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lung cancer,radiotherapy

S N Sunil Gowda, S Rajasowmiya, V Vadivel, S Banu Devi, A Celestin Jerald, S Marimuthu, N Devipriya
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is the most widely used treatment method for treating cancer with or without surgery and chemotherapy. In lung cancer, it is one of the important treatment steps in excising the tumor from the lung tissue; unfortunately, radiation can induce epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT), a typical physiological process in which cuboidal shaped epithelial cell loses its phenotype and acquires mesenchymal-like phenotype thus, increases the metastasis progression in the body...
June 18, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Guowei Ding, Yongchao Liu, Chunmei Liang
The present study intended to investigate efficacy of radiotherapy in the treatment of intermediate and advanced stage lung cancer and the effects on serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Serum levels of VEGF and MMP-9 of 77 patients with intermediate or advanced lung cancer were detected before and after the treatment. At the same time, 19 healthy people were selected as the control group. Gelatin zymography was applied to measure the activity of serum MMP-9, ELISA was performed to detect the VEGF and MMP-9 levels in the peripheral blood and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of VEGF and MMP-9 in serum...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Elena Bargagli, Viola Bonti, Alessandra Bindi, Vieri Scotti, Massimo Pistolesi, Luca Voltolini, Katia Ferrari
Patients treated for lung cancer may develop lung toxicity induced by chemotherapy (DILD), radiation or combined radiation recall pneumonitis. In the literature, some cases of immune-mediated pneumonitis have been reported associated with immunotherapy. The clinical and radiologic features of interstitial lung toxicity are unspecific, dyspnoea and dry cough are the most common symptoms while the most frequent radiological pattern is the cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). Why only some individuals treated with these drugs develop interstitial lung toxicity is unclear...
June 21, 2018: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Kazue Yoneda, Naoko Imanishi, Yoshinobu Ichiki, Fumihiro Tanaka
Cancer immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has become a "game changer" in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its most clinically important advantage over traditional chemotherapy using cytotoxic agents are its long-term survival benefits, and some advanced NSCLC patients treated with an antibody against programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) have survived for 5 years or longer. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are also potentially useful for earlier-stage NSCLC when used in combination with surgery or radiotherapy...
2018: Journal of UOEH
Liyan Lu, Fengfang Li, Yamei Zhang, Peng Wang, Xindao Yin, Wenbin Li
RATIONALE: Small cell lung cancer accounts for 15-20% of all lung cancers and is the most common pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasm. Most small cell lung cancers arise from lobar or main bronchi, the most common manifestations of small cell lung cancer is a large mass centrally located within the lung parenchyma or a mediastinal mass involving the hilus. Small cell lung cancer is easily ignored by clinicians without lung parenchyma and hilus involvement. Here, we report a case of small cell lung cancer, which was misdiagnosed as the lymphoma in contrast enhanced CT and Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT imagings...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Anders Kindberg Boysen, Karen-Lise Spindler, Morten Høyer, Frank Viborg Mortensen, Thomas Decker Christensen, Dóra Kormendine Farkas, Anne Gulbech Ording
About 10-20% of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are candidates for metastasis directed therapies such as surgical resection, ablation and stereotactic radiotherapy. We examined the temporal changes in use of metastasis directed therapies and established prognostic factors for survival in a nationwide cohort study. The Danish nationwide medical registries were used to retrieve data on treatment for liver and/or lung metastasis in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer in the period 2000-2013...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Azadeh Abravan, Hanne Astrid Eide, Ayca Muftuler Løndalen, Åslaug Helland, Eirik Malinen
PURPOSE: To map functional bone marrow (BM) by 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18 F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in the vertebral column of lung cancer patients prior to, during, and after treatment. Moreover, to identify radiation- and erlotinib-induced changes in the BM. PROCEDURES: Twenty-six patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, receiving radiotherapy (RT) alone or concomitantly with erlotinib, were examined by [18 F]FDG PET before, during, and after treatment...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Nienke Hoekstra, Emmanuelle Fleury, Tomas Rodrigo Merino Lara, Peter van der Baan, Andy Bahnerth, Gerson Struik, Mischa Hoogeman, Jean-Philippe Pignol
INTRODUCTION: For early stage breast cancer patients, non-breast cancer mortality including secondary cancers and cardiac events can overshadow the benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy. This study evaluates the excess risk of secondary cancer for various breast radiotherapy techniques including accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). METHODS: Secondary cancers Lifetime Attributable Risks (LAR) were calculated using a modified BEIR-VII formalism to account for the specific survival of breast cancer patients...
