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Dominic Woolf, Johannes Lehmann, David R Lee
Restricting global warming below 2 °C to avoid catastrophic climate change will require atmospheric carbon dioxide removal (CDR). Current integrated assessment models (IAMs) and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios assume that CDR within the energy sector would be delivered using bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). Although bioenergy-biochar systems (BEBCS) can also deliver CDR, they are not included in any IPCC scenario. Here we show that despite BECCS offering twice the carbon sequestration and bioenergy per unit biomass, BEBCS may allow earlier deployment of CDR at lower carbon prices when long-term improvements in soil fertility offset biochar production costs...
October 21, 2016: Nature Communications
Ivan Ljubic, Aleksandar Sabljic, Marija Bonifacic
The reactions of α-hydroxyalkyl radicals in aqueous medium are of interest because they exhibit a rich variety of fundamentally important competing mechanisms, such as proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), hydrogen atom transfer, free radical substitutions, abstractions and additions etc. We present a theoretical study of the mechanism and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of α-hydroxyisopropyl (2-propanol) radical with four halogenated organic substrates: iodoacetate (IAc), iodoacetamide (IAm), 5-bromouracil (5-BrU), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
M A Cardoso, A Poças, M S Silva, R Ribeiro, M C Almeida, R S Brito, S T Coelho, H Alegre
The requirement to provide urban water services continuously while infrastructures are ageing, imposes the need for increasingly sustainable infrastructure asset management (IAM). To achieve and maintain adequate levels of service, the AWARE-P IAM methodology has been applied in collaborative projects launched by the National Civil Engineering Laboratory, in partnership with IST (Technical University of Lisbon), Addition (software company) and several water utilities. The objective of these projects is to support urban water utilities in the development, implementation and maintenance of IAM plans...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
David J Noble, Daniel Scoffings, Thankamma Ajithkumar, Michael V Williams, Sarah J Jefferies
OBJECTIVE: There is no consensus approach to covering skull base meningeal reflections-and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) therein-of the posterior fossa cranial nerves (CNs VII-XII) when planning radiotherapy (RT) for medulloblastoma and ependymoma. We sought to determine whether MRI and specifically fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequences can answer this anatomical question and guide RT planning. METHODS: 96 posterior fossa FIESTA sequences were reviewed...
September 29, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
R Kumar, N Dattani, O Asaad, M J Bown, R D Sayers, A Saratzis
OBJECTIVES: The management of concomitant intra-abdominal malignancy (IAM) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains a challenge, even though malignancy is common in an elderly population. By means of systematic review and meta-analysis, the aim was to investigate outcomes in patients undergoing open (OAR) or endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) that have a concomitant malignancy. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed (Medline and EMBASE databases) to identify all series reporting outcomes of AAA repair (OAR or EVAR) in patients with concomitant IAM...
August 31, 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Alessandra Souza Barbosa, Márcio T do N Varella, Sergio d'A Sanchez, João Ameixa, Francisco Blanco, Gustavo García, Paulo Limão-Vieira, Filipe Ferreira da Silva, Márcio H F Bettega
In this work, we report theoretical and experimental cross sections for elastic scattering of electrons by chlorobenzene (ClB). The theoretical integral and differential cross sections (DCSs) were obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method implemented with pseudopotentials (SMCPP) and the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The calculations with the SMCPP method were done in the static-exchange (SE) approximation, for energies above 12 eV, and in the static-exchange plus polarization approximation, for energies up to 12 eV...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Oğuzhan Özdemir, Yavuz Metin, Nurgül Orhan Metin, Ali Küpeli, Süleyman Kalcan, Filiz Taşçı
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to search the contribution of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in follow-up of patients with acute appendicitis associated inflammatory appendiceal mass (IAM). DWI was used as a monitoring imaging method to assess the response of medical treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 19 patients (mean age, 37+-13.1; age range, 19-69; M/F: 10/9), presented with clinical, laboratory and computed tomography (CT) findings suggestive of IAM were enrolled prospectively in this study...
