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Nerve system.

Wendy Ferguson, Carlana Coogle, Joshua Leppert, Tamara Odom-Maryon
PURPOSE: To improve knowledge and raise awareness of nurses who assist certified registered nurse anesthetists or anesthesiologists with peripheral nerve block or spinal block procedures about a potential life-threatening local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) event. DESIGN: An evidence-based practice project design. METHODS: Nurses in units where nerve block procedures were performed (ie, postanesthesia care unit, preoperative, operating room, outpatient services, labor and delivery unit) received a pretest about their knowledge of LAST events, participated in a 30-minute educational session, and then completed a post-test...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
Ben R Hofma, Hannah R Wardill, Chris Mavrangelos, Melissa A Campaniello, David Dimasi, Joanne M Bowen, Scott D Smid, Claudine S Bonder, Elizabeth A Beckett, Patrick A Hughes
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is characterized by overt inflammation of the intestine and is typically accompanied by symptoms of bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramping. The Colonic Migrating Motor Complex (CMMC) directs the movement of colonic luminal contents over long distances. The tri-nitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) model of colitis causes inflammatory damage to enteric nerves, however it remains to be determined whether these changes translate to functional outcomes in CMMC activity...
2018: PloS One
Colette Ridehalgh, Oliver P Sandy-Hindmarch, Aninna B Schmid
Study Design Prospective, cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study. Background Small nerve fiber degeneration (SFD) commonly occurs in patients with peripheral neuropathies, resulting in deterioration in nerve function. Currently, the gold standard to identify SFD is through skin biopsies. Simple clinical tests aim to identify SFD, but their validity remains unknown. Objectives To examine the validity of clinical tests to assess SFD using carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) as a model system. Methods 107 participants (22 healthy, 85 with CTS) underwent pinprick testing over the index finger, and had cold and warm detection thresholds taken (CDT, WDT) using quantitative sensory testing (QST)...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Xiaotian Zhao, Yun Qian, Yuan Cheng, Xiaoshuang Guo, Wei-En Yuan
Non-viral vector gene delivery is generally limited by its potential toxicity problems, poor transfection abilities, serum stability, or relatively complex construction processes of modified polyplexes. Thus, we develop an efficient and stable polyplex system through convenient construction methods. Here, polyethyleneimine (PEI) 1.8 kDa and glutaraldehyde (GA) are used to construct a novel twice-condensed pDNA polyplex system using a one-pot construction method, including pH-responsive C[double bond, length as m-dash]N linkages by which different PEI molecules on one single polyplex can link with each other...
June 22, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Wei Li, Jing Lin, Tianfu Wang, Peng Huang
The development of materials, chemistry and genetics have created a great number of systems for delivering antibiotics, neuropeptides or other drugs to neurons in neuroscience research, and have also provided important and powerful tools in neuron-related applications. Although these drug delivery systems can facilitate the advancement of neuroscience studies, there are still limited applications due to various drawbacks, such as difficulty in controlling delivery molecules or drugs to the target region, and trouble of releasing them in predictable manners...
June 22, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Carlos Alventosa Mateu, Génesis Aurora Castillo López, Cecilia Albert Antequera
Schwannoma is a mesenchymal tumor that is mainly located in the peripheral nerves or the central nervous system. Its retroperitoneal location is rare and commonly asymptomatic. Thus, it is usually diagnosed when imaging tests are performed for other purposes. The clinical course of Schwannoma is benign but it also has malignant potential. Therefore, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. The definitive diagnosis is anatomopathological. In this context, we present a patient with retroperitoneal Schwannoma...
June 22, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Tilemachos Kavvadias, Birgitt Schoenfisch, Markus Huebner, Sara Y Brucker, Diethelm Wallwiener, Christl Reisenauer
OBJECTIVE: To report the perioperative adverse events associated with nerve-preserving sacropexy for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair and to identify risk factors that could predict possible adverse events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 768 women who underwent sacropexy for POP repair performed by one surgeon using the same technique, beyond the learning curve, over a 10-year period, between January 1st 2007 and December 31st 2016. METHODS: The medical records of 768 women were reviewed for age, body mass index (BMI), tobacco use, previous surgeries (for POP and incontinence, abdominal surgeries in general), operating time, duration of hospitalization and perioperative events at time of surgery and 6 weeks postoperatively...
