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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453733/egfp-transgene-a-useful-tool-to-track-transplanted-bone-marrow-mononuclear-cell-contribution-to-peripheral-remyelination
#1
Gonzalo Piñero, Vanina Usach, Paula A Soto, Paula V Monje, Patricia Setton-Avruj
Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) constitute a heterogeneous population with potential to promote tissue regeneration. For this reason, this cell fraction has recently become a therapeutic alternative to mesenchymal stem cells, as culture is not required and phenotypic transformations can be hence avoided. In this work, and in order to attain long-lasting cell labeling and study longer survival times, we used BMMC isolated from adult transgenic rats expressing GFP to reproduce our wild type model and evaluate their remyelination ability in a reversible model of Wallerian degeneration...
February 16, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453470/nerve-conduction-and-heart-rate-variability-in-patients-with-hypothyroidism-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-eastern-nepal
#2
Shital Gupta, Rita Khadka, Dilip Thakur, Robin Maskey, K D Mehta, B H H Paudel
INTRODUCTION: Thyroid hormone effects on many organs including central and peripheral nervous systems. However, these hormones do not affect all systems/organs to a similar extent. Thus, we conducted this study to explore the effect of thyroid hormones on somatic nervous system assessed by Nerve conduction study and cardiac autonomic activity assessed by heart rate variability. METHODS: The study included newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients and healthy controls...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451852/delta-opioids-neuroprotective-roles-in-preclinical-studies
#3
Shahid Husain
Since ancient times, opioids have been used clinically and abused recreationally. In the early stages (about 1,000 AD) of opium history, an Arab physician, Avicenna, administered opioids to control diarrhea and eye diseases. 1 Opioids have very strong pain relieving properties and they also regulate numerous cellular responses. Opioid receptors are expressed throughout the body, including the nervous system, heart, lungs, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and retina. 2-6 Delta opioid receptors (DORs) are a very attractive target from the perspective of both receptor function and their therapeutic potential...
January 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451456/clival-meningocele-causing-bilateral-hearing-loss-in-a-child-due-to-superficial-siderosis-of-the-central-nervous-system-case-report
#4
Stephen J Johans, Kevin N Swong, Daniel J Burkett, Michael P Wemhoff, Sean M Lew, Chirag R Patel, Anand V Germanwala
Superficial siderosis (SS) of the CNS is a rare and often unrecognized condition. Caused by hemosiderin deposition from chronic, repetitive hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space, it results in parenchymal damage in the subpial layers of the brain and spinal cord. T2-weighted MRI shows the characteristic hypointensity of hemosiderin deposition, classically occurring around the cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. Patients present with progressive gait ataxia and sensorineural hearing impairment. Although there have been several studies, case reports, and review articles over the years, the clear pathophysiology of subarachnoid space hemorrhage remains to be elucidated...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451447/peripheral-nerve-grafts-implanted-into-the-substantia-nigra-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-during-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery-1-year-follow-up-study-of-safety-feasibility-and-clinical-outcome
#5
Craig G van Horne, Jorge E Quintero, John T Slevin, Amelia Anderson-Mooney, Julie A Gurwell, Andrew S Welleford, John R Lamm, Renee P Wagner, Greg A Gerhardt
OBJECTIVE Currently, there is no treatment that slows or halts the progression of Parkinson's disease. Delivery of various neurotrophic factors to restore dopaminergic function has become a focus of study in an effort to fill this unmet need for patients with Parkinson's disease. Schwann cells provide a readily available source of such factors. This study presents a 12-month evaluation of safety and feasibility, as well as the clinical response, of implanting autologous peripheral nerve grafts into the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease at the time of deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451218/pten-knockdown-with-the-y444f-mutant-aav2-vector-promotes-axonal-regeneration-in-the-adult-optic-nerve
#6
Zheng-Ru Huang, Hai-Ying Chen, Zi-Zhong Hu, Ping Xie, Qing-Huai Liu
The lack of axonal regeneration is the major cause of vision loss after optic nerve injury in adult mammals. Activating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway has been shown to enhance the intrinsic growth capacity of neurons and to facilitate axonal regeneration in the central nervous system after injury. The deletion of the mTOR negative regulator phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) enhances regeneration of adult corticospinal neurons and ganglion cells. In the present study, we used a tyrosine-mutated (Y444F) AAV2 vector to efficiently express a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for silencing PTEN expression in retinal ganglion cells...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451213/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-versus-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#7