June 15, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Corinne N Johnson, Gareth J Price, Corinne Faivre-Finn, Marianne C Aznar, Marcel van Herk
BACKGROUND: and Purpose: Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is widely used but data directly relating setup errors to patient outcome is scarce. This study investigates the relationship between residual IGRT shifts and overall patient survival, and uses the observed relations to identify structures sensitive to radiation dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Residual shift data for 780 NSCLC patients was summarised for each patient over the course of treatment by determining the mean shifts, standard deviations and the vector shift in the direction of the heart...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Catarina Veiga, David Landau, Anand Devaraj, Tom Doel, Jared White, Yenting Ngai, David J Hawkes, Jamie R McClelland
BACKGROUND: and Purpose: Recent improvements in lung cancer survival have spurred an interest in understanding and minimizing long term radiation-induced lung damage (RILD). However, there is still no objective criteria to quantify RILD leading to variable reporting across centres and trials. We propose a set of objective imaging biomarkers to quantify common radiological findings observed 12-months after lung cancer radiotherapy (RT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Baseline and 12-month CT scans of 27 patients from a phase I/II clinical trial of isotoxic chemoradiation were included in this study...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Sarah Barrett, Gerard G Hanna, Laure Marignol
Standard of care radiotherapy in LA-NSCLC is 60-66 Gy in 30-33 fractions. However outcomes for these patients are poor with 5-year survival in the range of 10-20%. Randomised controlled trials have shown that dose escalation in a linear fashion does not improve outcomes for all patients, thus there is a need to tailor the prescription to the individual patient. This review assesses the strategies published to personalise the radiation therapy dose prescription in LA-NSCLC. A systematic and scoping search of the literature was performed to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria...
June 13, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Kei Ito, Keiji Nihei, Takuya Shimizuguchi, Hiroaki Ogawa, Tomohisa Furuya, Shurei Sugita, Takahiro Hozumi, Keisuke Sasai, Katsuyuki Karasawa
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to clarify the outcomes of postoperative re-irradiation using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) in the authors' institution and to identify factors correlated with local control. METHODS Cases in which patients with previously irradiated MESCC underwent decompression surgery followed by spine SBRT as re-irradiation between April 2013 and May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The surgical procedures were mainly performed by the posterior approach and included decompression and fixation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Hongjun Zhu, Shuanglin Zhang
Like other tumors, lung cancer must induce angiogenesis as it grows. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is the inducible subunit of the HIF-1 transcription factor that regulates genes involved in the response to hypoxia, some of which contributes to angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the genes upregulated by HIF-1 and is the primary cytokine in relation to angiogenesis. In this study we tested whether aberrant activation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α/vascular endothelial growth factor (HIF-1α/VEGF) pathway correlates with response to radiotherapy and examined the response of lung cancer cells to hypoxia in vitro...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Dominic H Moon, Bhishamjit S Chera, Allison M Deal, Yue Wang, Hyman B Muss, Noam A VanderWalde
OBJECTIVES: The agreement between clinician- and patient-reported toxicities and their association with poor tolerance to therapy were assessed in an older population receiving curative radiotherapy (RT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients ≥ 65 years old with newly-diagnosed head and neck or lung cancer receiving curative RT ± chemotherapy were enrolled on a prospective, observational study. Agreement between clinician (CTCAEv4.02) and patient (PRO-CTCAE, EORTC QLQ-C30) report of toxicities were assessed at baseline, during treatment, and post-treatment...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
Kanqiu Jiang, Mingjing Shen, Yongbing Chen, Weihua Xu
Lung cancer (LC), as the most common cause of cancer‑related mortality worldwide, is characterized by difficulties in early detection, a high degree of malignancy, poor sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and a low 5‑year survival rate. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of small, non‑coding, endogenously expressed RNA that serves vital roles in RNA silencing and post‑transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Previous studies have shown that abnormal expression of miRNA is relevant to various malignant tumors, including lung cancer...
