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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333779/impact-of-chronic-suppurative-otitis-media-in-pediatric-cochlear-implant-recipients-insight-into-the-challenges-from-a-tertiary-referral-center-in-uk
#1
Paramita Baruah, Kate Hanvey, Richard Irving, Konstance Tzifa
OBJECTIVE: Analyze the presentation and evolution of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in children with cochlear implants (CI) and explore the merit of early intervention. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective patient review. SETTING: Tertiary referral hospital and cochlear implant programme. PATIENTS: Children with a CI who developed CSOM. INTERVENTION: Tympanoplasty. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Disease control, recurrence of cholesteatoma, cochlear implant preservation...
March 22, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333389/the-cochlea-of-the-enigmatic-pygmy-right-whale-caperea-marginata-informs-mysticete-phylogeny
#2
Travis Park, Felix G Marx, Erich M G Fitzgerald, Alistair R Evans
The pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata, is the least understood extant baleen whale (Cetacea, Mysticeti). Knowledge on its basic anatomy, ecology, and fossil record is limited, even though its singular position outside both balaenids (right whales) and balaenopteroids (rorquals + grey whales) gives Caperea a pivotal role in mysticete evolution. Recent investigations of the cetacean cochlea have provided new insights into sensory capabilities and phylogeny. Here, we extend this advance to Caperea by describing, for the first time, the inner ear of this enigmatic species...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332994/predicting-patient-specific-dosimetric-benefits-of-proton-therapy-for-skull-base-tumors-using-a-geometric-knowledge-based-method
#3
David C Hall, Alexei V Trofimov, Brian A Winey, Norbert J Liebsch, Harald Paganetti
PURPOSE: To predict the organ at risk (OAR) dose levels achievable with proton beam therapy (PBT), solely based on the geometric arrangement of the target volume in relation to the OARs. A comparison with an alternative therapy yields a prediction of the patient-specific benefits offered by PBT. This could enable physicians at hospitals without proton capabilities to make a better-informed referral decision or aid patient selection in model-based clinical trials. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Skull-base tumors were chosen to test the method, owing to their geometric complexity and multitude of nearby OARs...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332898/herpes-simplex-virus-1-and-cytomegalovirus-dnas-detection-in-the-inner-ear-of-implanted-patients-with-non-congenital-infection
#4
Walter Di Nardo, Roberta Anzivino, Paola Cattani, Rosaria Santangelo, Eugenio De Corso, Gaetano Paludetti
CONCLUSIONS: The detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) genome in perilymph of patients with negative serology or clinical history for congenital infections supports the hypothesis that Herpesviridae, even after acquired postnatal infections, could remain in latent phase in the spiral ganglion and damage the cochlea by a possible subsequent reactivation. Further studies are needed to identify the markers of such reactivation. OBJECTIVE: To identify the presence of certain viral species in the endolabyrinthic fluid of deaf patients with non-congenital infection...
March 23, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331175/unraveling-the-mystery-of-hearing-in-gerbil-and-other-rodents-with-an-arch-beam-model-of-the-basilar-membrane
#5
Santosh Kapuria, Charles R Steele, Sunil Puria
The mammalian basilar membrane (BM) consists of two collagen-fiber layers responsible for the frequency-to-place tonotopic mapping in the cochlea, which together form a flat beam over at least part of the BM width. The mechanics of hearing in rodents such as gerbil pose a challenge to our understanding of the cochlea, however, because for gerbil the two layers separate to form a pronounced arch over the remaining BM width. Moreover, the thickness and total width normally thought to determine the local stiffness, and tonotopic mapping in turn, change little along the cochlear length...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328495/the-modern-cochlear-implant-a-triumph-of-biomedical-engineering-and-the-first-substantial-restoration-of-human-sense-using-a-medical-intervention
#6
Blake S Wilson
Even as recently as the mid-1980s, many experts in otology and auditory science thought that restoration of useful hearing with crude and pervasive electrical stimulation of the cochlea was a fool's dream. The esteemed Prof. Rainer Klinke from Frankfurt (Figure 1) was among the chorus of critics, asserting in 1978 that "from a physiological point of view, cochlear implants will not work." Many others made similar categorical statements.