June 21, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Vesna Bucan, Desiree Vaslaitis, Claas-Tido Peck, Sarah Strauß, Peter M Vogt, Christine Radtke
Peripheral nerve injury requires optimal conditions in both macro-environment and microenvironment for promotion of axonal regeneration. However, most repair strategies of traumatic peripheral nerve injury often lead to dissatisfying results in clinical outcome. Though various strategies have been carried out to improve the macro-environment, the underlying molecular mechanism of axon regeneration in the microenvironment provided by nerve conduit remains unclear. In this study, we evaluate the effects of from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSCs) originating exosomes with respect to sciatic nerve regeneration and neurite growth...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
D Weyhe, J Conze, A Kuthe, F Köckerling, B J Lammers, R Lorenz, H Niebuhr, W Reinpold, K Zarras, R Bittner
SURGICAL TECHNIQUES: The HerniaSurge guidelines have the highest evidence with respect to a strong recommendation for mesh-based surgical techniques. This evidence is equally valid for the Lichtenstein procedure as for the minimally invasive procedures TEP/TAPP. In the case of discrete symptomatic or asymptomatic inguinal hernias, watchful waiting can be an option, taking into account health status and social circumstances. Femoral hernias, on the other hand, should be treated promptly with mesh insertion...
June 21, 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Wenjing Zhang, Cong Ning, Weiguo Xu, Hanze Hu, Mingqiang Li, Guoqing Zhao, Jianxun Ding, Xuesi Chen
Peripheral nerve blockade (PNB) is a conventional strategy for the management of acute postoperative pain. However, the short duration of the associated analgesia and the potential systemic toxicity due to the low molecular weights of local anesthetics limit their application. Methods: An in situ forming injectable Gel-microsphere (Gel-MS) system consisting of PLGA-PEG-PLGA Gel (Gel) and Gel-immobilized bupivacaine-loaded microsphere (MS/BUP) was prepared for precision-guided long-acting analgesia. A series of in vitro characterizations, such as scanning electron microscopy, rheology analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy, drug release, and erosion and degradation, were carried out...
2018: Theranostics
Andrea Porzionato, Elena Stocco, Diego Guidolin, Luigi Agnati, Veronica Macchi, Raffaele De Caro
In the carotid body (CB), a wide series of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators have been identified. They are mainly produced and released by type I cells and act on many different ionotropic and metabotropic receptors located in afferent nerve fibers, type I and II cells. Most metabotropic receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In other transfected or native cells, GPCRs have been demonstrated to establish physical receptor-receptor interactions (RRIs) with formation of homo/hetero-complexes (dimers or receptor mosaics) in a dynamic monomer/oligomer equilibrium...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Clara Penas, Xavier Navarro
Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations lie behind the induction and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain is usually a chronic condition caused by a lesion, or pathological change, within the nervous system. Neuropathic pain appears frequently after nerve and spinal cord injuries or diseases, producing a debilitation of the patient and a decrease of the quality of life. At the cellular level, neuropathic pain is the result of neuronal plasticity shaped by an increase in the sensitivity and excitability of sensory neurons of the central and peripheral nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
M Buzzi, P Versura, B Grigolo, C Cavallo, A Terzi, M Pellegrini, G Giannaccare, V Randi, E C Campos
INTRODUCTION: Various blood-derived products have been proposed for the topical treatment of ocular surface diseases. The aim of the study was to compare the different content of Growth Factors (GFs) and Interleukins (ILs) in peripheral blood (PB-S) and Cord Blood (CB-S) sera. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sera were obtained from 105 healthy adult donors (PB-S) and 107 umbilical/placental veins at the time of delivery (CB-S). The levels of epithelial-GF (EGF), fibroblast-GF (FGF), platelet-derived-GF (PDGF), insulin-GF (IGF), transforming-GF alpha (TGF-α,) and beta 1-2-3 (TGF-β1-β2-β3), vascular endothelial-GF (VEGF), nerve-GF (NGF), Interleukin (IL)-1β,IL-4,IL-6,IL-10, and IL-13 were assessed by Bio-Plex Protein Array System (Bio-Rad Laboratories, CA, USA)...