Marcela Fernandes, Sandra Gomes Valente, Rodrigo Guerra Sabongi, João Baptista Gomes Dos Santos, Vilnei Mattioli Leite, Henning Ulrich, Arthur Andrade Nery, Maria José da Silva Fernandes
Studies have confirmed that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used for treatment of several nervous system diseases. However, isolation of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) is an invasive and painful process and the yield is very low. Therefore, there is a need to search for other alterative stem cell sources. Adipose-derived MSCs (ADSCs) have phenotypic and gene expression profiles similar to those of BMSCs. The production of ADSCs is greater than that of BMSCs, and ADSCs proliferate faster than BMSCs...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451204/conundrums-and-confusions-regarding-how-polyethylene-glycol-fusion-produces-excellent-behavioral-recovery-after-peripheral-nerve-injuries
#8
REVIEW
George D Bittner, Dale R Sengelaub, Cameron L Ghergherehchi
Current Neuroscience dogma holds that transections or ablations of a segment of peripheral nerves produce: (1) Immediate loss of axonal continuity, sensory signaling, and motor control; (2) Wallerian rapid (1-3 days) degeneration of severed distal axons, muscle atrophy, and poor behavioral recovery after many months (if ever, after ablations) by slowly-regenerating (1 mm/d), proximal-stump outgrowths that must specifically reinnervate denervated targets; (3) Poor acceptance of microsutured nerve allografts, even if tissue-matched and immune-suppressed...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451203/a-growing-field-the-regulation-of-axonal-regeneration-by-wnt-signaling
#9
REVIEW
Armando L Garcia, Adanna Udeh, Karthik Kalahasty, Abigail S Hackam
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a highly conserved signaling cascade that plays critical roles during embryogenesis. Wnt ligands regulate axonal extension, growth cone guidance and synaptogenesis throughout the developing central nervous system (CNS). Recently, studies in mammalian and fish model systems have demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling also promotes axonal regeneration in the adult optic nerve and spinal cord after injury, raising the possibility that Wnt could be developed as a therapeutic strategy...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450539/retinothalamic-white-matter-abnormalities-in-amblyopia
#10
Brian Allen, Melanie A Schmitt, Burton J Kushner, Bas Rokers
Purpose: Amblyopia is associated with a broad array of perceptual and neural abnormalities in the visual system, particularly in untreated or unsuccessfully treated populations. Traditionally, it has been believed that the neural abnormalities are confined to the visual cortex and subcortex (e.g., lateral geniculate nucleus). Here, we investigate the presence of neuroanatomical abnormalities earlier in the visual stream, in the optic nerves and tracts, of participants with two predominant forms of amblyopia...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450380/can-optical-coherence-tomography-redefine-amblyopia
#11
REVIEW
Elena Avram
Introduction: For many years, amblyopia was regarded as a disorder of the visual system in which an organic cause could not be identified. Optical Coherence Tomography opens new horizons in understanding the etiopathology of amblyopia and seems to highlight morphologic anomalies in the retina of the amblyopic eye. Purpose: The objective of this paper is to analyze the macular thickness, optic nerve changes, and choroidal thickness found in patients diagnosed with amblyopia based on trials reported in the literature...
April 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449010/a-brief-report-of-plexiform-neurofibroma
#12
Mahdi Khajavi Md, Shahrokh Khoshsirat Md, Lida Ahangarnazari Md, Niloofar Majdinasab Md
Plexiform neurofibroma (PNF) is a rare variant of neurofibromatosis type1 (NF-1), which histopathologically, is a subtype of benign nerve sheath tumors, neurofibromas (NF). It develops as a result of proliferation in all parts of peripheral nervous system and can cause the functional damage, deformities, pain, considerable mortality, and morbidity and even the increasing risk of malignant transformation in some critical cases. Currently, the surgical intervention is the treatment of choice for PNF patients, which due to the tumor invasion, massive growth, and the chance of postoperative regrowth is not possible...
January 10, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447836/sensory-denervation-of-inguinal-white-fat-modifies-sympathetic-outflow-to-white-and-brown-fat-in-siberian-hamsters
#13
REVIEW
Ngoc Ly T Nguyen, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) have sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and sensory innervations. Previous studies from our laboratory revealed central neuroanatomical evidence of WAT sensory and BAT SNS crosstalk with double labeling of inguinal WAT (IWAT) sensory and interscapular BAT (IBAT) SNS neurons. We previously demonstrated that WAT lipolysis increases IBAT temperature, but this effect is absent when IWAT afferents are surgically denervated, which severs both sensory and SNS nerves...