March 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326059/unilateral-cochlear-implantation-reduces-tinnitus-loudness-in-bimodal-hearing-a-prospective-study
#7
Jérôme J Servais, Karl Hörmann, Elisabeth Wallhäusser-Franke
Perceptive and receptive aspects of subjective tinnitus like loudness and tinnitus-related distress are partly independent. The high percentage of hearing loss in individuals with tinnitus suggests causality of hearing impairment particularly for the tinnitus percept, leading to the hypothesis that restoration of auditory input has a larger effect on tinnitus loudness than on tinnitus-related distress. Furthermore, it is assumed that high levels of depression or anxiety prevent reductions of tinnitus loudness and distress following restoration of activity in the cochlea...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323018/modulation-of-auditory-percepts-by-transcutaneous-electrical-stimulation
#8
Margarete Anna Ueberfuhr, Amalia Braun, Lutz Wiegrebe, Benedikt Grothe, Markus Drexl
Transcutaneous, electrical stimulation with electrodes placed on the mastoid processes represents a specific way to elicit vestibular reflexes in humans without active or passive subject movements, for which the term galvanic vestibular stimulation was coined. It has been suggested that galvanic vestibular stimulation mainly affects the vestibular periphery, but whether vestibular hair cells, vestibular afferents, or a combination of both are excited, is still a matter of debate. Galvanic vestibular stimulation has been in use since the late 18(th) century, but despite the long-known and well-documented effects on the vestibular system, reports of the effect of electrical stimulation on the adjacent cochlea or the ascending auditory pathway are surprisingly sparse...
March 17, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306650/cochlear-transcriptome-following-acoustic-trauma-and-dexamethasone-administration-identified-by-a-combination-of-rna-seq-and-dna-microarray
#9
Yukihide Maeda, Ryotaro Omichi, Akiko Sugaya, Shin Kariya, Kazunori Nishizaki
AIM: To elucidate molecular mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and glucocorticoid therapy in the cochlea. BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids are used to treat many forms of acute sensorineural hearing loss, but their molecular action in the cochlea remains poorly understood. METHODS: Dexamethasone was administered intraperitoneally immediately following acoustic overstimulation at 120 dB SPL for 2 hours to mice. The whole cochlear transcriptome was analyzed 12 and 24 hours following noise trauma and dexamethasone administration by both next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq) and DNA microarray...
March 16, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304075/steroid-intracochlear-distribution-differs-by-administration-method-systemic-versus-intratympanic-injection
#10
Jong Joo Lee, Jeong Hun Jang, Oak-Sung Choo, Hye Jin Lim, Yun-Hoon Choung
OBJECTIVE: Steroids have been widely used to treat inner-ear diseases such as sudden sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and Meniere's disease. They can be given via either systemic or intratympanic (IT) injection. The purpose of the present study was to explore differences in intracochlear steroid distribution by the administration method employed (systemic vs. IT injection). STUDY DESIGN: Animal study. METHODS: Twenty-three Sprague-Dawley rats were given fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dexamethasone (FITC-DEX) three times (on successive days) via intraperitoneal (IP) or IT injection...
March 17, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297297/investigation-of-dosimetric-differences-between-the-tmr-10-and-convolution-algorithm-for-gamma-knife-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#11
Alvaro Rojas-Villabona, Neil Kitchen, Ian Paddick
Since its inception, doses applied using Gamma Knife Radiosurgery (GKR) have been calculated using a simple TMR algorithm, which assumes the patient's head is of even density, the same as water. This results in a significant approximation of the dose delivered by the Gamma Knife. We investigated how GKR dose calculations varied when using a new convolution algorithm clinically available for GKR planning that takes into account density variations in the head compared with the established calculation algorithm...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292001/-implantable-bone-conduction-and-active-middle-ear-devices
#12
Markus Pirlich, Andreas Dietz, Sylvia Meuret, Mathias Hofer
In case of audiological and/or anatomical limitations in the provision of conventional hearing aids, semi- or fully-implantable hearing systems represent a modern therapy alternative. These hearing systems are divided according to their mode of action into active middle ear implants when stimulating the auditory ossicles or the round window, into bone conduction devices while stimulating the skull directly, into cochlear implants with direct acoustic stimulation to the cochlea with its auditory nerve and finally into auditory brainstem implants by bridging the peripheral auditory structures...
February 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290603/fenofibrate-exerts-protective-effects-against-gentamicin-induced-toxicity-in-cochlear-hair-cells-by-activating-antioxidant-enzymes
#13
Channy Park, Hye-Min Ji, Se-Jin Kim, Sung-Hee Kil, Joon No Lee, Seongae Kwak, Seong-Kyu Choe, Raekil Park
Fenofibrate, an activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), has been shown to protect the kidneys and brain cells from oxidative stress; however, its role in preventing hearing loss has not been reported to date, at least to the best of our knowledge. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of fenofibrate against gentamicin (GM)-induced ototoxicity. We found that the auditory brainstem response threshold which was increased by GM was significantly reduced by pre-treatment with fenofibrate in rats...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283078/distortion-product-otoacoustic-emissions-in-young-adult-and-geriatric-cats
#14
George M Strain, Kain A McGee
Recordings of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were taken from 15 geriatric cats (mean age ± standard deviation, SD, 13.6 ± 2.7 years; range 10.2-19.4 years) and 12 young adult control cats (mean ± SD 4.6 ± 0.5 years; range 3.4-5 years) to identify frequency-specific age-related changes in cochlear responses. Recordings were performed for primary frequencies from 2 to 12 kHz in 2 kHz increments. Cats were considered to be geriatric > 11.9 ± 1.9 years of age...