June 13, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Matthew W McEwen, Elizabeth M Fite, Gil Yosipovitch, Tejesh Patel
Chronic pruritus is a common condition that has a detrimental impact on quality of life. As the molecular pathogenesis of itch is elucidated, novel therapies that disrupt itch pathways are being investigated. Emerging treatments include drugs targeting the neural system, drugs targeting the immune system, antihistamines, bile acid transport inhibitors, and topical drugs that work through a variety of mechanisms such as phosphodiesterase-4 inhibition or targeting of nerve ion channels. Many of these therapies show promising results in the treatment of chronic itch of various etiologies, such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, uremic pruritus, and cholestatic pruritus...
July 2018: Dermatologic Clinics
Claudia Zeidler, Gil Yosipovitch, Sonja Ständer
Prurigo nodularis occurs with chronic pruritus and the presence of single to multiple symmetrically distributed, hyperkeratotic, and intensively itching nodules. Diverse dermatologic, systemic, neurologic, or psychiatric conditions can lead to prurigo nodularis. Structural analysis demonstrated a reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density and increased dermal levels of nerve growth factor and neuropeptides such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide. Novel therapy concepts such as inhibitors at neurokinin-1, opioid receptors, and interleukin-31 receptors have been developed...
July 2018: Dermatologic Clinics
Kuddusi Teberik, Mehmet Tahir Eski
PURPOSE: To evaluate if ABO blood group and Rh factor have an effect on retinal and choroidal thickness. METHODS: This study was designed prospectively. Retinal nerve fiber layer, retinal, and choroidal thicknesses were measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Retinal and choroidal thickness measurements (one subfoveal, three temporal, and three nasal) were obtained at 500-μm intervals up to 1500 μm with the caliper system. RESULTS: In this study, 109 male and 151 female, 260 individuals in total were included...
June 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Liang Xiong, Yu Liu, Mingmin Zhou, Guangji Wang, Dajun Quan, Wei Shuai, Caijie Shen, Bin Kong, Congxin Huang, He Huang
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? In this study, we investigated whether targeted ablation of cardiac sympathetic neurons (TACSN) could suppress myocardial infarction-induced adverse cardiac remodeling and left ventricle dysfunction. What is the main finding and its importance? TACSN significantly alleviated sympathetic remodeling and neuroendocrine activation, attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and improved the left ventricular function. Thus, TACSN may have a beneficial effect on adverse post-infarction remodeling and left ventricle dysfunction...
June 21, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Donald P Tashkin, Nicholas J Gross
Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs), along with long-acting β2 -agonists (LABAs), are the mainstay for treatment of patients with COPD. Glycopyrrolate, or glycopyrronium bromide, like other LAMAs, inhibits parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of acetylcholine to muscarinic receptors. Glycopyrrolate is unusual in that it preferentially binds to M3 over M2 muscarinic receptors, thereby specifically targeting the primary muscarinic receptor responsible for bronchoconstriction occurring in COPD...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Brendan A Bicknell, Zac Pujic, Peter Dayan, Geoffrey J Goodhill
The development of a functional nervous system requires tight control of neurite growth and guidance by extracellular chemical cues. Neurite growth is astonishingly sensitive to shallow concentration gradients, but a widely observed feature of both growth and guidance regulation, with important consequences for development and regeneration, is that both are only elicited over the same relatively narrow range of concentrations. Here we show that all these phenomena can be explained within one theoretical framework...
June 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Jesse J DiCello, Ayame Saito, Pradeep Rajasekhar, Emily M Eriksson, Rachel M McQuade, Cameron J Nowell, Benjamin W Sebastian, Jakub Fichna, Nicholas A Veldhuis, Meritxell Canals, Nigel W Bunnett, Simona Elisa Carbone, Daniel P Poole
Endogenous opioids activate opioid receptors (ORs) in the enteric nervous system to control intestinal motility and secretion. The mu OR mediates the deleterious side effects of opioid analgesics, including constipation, respiratory depression and addiction. Although the delta OR (DOR) is a promising target for analgesia, the function and regulation of DOR in the colon are poorly understood. This study provides evidence that endogenous opioids activate DOR in myenteric neurons which may regulate colonic motility...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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