2016: European Journal of Radiology Open
Tássia Soldi Tuan, Taís Siqueira Venâncio, Luiz Fernando Costa Nascimento
Background: There is evidence of the effects of air pollution on hospital admissions due to cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction. Objective: To estimate the association between exposure to air pollutants and hospital admissions due to myocardial infarction according to gender, between January 1st 2012 and December 31st 2013, in São Jose dos Campos-SP. Methods: An ecological time series study was carried out with daily data of admissions due to AMI, pollutants CO, O3, PM10, SO2, and NO2, according to gender...
September 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Matthew A Rysavy, Neil Marlow, Lex W Doyle, Jon E Tyson, Frederik Serenius, Jay D Iams, Barbara J Stoll, Keith J Barrington, Edward F Bell
Published reports of extremely preterm birth outcomes provide important information to families, clinicians, and others and are widely used to make clinical and policy decisions. Misreporting or misunderstanding of outcome reports may have significant consequences. This article presents 7 recommendations to improve reporting of extremely preterm birth outcomes in both the primary and secondary literature. The recommendations should facilitate clarity in communication about extremely preterm birth outcomes and increase the value of existing and future work in this area...
September 2016: Pediatrics
William A Grobman, Corette Parker, Pathik D Wadhwa, Marian Willinger, Hyagriv Simhan, Bob Silver, Ron J Wapner, Samuel Parry, Brian Mercer, David Haas, Alan M Peaceman, Shannon Hunter, Deborah Wing, Steve Caritis, Sean Esplin, Matt Hoffman, Jack Ludmir, Jay Iams, Emily Long, George Saade, Uma M Reddy
Background The aim of this study was to determine whether racial/ethnic differences in psychosocial measures, independent of economic status, exist among a large population of pregnant nulliparas. Methods Between October 2010 and September 2013, nulliparous women at eight U.S. medical centers were followed longitudinally during pregnancy and completed validated instruments to quantify several psychosocial domains: Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, trait subscale of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Krieger Racism Scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the Pregnancy Experience Scale...
August 8, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Cheng-Yu Wang, Chun-Wei Chen, Hung-Chang Jau, Cheng-Chang Li, Chiao-Yu Cheng, Chun-Ta Wang, Shi-Ee Leng, Iam-Choon Khoo, Tsung-Hsien Lin
In this paper, we show that anisotropic photosensitive nematic liquid crystals (PNLC) made by incorporating anisotropic absorbing dyes are promising candidates for constructing all-optical elements by virtue of the extraordinarily large optical nonlinearity of the nematic host. In particular, we have demonstrated several room-temperature 'prototype' PNLC-based all-optical devices such as optical diode, optical transistor and all primary logic gate operations (OR, AND, NOT) based on such optical transistor. Owing to the anisotropic absorption property and the optical activity of the twist alignment nematic cell, spatially non-reciprocal transmission response can be obtained within a sizeable optical isolation region of ~210 mW...
2016: Scientific Reports
Candice S Lengyel, Shelley Ehrlich, Jay D Iams, Louis J Muglia, Emily A DeFranco
Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, impact, and interaction of short interpregnancy interval (IPI), pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, and pregnancy weight gain (PWG) on the rate of preterm birth. Methods This is a population-based retrospective cohort study using vital statistics birth records from 2006 to 2011 in OH, US, analyzing singleton live births to multiparous mothers with recorded IPI (n = 393,441). Preterm birth rate at <37 weeks gestational age was compared between the referent pregnancy (defined as normal pre-pregnancy maternal BMI, IPI of 12-24 months, and Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended PWG) and those with short or long IPI, abnormal BMI (underweight, overweight, and obese), and high or low PWG (under or exceeding IOM recommendations)...
August 3, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Tommaso A Dragani, Antoni Castells, Vathany Kulasingam, Eleftherios P Diamandis, Helena Earl, Wade T Iams, Christine M Lovly, J P Michiel Sedelaar, Jack A Schalken
Translational oncology represents a bridge between basic research and clinical practice in cancer medicine. Today, translational research in oncology benefits from an abundance of knowledge resulting from genome-scale studies regarding the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis. In this Forum article, we highlight the state of the art of translational oncology in five major cancer types. We illustrate the use of molecular profiling to subtype colorectal cancer for both diagnosis and treatment, and summarize the results of a nationwide screening program for ovarian cancer based on detection of a tumor biomarker in serum...
