL-1Beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, HSP-70, HSF-1 and COX-2 were studied in cochlear tissue with ELISA and Western blot analysis...
October 14, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038666/study-of-methylene-blue-ototoxicity-in-the-guinea-pig
#6
Sarah Belhassen, Musaed Alzahrani, Marc-Elie Nader, Louis Gaboury, Issam Saliba
BACKGROUND: Methylene blue is widely used in the medical field, especially as a blue dye for staining. It is also used as a photosensitizing agent in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, which once photoactivated is effective for the eradication of several multi-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to investigate the ototoxic potential of methylene blue and precise its use in otology. METHODS: It was a prospective animal study performed on guinea pigs in our tertiary medical center...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036751/-diagnosis-and-management-of-vestibular-schwannomas-an-interdisciplinary-challenge
#7
Steffen Rosahl, Christopher Bohr, Michael Lell, Klaus Hamm, Heinrich Iro
Vestibular schwannomas expand slowly in the internal auditory canal, in the cerebellopontine angle, inside the cochlear and the labyrinth. Larger tumors can displace and compress the brainstem. With an annual incidence of 1:100 000 vestibular schwannoma represent 6-7% of all intracranial tumors. In the cerebellopontine angle they are by far the most neoplasm with 90% of all lesions located in this region. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), audiometry, and vestibular diagnostics are the mainstays of the clinical workup for patients harboring tumors...
April 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035691/how-we-hear-the-perception-and-neural-coding-of-sound
#8
Andrew J Oxenham
Auditory perception is our main gateway to communication with others via speech and music, and it also plays an important role in alerting and orienting us to new events. This review provides an overview of selected topics pertaining to the perception and neural coding of sound, starting with the first stage of filtering in the cochlea and its profound impact on perception. The next topic, pitch, has been debated for millennia, but recent technical and theoretical developments continue to provide us with new insights...
October 16, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032664/the-protective-effect-of-egb-761-against-3-nitropropionic-acid-induced-hearing-loss-the-role-of-sirtuin-1
#9
Mun Young Chang, Jihye Rhee, Shin Hye Kim, Young Ho Kim
Objectives: Local administration of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) to the inner ear induces sensorineural hearing loss. Several studies have shown the otoprotective effects of ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761. Moreover, EGb 761 has been reported to activate Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). The present study was designed to investigate whether EGb 761 prevents 3-NPinduced sensorineural hearing loss and determine its effects on the expression of SIRT1. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four experimental groups: control group receiving vehicle of 3-NP, EGb group receiving EGb 761, 3-NP group receiving 3-NP, and EGb+3-NP group receiving EGb 761 and 3-NP...
October 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027511/evaluation-of-a-frequency-lowering-algorithm-for-adults-with-high-frequency-hearing-loss
#10
Marina Salorio-Corbetto, Thomas Baer, Brian C J Moore
The objective was to determine the effects of a frequency-lowering algorithm (frequency composition, Fcomp) on consonant identification, word-final /s, z/ detection, the intelligibility of sentences in noise, and subjective benefit, for people with high-frequency hearing loss, including people with dead regions (DRs) in the cochlea. A single-blind randomized crossover design was used. Performance with Bernafon Acriva 9 hearing aids was compared with Fcomp off and Fcomp on. Participants wore the hearing aids in each condition in a counterbalanced order...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018325/hearing-loss-controlled-by-optogenetic-stimulation-of-nonexcitable-nonglial-cells-in-the-cochlea-of-the-inner-ear
#11
Mitsuo P Sato, Taiga Higuchi, Fumiaki Nin, Genki Ogata, Seishiro Sawamura, Takamasa Yoshida, Takeru Ota, Karin Hori, Shizuo Komune, Satoru Uetsuka, Samuel Choi, Masatsugu Masuda, Takahisa Watabe, Sho Kanzaki, Kaoru Ogawa, Hidenori Inohara, Shuichi Sakamoto, Hirohide Takebayashi, Katsumi Doi, Kenji F Tanaka, Hiroshi Hibino
Light-gated ion channels and transporters have been applied to a broad array of excitable cells including neurons, cardiac myocytes, skeletal muscle cells and pancreatic β-cells in an organism to clarify their physiological and pathological roles. Nonetheless, among nonexcitable cells, only glial cells have been studied in vivo by this approach. Here, by optogenetic stimulation of a different nonexcitable cell type in the cochlea of the inner ear, we induce and control hearing loss. To our knowledge, deafness animal models using optogenetics have not yet been established...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018324/design-and-characterization-of-a-human-monoclonal-antibody-that-modulates-mutant-connexin-26-hemichannels-implicated-in-deafness-and-skin-disorders
#12
Liang Xu, Andrea Carrer, Francesco Zonta, Zhihu Qu, Peixiang Ma, Sheng Li, Federico Ceriani, Damiano Buratto, Giulia Crispino, Veronica Zorzi, Gaia Ziraldo, Francesca Bruno, Chiara Nardin, Chiara Peres, Flavia Mazzarda, Anna M Salvatore, Marcello Raspa, Ferdinando Scavizzi, Youjun Chu, Sichun Xie, Xuemei Yang, Jun Liao, Xiao Liu, Wei Wang, Shanshan Wang, Guang Yang, Richard A Lerner, Fabio Mammano
Background: Mutations leading to changes in properties, regulation, or expression of connexin-made channels have been implicated in 28 distinct human hereditary diseases. Eight of these result from variants of connexin 26 (Cx26), a protein critically involved in cell-cell signaling in the inner ear and skin. Lack of non-toxic drugs with defined mechanisms of action poses a serious obstacle to therapeutic interventions for diseases caused by mutant connexins. In particular, molecules that specifically modulate connexin hemichannel function without affecting gap junction channels are considered of primary importance for the study of connexin hemichannel role in physiological as well as pathological conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017893/chronic-inflammation-inflammaging-in-the-ageing-cochlea-a-novel-target-for-future-presbycusis-therapy
#13
Nathan Watson, Bo Ding, Xiaoxia Zhu, Robert D Frisina
Chronic, low-grade inflammation, or inflammaging, is a crucial contributor to various age-related pathologies and natural processes in aging tissue, including the nervous system. Over the past two decades, much effort has been done to understand the mechanisms of inflammaging in disease models such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and others. However, despite being the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, the number one communication disorder, and one of the top three chronic medical conditions of our aged population; little research has been conducted on the potential role of inflammation in age-related hearing loss (ARHL)...
