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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471561/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#1
Jake P Mann, Luca Valenti, Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne, Valerio Nobili
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is one of the most common hepatic diseases in children who present with particular risk factors including obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and/or a predisposing genetic background. The worldwide prevalence of NAFLD in children is a worrying phenomenon because this disease is closely associated with the development of both cirrhosis and cardiometabolic syndrome in adulthood. To date, the etiopathogenesis of primary NAFLD in children is unknown...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471555/-pregnancy-after-obesity-and-metabolic-surgery-risks-and-complications
#2
Christine Stroh, Tanja Groten, Eckehardt Schleussner, Thomas Manger
The increasing prevalence of morbid obesity in Germany is associated with an increasing number of metabolic surgical interventions. Short-term surgical and long-term metabolic complications - such as nutrient deficiencies - are the main risks of metabolic surgery and the resulting malabsorption. Obesity, especially morbid obesity, is associated with a high incidence of female infertility. One important cause of female infertility in obese women is the polycystic ovary syndrome, with 6 - 10%. Metabolic surgery significantly increases the fertility of obese women...
February 22, 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471519/higher-risk-of-abdominal-obesity-elevated-ldl-cholesterol-and-hypertriglyceridemia-but-not-of-hypertension-in-people-living-with-hiv-results-from-the-copenhagen-comorbidity-in-hiv-infection-cocomo-study
#3
Marco Gelpi, Shoaib Afzal, Jens Lundgren, Andreas Ronit, Ashley Roen, Amanda Mocroft, Jan Gerstoft, Anne-Mette Lebech, Birgitte Lindegaard, Klaus Fuglsang Kofoed, Børge G Nordestgaard, Susanne Dam Nielsen
Background: People living with HIV (PLWH) have lower life expectancy than uninfected individuals, partly explained by excess risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and CVD risk factors. We investigated the association between HIV infection and abdominal obesity, elevated LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension, in a large cohort of predominantly well-treated PLWH and matched controls. Methods: 1,099 PLWH from the Copenhagen Co-morbidity in HIV infection (COCOMO) study and 12,161 age and sex-matched uninfected controls from the Copenhagen General Population Study were included and underwent blood pressure, waist-, hip-, weight-, and height-measurements...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471449/obesity-associated-advanced-glycation-end-products-within-the-human-uterine-cavity-adversely-impact-endometrial-function-and-embryo-implantation-competence
#4
Gabriella S Antoniotti, Melinda Coughlan, Lois A Salamonsen, Jemma Evans
STUDY QUESTION: Do obese levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) within the uterine cavity detrimentally alter tissue function in embryo implantation and placental development? SUMMARY ANSWER: Obese levels of AGEs activate inflammatory signaling (p65 NFκB) within endometrial epithelial cells and alter their function, cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endometrial stromal cells and impair decidualization, compromise implantation of blastocyst mimics and inhibit trophoblast invasion...
February 20, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471436/antiandrogen-treatment-ameliorates-reproductive-and-metabolic-phenotypes-in-the-letrozole-induced-mouse-model-of-pcos
#5
Genevieve E Ryan, Shaddy Malik, Pamela L Mellon
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Although its etiology is unknown, excess androgens are thought to be a critical factor driving the pathology of PCOS. We previously demonstrated that continuous exposure to the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (LET) in mice produces many hallmarks of PCOS, including elevated testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormone (LH), anovulation, and obesity...
February 19, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471404/the-war-on-the-placenta-the-differing-battles-of-high-fat-diet-and-obesity
#6
Angela Odle, Melody Allensworth-James, Gwen V Childs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471384/increased-bmi-in-children-an-indicator-for-less-compliance-during-orthodontic-treatment-with-removable-appliances
#7
Julia von Bremen, Nathalie Lorenz, Björn Ludwig, Sabine Ruf
Aim: To assess whether or not childhood overweight is associated with lower levels of compliance during orthodontic therapy with removable appliances. Materials and methods: Starting in 2011, all upper expansion plates and Sander II appliances were equipped with a Theramon® microsensor chip to assess appliance wear time objectively. According to their pre-treatment, BMI normal weight patients were matched to consecutively treated overweight or obese patients by gender, age, and appliance type...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471357/obese-hypertensive-men-have-lower-circulating-proatrial-natriuretic-peptide-concentrations-despite-greater-left-atrial-size
#8
Camilla L Asferg, Ulrik B Andersen, Allan Linneberg, Jens P Goetze, Jørgen L Jeppesen
Background: Obese persons have lower circulating natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations. It has been proposed that this natriuretic handicap plays a role in obesity-related hypertension. In contrast, hypertensive patients with left atrial enlargement have higher circulating NP concentrations. On this background, we investigated whether obese hypertensive men could have lower circulating NP concentrations despite evidence of pressure-induced greater left atrial size. Methods: We examined 98 obese men (body mass index (BMI) ≥30...