March 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280753/mouse-auditory-brainstem-response-testing
#15
Omar Akil, A E Oursler, Kevin Fan, Lawrence R Lustig
The auditory brainstem response (ABR) test provides information about the inner ear (cochlea) and the central pathways for hearing. The ABR reflects the electrical responses of both the cochlear ganglion neurons and the nuclei of the central auditory pathway to sound stimulation (Zhou et al., 2006; Burkard et al., 2007). The ABR contains 5 identifiable wave forms, labeled as I-V. Wave I represents the summated response from the spiral ganglion and auditory nerve while waves II-V represent responses from the ascending auditory pathway...
March 20, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280462/the-role-of-glia-in-the-peripheral-and-central-auditory-system-following-noise-overexposure-contribution-of-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-1%C3%AE-to-the-pathogenesis-of-hearing-loss
#16
Verónica Fuentes-Santamaría, Juan Carlos Alvarado, Pedro Melgar-Rojas, María C Gabaldón-Ull, Josef M Miller, José M Juiz
Repeated noise exposure induces inflammation and cellular adaptations in the peripheral and central auditory system resulting in pathophysiology of hearing loss. In this study, we analyzed the mechanisms by which noise-induced inflammatory-related events in the cochlea activate glial-mediated cellular responses in the cochlear nucleus (CN), the first relay station of the auditory pathway. The auditory function, glial activation, modifications in gene expression and protein levels of inflammatory mediators and ultrastructural changes in glial-neuronal interactions were assessed in rats exposed to broadband noise (0...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277210/pitch-matching-between-electrical-stimulation-of-a-cochlear-implant-and-acoustic-stimuli-presented-to-a-contralateral-ear-with-residual-hearing
#17
Chin-Tuan Tan, Brett Martin, Mario A Svirsky
BACKGROUND: Cochlear implants (CIs) successfully restore hearing in postlingually deaf adults, but in doing so impose a frequency-position function in the cochlea that may differ from the physiological one. PURPOSE: The CI-imposed frequency-position function is determined by the frequency allocation table programmed into the listener's speech processor and by the location of the electrode array along the cochlea. To what extent can postlingually deaf CI users successfully adapt to the difference between physiological and CI-imposed frequency-position functions? RESEARCH DESIGN: We attempt to answer the question by combining behavioral measures of electroacoustic pitch matching (PM) and measures of electrode location within the cochlea...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275059/differences-in-post-injury-auditory-system-pathophysiology-after-mild-blast-and-non-blast-acute-acoustic-trauma
#18
Nicholas Race, Jesyin Lai, Riyi Shi, Edward L Bartlett
Hearing difficulties are the most commonly reported disabilities among veterans. Blast exposures during explosive events likely play a role, given their propensity to directly damage both peripheral (PAS) and central (CAS) auditory system components. Post-blast PAS pathophysiology has been well-documented in both clinical case reports and laboratory investigations. In contrast, blast-induced CAS dysfunction remains under-studied, but has been hypothesized to contribute to an array of common veteran behavioral complaints including learning, memory, communication, and emotional regulation...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270200/measuring-cochlear-duct-length-a-historical-analysis-of-methods-and-results
#19
REVIEW
Robert W Koch, Hanif M Ladak, Mai Elfarnawany, Sumit K Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Cochlear Duct Length (CDL) has been an important measure for the development and advancement of cochlear implants. Emerging literature has shown CDL can be used in preoperative settings to select the proper sized electrode and develop customized frequency maps. In order to improve post-operative outcomes, and develop new electrode technologies, methods of measuring CDL must be validated to allow usage in the clinic. PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to assess the various techniques used to calculate CDL and provide the reader with enough information to make an informed decision on how to conduct future studies measuring the CDL...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269610/middle-and-inner-ear-modelling-from-microct-images-to-3d-reconstruction-and-coupling-of-models
#20
N S Tachos, A I Sakellarios, G Rigas, V Isailovic, G Ni, F Bohnke, N Filipovic, T Bibas, D I Fotiadis
We present finite element (FE) modeling approaches of ear mechanics including 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the human middle and inner ear. Specifically, we demonstrate a semi-automatic methodology for the 3D reconstruction of the inner ear structures, a FE harmonic response model of the middle ear to predict the stapes footplate frequency response, a 2D FE slice model of the cochlea for the coupled response at the micromechanical level for either acoustic or electrical excitation and a coupled FE middle ear model with a simplified cochlea box model to simulate the basilar membrane velocity in response to acoustic excitation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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