October 7, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992760/-cochlear-view-plain-radiograph-a-simple-reliable-positioning-method
#14
Stephanie Elyse Ambrose, Norman Wendell Todd
INTRODUCTION: The plain 'cochlear view' radiograph for checking cochlear implant electrode coiling and depth of insertion is strongly influenced by positioning. The best accuracy and inter-observer agreement are achieved with the X-ray beam passing through the axis of the modiolus, which is perpendicular to the plane of the basal turn of the cochlea. The basal turn of the cochlea generally is 45 from the head's sagittal plane. OBJECTIVE: To describe a simple reliable technique of patient positioning to maximize the accuracy of postoperative radiographs in the evaluation of cochlear electrode insertion...
October 10, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992726/middle-ear-histopathology-following-magnetic-delivery-to-the-cochlea-of-prednisolone-loaded-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-in-rats
#15
Jean-Francois Lafond, Mika Shimoji, Bharath Ramaswamy, Mohammed I Shukoor, Pulkit Malik, Benjamin Shapiro, Didier A Depireux
Delivery of therapy to the cochlea is a challenge and limits the efficacy of therapies meant to treat hearing loss, reverse tinnitus, and protect hearing from chemotherapy regimens. Magnetic injection is a technique that uses magnetic fields to inject nanoparticles from the middle ear into the cochlea, where they can then elute therapy to treat hearing disorders. To evaluate the safety of this treatment in the middle ear, 30 rats were subdivided into 6 groups and treated by single or multiple intratympanic injections of saline, prednisolone, nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with prednisolone...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989219/task-driven-orbit-design-and-implementation-on-a-robotic-c-arm-system-for-cone-beam-ct
#16
S Ouadah, M Jacobson, J W Stayman, T Ehtiati, C Weiss, J H Siewerdsen
PURPOSE: This work applies task-driven optimization to the design of non-circular orbits that maximize imaging performance for a particular imaging task. First implementation of task-driven imaging on a clinical robotic C-arm system is demonstrated, and a framework for orbit calculation is described and evaluated. METHODS: We implemented a task-driven imaging framework to optimize orbit parameters that maximize detectability index d'. This framework utilizes a specified Fourier domain task function and an analytical model for system spatial resolution and noise...
March 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983916/piezo2-as-the-anomalous-mechanotransducer-channel-in-auditory-hair-cells
#17
Maryline Beurg, Robert Fettiplace
Throughout post-natal maturation of the mouse inner ear, cochlear hair cells display at least two types of mechanically-gated ion channel: normal mechanotransducer (MT) channels at the tips of the stereocilia, activated by tension in inter-ciliary tip links; and anomalous mechanosensitive (MS) channels on the top surface of the cells. The anomalous MS channels are responsible for the reverse-polarity current that appears in mutants in which normal transduction is lost. They are also seen in wild-type hair cells around birth, appearing two days earlier than normal MT channels, and being down-regulated with the emergence of the normal channels...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981097/activation-of-mir-34a-impairs-autophagic-flux-and-promotes-cochlear-cell-death-via-repressing-atg9a-implications-for-age-related-hearing-loss
#18
Jiaqi Pang, Hao Xiong, Peiliang Lin, Lan Lai, Haidi Yang, Yimin Liu, Qiuhong Huang, Suijun Chen, Yongyi Ye, Yingfeng Sun, Yiqing Zheng
Age-related hearing loss is a major unresolved public health problem. We have previously elucidated that the activation of cochlear miR-34a is correlated with age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6 mice. A growing body of evidence points that aberrant autophagy promotes cell death during the development of multiple age-related diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-34a-involved disorder of autophagy in the pathogenesis of age-related hearing loss. Our results showed that miR-34a expression was markedly upregulated in the aging cochlea accompanied with impairment of autophagic flux...
October 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980602/-the-fistula-of-the-round-window-of-the-cochlea
#19
E V Garov, V N Zelenkova, O V Fedorova, A S Meparishvili
This article presents the data on the frequency, diagnostics, and variants of the surgical treatment of the fistula of the round window of the cochlea. A case of this pathology is reported with the special emphasis placed on the approaches to the diagnostics and surgical management of this condition.
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977813/-hearing-rehabilitation-with-the-cochlea-implant-following-translabyrinthine-cpa-tumor-removal
#20
Jörg Schipper, Julia Kristin, Simone Volpert, Thomas Klenzner
We present a quality analysis of 10 patients with an individual treatment trial for a simultaneous or consecutive cochlea implantation after translabyrinthine removal of a neurinoma at the cerebellopontine angle. The results show that most of the patients benefit from the cochlea implantation after unilateral deafness. Through a careful surgical preparation technique at the inner ear canal and its surroundings the morphological and functional integrity of the neurovascular structures can be guaranteed.
October 4, 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
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