February 17, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471174/characterizing-gestational-weight-gain-in-a-cohort-of-indigenous-australian-women
#9
Tracy L Schumacher, Loretta Weatherall, Lyniece Keogh, Kathryn Sutherland, Clare E Collins, Kirsty G Pringle, Kym M Rae
OBJECTIVE: to determine the adequacy of gestational weight gain for a cohort of Indigenous Australian women and investigate whether it is associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index. DESIGN: analysis of observational data collected from a longitudinal cohort study that follows Indigenous Australian women through pregnancy. SETTING: women recruited through antenatal clinics in regional and remote towns in NSW, Australia to the Gomeroi gaaynggal program...
January 31, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471100/dynamic-fmri-networks-predict-success-in-a-behavioral-weight-loss-program-among-older-adults
#10
Fatemeh Mokhtari, W Jack Rejeski, Yingying Zhu, Guorong Wu, Sean L Simpson, Jonathan H Burdette, Paul J Laurienti
More than one-third of adults in the United States are obese, with a higher prevalence among older adults. Obesity among older adults is a major cause of physical dysfunction, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart diseases. Many people who engage in lifestyle weight loss interventions fail to reach targeted goals for weight loss, and most will regain what was lost within 1-2 years following cessation of treatment. This variability in treatment efficacy suggests that there are important phenotypes predictive of success with intentional weight loss that could lead to tailored treatment regimen, an idea that is consistent with the concept of precision-based medicine...
February 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471069/what-s-technology-cooking-up-a-systematic-review-of-the-use-of-technology-in-adolescent-food-literary-programs
#11
REVIEW
Catherine A Wickham, Elena T Carbone
Over one-third of adolescents are overweight or obese. Food literacy (FL), the ability to plan and manage, select, prepare, and eat healthy foods, is a contemporary concept that provides a mechanism to understand the relationship between food-related knowledge and skills and dietary intake. Innovative interventions which focus on the core concepts of FL and include generationally appropriate technology have the potential to provide positive impact on the dietary habits of adolescents. This systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines and employed the Downs and Black criteria for rating studies...
February 19, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471068/weight-loss-decreases-self-reported-appetite-and-alters-food-preferences-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-observational-data-from-the-diogenes-study
#12
Charlotte Andriessen, Pia Christensen, Lone Vestergaard Nielsen, Christian Ritz, Arne Astrup, Thomas Meinert Larsen, J Alfredo Martinez, Wim H M Saris, Marleen A van Baak, Angeliki Papadaki, Marie Kunesova, Susan Jebb, John Blundell, Clare Lawton, Anne Raben
People with obesity often struggle to maintain their weight loss after a weight loss period. Furthermore, the effect of weight loss on appetite and food preferences remains unclear. Hence this study investigated the effect of weight loss on subjective appetite and food preferences in healthy, overweight and obese volunteers. A subgroup of adult participants (n = 123) from the Diet Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study (subgroup A) was recruited from across six European countries. Participants lost ≥8% of initial body weight during an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD)...
February 19, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471012/pediatric-fatty-liver-disease-pefld-all-is-not-nafld-pathophysiological-insights-and-approach-to-management
#13
REVIEW
Robert Hegarty, Maesha Deheragoda, Emer Fitzpatrick, Anil Dhawan
The recognition of a pattern of steatotic liver injury where histology mimicked alcoholic liver disease but alcohol consumption was denied, led to the identification of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has since become the most common chronic liver disease in adults owing to the global epidemic of obesity. However, in pediatrics, the term NAFLD seems incongruous: alcohol consumption is largely not a factor and inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) can mimic or co-exist with a diagnosis of NAFLD...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471000/relationship-between-cerebrospinal-fluid-concentrations-of-orexin-a-hypocretin-1-and-body-composition-in-humans
#14
João C P Santiago, Markus Otto, Werner Kern, Paul Christian Baier, Manfred Hallschmid
The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (hypocretin-1) is a key signal in sleep/wake regulation and promotes food intake. We investigated the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid orexin A concentrations and body composition in non-narcoleptic human subjects with a wide range of body weight to gain insight into the role of orexin A in human metabolism. We collected cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples and measured body composition by bioelectric impedance analysis in 36 subjects (16 women and 20 men) with body mass indices between 16...