2016: BMC Medicine
E L Kneepkens, Iam van den Oever, C H Plasencia, D Pascual-Salcedo, A de Vries, M Hart, M T Nurmohamed, A Balsa, T Rispens, G Wolbink
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) and dynamics of tocilizumab (TCZ) in daily practice. METHOD: An observational study of 66 consecutive RA patients treated with TCZ 8 mg/kg once every 4 weeks intravenously, monitored for 24 weeks. Spearman's rank test was used to investigate the correlation between TCZ concentration and C-reactive protein (CRP). Clinical improvement was assessed at week 24 using the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) compared to baseline, and its relationship with TCZ concentration was investigated using linear regression analyses...
July 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
Antony Millner, Thomas K J McDermott
Benefit-cost integrated assessment models (BC-IAMs) inform climate policy debates by quantifying the trade-offs between alternative greenhouse gas abatement options. They achieve this by coupling simplified models of the climate system to models of the global economy and the costs and benefits of climate policy. Although these models have provided valuable qualitative insights into the sensitivity of policy trade-offs to different ethical and empirical assumptions, they are increasingly being used to inform the selection of policies in the real world...
August 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yikun Liu, You Wu, Chun-Wei Chen, Jianying Zhou, Tsung-Hsien Lin, Iam Choon Khoo
We have experimentally demonstrated the feasibility of direct compression, or stretching and recompression of laser pulses in a very wide temporal time scale spanning 10's fs to ~1 ps time with sub-mm thick cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) cells. The mechanisms at work here are the strong dispersion at the photonic band-edges and nonlinear phase modulation associated with the non-resonant ultrafast molecular electronic optical nonlinearity. The observed pulse compression limit, spectral characteristics and intensity dependence of the compression are in good agreement with theoretical expectations and simulations based on a coupled-mode propagation model...
May 16, 2016: Optics Express
Pradeep Mishra, Suneet Kaur, Amar Nath Sharma, Ravinder S Jolly
Both the enantiomers of 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid are valuable chiral synthons for enantiospecific synthesis of therapeutic agents such as (S)-doxazosin mesylate, WB 4101, MKC 242, 2,3-dihydro-2-hydroxymethyl-1,4-benzodioxin, and N-[2,4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide. Pharmaceutical applications require these enantiomers in optically pure form. However, currently available methods suffer from one drawback or other, such as low efficiency, uncommon and not so easily accessible chiral resolving agent and less than optimal enantiomeric purity...
2016: PloS One
Lucia Grumetto, Giacomo Russo, Francesco Barbato
The affinity indexes for phospholipids (log kW(IAM)) for 42 compounds were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on two different phospholipid-based stationary phases (immobilized artificial membrane, IAM), i.e., IAM.PC.MG and IAM.PC.DD2. The polar/electrostatic interaction forces between analytes and membrane phospholipids (Δlog kW(IAM)) were calculated as the differences between the experimental values of log kW(IAM) and those expected for isolipophilic neutral compounds having polar surface area (PSA) = 0...
August 1, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Ju-Chieh Kevin Cheng, Andre Salomon, Maqsood Yaqub, Ronald Boellaard
PURPOSE: Time-of-flight joint attenuation and activity positron emission tomography reconstruction requires additional calibration (scale factors) or constraints during or post-reconstruction to produce a quantitative μ-map. In this work, the impact of various initializations of the joint reconstruction was investigated, and the initial average mu-value (IAM) method was introduced such that the forward-projection of the initial μ-map is already very close to that of the reference μ-map, thus reducing/minimizing the offset (scale factor) during the early iterations of the joint reconstruction...
July 2016: Medical Physics
Ana Beatriz F Pacheco, Iame A Guedes, Sandra M F O Azevedo
The wide distribution of cyanobacteria in aquatic environments leads to the risk of water contamination by cyanotoxins, which generate environmental and public health issues. Measurements of cell densities or pigment contents allow both the early detection of cellular growth and bloom monitoring, but these methods are not sufficiently accurate to predict actual cyanobacterial risk. To quantify cyanotoxins, analytical methods are considered the gold standards, but they are laborious, expensive, time-consuming and available in a limited number of laboratories...
2016: Toxins
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