June 12, 2018: Oncology Reports
Chan-Hun Jung, Ah-Reum Han, Hwa-Jin Chung, In-Hyuk Ha, Hong-Duck Um
Radiotherapy is routinely used in the treatment of lung cancer patients. However, it often causes malignant effects, such as promoting cancer cell migration and invasion. Previous studies demonstrated that ionizing radiation (IR) promotes cancer cell invasion by stimulating the β-catenin, IL-6, STAT3, and Bcl-XL signaling pathway or the PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathway. Both Bcl-XL and NF-κB stimulate the secretion of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), including MMP-2 and MMP-9. In the present study, linarin isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers significantly decreased the IR-induced cell migration and invasion at a concentration of 5 μM in A549 cells...
June 13, 2018: Natural Product Research
Yue-Hua Zhang, Yuquan Lu, Hong Lu, Meng-Wei Zhang, Yue-Min Zhou, Xiang-Lei Li, Pin Lv, Xiao-Yan Zhao
To date, few studies have reported the prognostic value of pre-treatment hemoglobin levels in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, 416 patients with NSCLC were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis demonstrated that patients with normal pre-treatment hemoglobin (NPHb) levels had a greater chance of surviving for longer period, than did patients with low pre-treatment hemoglobin (LPHb) levels (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.63-2.57; P<0.001)...
July 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Hailong Pei, Ziyang Guo, Ziyang Wang, Yingchu Dai, Lijun Zheng, Lin Zhu, Jian Zhang, Wentao Hu, Jing Nie, Weidong Mao, Xianghong Jia, Bingyan Li, Tom K Hei, Guangming Zhou
Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) occurs most often in radiotherapy of lung cancer, esophageal cancer, and other thoracic cancers. The occurrence of RILI is a complex process that includes a variety of cellular and molecular interactions, which ultimately result in carcinogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show that Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (RAC2) and transcription factor jun-B (JUNB) were upregulated in non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC) tissues and were associated with poor prognoses for NSCLC patients...
June 13, 2018: Cell Cycle
Mohammad Amin Hosseini, Mohammad Mohamadianpanah, Mohammad Zare-Bandeamiri, Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi
Hadron therapy (HT) with protons and carbon ions is an advanced radiotherapy technique. As the first report addressing this topic, the present study aimed to estimate the number of patients eligible for HT in Fars province and the whole of Iran. The data were collected through direct inspection of medical records of the patients treated at the Radiotherapy Department, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran in 2014. The patients who were treated with external-beam radiotherapy and declared to be a resident of Fars province were extracted from the medical records...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Nuria Rodríguez de Dios, Felipe Couñago, José Luis López, Patricia Calvo, Mauricio Murcia, Mikel Rico, Carmen Vallejo, Javier Luna, Itziar Trueba, Cristina Cigarral, Nuria Farre, Rosa Maria Manero, Xavier Durán, Pilar Samper
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is part of the usual treatment in most patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and response after treatment of the primary tumor. Clinical evidence suggests that radiation dose received by the hippocampus during whole brain radiotherapy might play a role in radiation-induced neurocognitive decline. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study is a multicenter phase III trial (NCT02397733) randomizing SCLC patients after informed consent, to receive standard PCI treatment or PCI with hippocampus avoidance (PCI-HA) by using intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy...
May 10, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
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