February 19, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470797/body-mass-index-is-independently-associated-with-xanthine-oxidase-activity-in-overweight-obese-population
#15
Aleksandra Klisic, Gordana Kocic, Nebojsa Kavaric, Milovan Jovanovic, Verica Stanisic, Ana Ninic
PURPOSE: The pathophysiological mechanism of the relationship between xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and obesity has not been completely elucidated. Since inflammation and oxidative stress are regarded as key determinants of enlarged adipose tissue, we aimed to investigate the association between oxidative stress (as measured with XO activity), inflammation [as measured with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and obesity [as measured with body mass index (BMI)]. In addition, we wanted to examine whether hsCRP itself plays an independent role in XO activity increase or it is only mediated through obesity...
February 22, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470775/influence-of-body-mass-index-in-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-levels-in-951-non-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-women-followed-at-a-reproductive-medicine-unit
#16
Joana Simões-Pereira, Joaquim Nunes, Ana Aguiar, Sandra Sousa, Cátia Rodrigues, Joaquim Sampaio Matias, Carlos Calhaz-Jorge
PURPOSE: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a useful marker of ovarian reserve. Obesity/overweight are increasing and may affect the reproductive health. Previous studies regarding the effect of body mass index (BMI) on AMH levels are discordant. Our main goal was to evaluate the influence of BMI on AMH levels in women without polycystic ovarian syndrome. METHODS: Revision of medical records of 951 women who performed AMH determinations as part of their fertility workup, between 2011 and 2016...
February 22, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470738/prevalence-and-type-ii-diabetes-associated-factors-in-psoriatic-arthritis
#17
Rubén Queiro, Andrés Lorenzo, Estefanía Pardo, Anahy Brandy, Pablo Coto, Javier Ballina
Diabetes is a common cardiovascular risk factor in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Although the prevalence of diabetes is high, the factors associated with it in PsA are poorly understood. We aimed to analyse the prevalence of type II diabetes and diabetes-associated factors in a hospital-based population with PsA. This cross-sectional study included 340 consecutive patients attended in a tertiary care hospital. The prevalence of diabetes was compared to that of 600 outpatients without inflammatory conditions. To analyse diabetes-associated factors, odds ratio (OR) values were calculated by conditional logistic regression analysis...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470636/migration-background-and-childhood-overweight-in-the-hannover-region-in-2010-2014-a-population-based-secondary-data-analysis-of-school-entry-examinations
#18
Yusheng Zhou, Thomas von Lengerke, Ulla Walter, Maren Dreier
Overweight and obesity constitute a global epidemic with rates that are increasing rapidly in children. The aim of the present study was to examine ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight in pre-school children in a multicultural context. Data were collected from a compulsory school entry examination in the Hannover Region, Germany (n = 50,716) from 2010 to 2014. The prevalence of overweight (including pre-obesity and obesity status) and obesity was estimated using a German national reference...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470513/offspring-sex-impacts-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-in-placentae-from-women-with-diabetes-during-pregnancy
#19
Jacqueline Alexander, April M Teague, Jing Chen, Christopher E Aston, Yuet-Kin Leung, Steven Chernausek, Rebecca A Simmons, Sara E Pinney
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that diabetes during pregnancy (DDP) alters genome-wide DNA methylation in placenta resulting in differentially methylated loci of metabolically relevant genes and downstream changes in RNA and protein expression. METHODS: We mapped genome-wide DNA methylation with the Infinium 450K Human Methylation Bead Chip in term fetal placentae from Native American and Hispanic women with DDP using a nested case-control design (n = 17 pairs)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470452/who-environmental-noise-guidelines-for-the-european-region-a-systematic-review-on-environmental-noise-and-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-effects-a-summary
#20
REVIEW
Elise van Kempen, Maribel Casas, Göran Pershagen, Maria Foraster
To update the current state of evidence and assess its quality, we conducted a systematic review on the effects of environmental noise exposure on the cardio-metabolic systems as input for the new WHO environmental noise guidelines for the European Region. We identified 600 references relating to studies on effects of noise from road, rail and air traffic, and wind turbines on the cardio-metabolic system, published between January 2000 and August 2015. Only 61 studies, investigating different end points, included information enabling estimation of exposure response relationships...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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