February 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447138/inflammation-in-the-pathophysiology-of-neuropathic-pain
#14
Claudia Sommer, Mathias Leinders, Nurcan Üçeyler
Peripheral nerve injuries and diseases often lead to pain persisting beyond the resolution of damage, indicating an active disease-promoting process, which may result in chronic pain. This is regarded as a maladaptive mechanism resulting from neuroinflammation that originally serves to promote regeneration and healing. Knowledge on these physiological and pathophysiological processes has accumulated over the last few decades and has started to yield potential therapeutic targets. Key players are macrophages, T-lymphocytes, cytokines, and chemokines...
March 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445951/full-endoscopic-lumbar-interbody-fusion-felif-technical-note
#15
Myung Soo Youn, Jong Ki Shin, Tae Sik Goh, Jung Sub Lee
PURPOSE: Interbody fusion by open discectomy is the usual treatment for degenerative lumbar disease but requires a relatively long recovery period. Prevalent several interbody fusion methods have shown limitations by its own character. Full endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion (FELIF) has advantages in direct decompression of pathology with minimal invasive technique. We report novel technique of endoscopic fusion method through full guided with endoscopic view monitoring system. METHODS: The authors provide an introduction of FELIF technique followed by a description of the technical steps with discussion on its indications and advantages...
February 14, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445295/the-effect-of-exercise-frequency-on-neuropathic-pain-and-pain-related-cellular-reactions-in-the-spinal-cord-and-midbrain-in-a-rat-sciatic-nerve-injury-model
#16
Megumi Sumizono, Harutoshi Sakakima, Shotaro Otsuka, Takuto Terashi, Kazuki Nakanishi, Koki Ueda, Seiya Takada, Kiyoshi Kikuchi
Background: Exercise regimens are established methods that can relieve neuropathic pain. However, the relationship between frequency and intensity of exercise and multiple cellular responses of exercise-induced alleviation of neuropathic pain is still unclear. We examined the influence of exercise frequency on neuropathic pain and the intracellular responses in a sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Materials and methods: Rats were assigned to four groups as follows: CCI and high-frequency exercise (HFE group), CCI and low-frequency exercise (LFE group), CCI and no exercise (No-Ex group), and naive animals (control group)...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443798/clinical-features-imaging-and-natural-history-of-myelinated-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer
#17
Raksha Rao, Elif B Turkoglu, Emil A T Say, Carol L Shields
PURPOSE: To evaluate the natural history of myelinated retinal nerve fiber layer (MRNFL) through clinical features and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. METHODS: This is a retrospective, noncomparative, case series of patients who underwent thorough clinical examination to document associated ocular and systemic features. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography was performed when MRNFL was located posteriorly and accessible to imaging...
February 13, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440757/the-primodos-components-norethisterone-acetate-and-ethinyl-estradiol-induce-developmental-abnormalities-in-zebrafish-embryos
#18
Samantha Brown, Lucas Rosa Fraga, Gary Cameron, Lynda Erskine, Neil Vargesson
Primodos was a hormone pregnancy test used between 1958-1978 that has been implicated with causing a range of birth defects ever since. Though Primodos is no longer used, it's components, Norethisterone acetate and Ethinyl estradiol, are used in other medications today including treatments for endometriosis and contraceptives. However, whether Primodos caused birth defects or not remains controversial, and has been little investigated. Here we used the developing zebrafish embryo, a human cell-line and mouse retinal explants to investigate the actions of the components of Primodos upon embryonic and tissue development...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439512/the-influence-of-inflammation-and-nerve-damage-on-the-neurochemical-characterization-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-like-immunoreactive-cgrp-li-neurons-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-descending-colon
#19
Krystyna Makowska, Slawomir Gonkowski
The enteric nervous system (ENS), localized in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, regulates the functions of the intestine using a wide range of neuronally-active substances. One of them is the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), whose participation in pathological states in the large intestine remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of inflammation and nerve damage using a double immunofluorescence technique to neurochemically characterize CGRP-positive enteric nervous structures in the porcine descending colon...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436056/assessing-neuropathic-pain-in-patients-with-low-back-related-leg-pain-comparing-the-paindetect-questionnaire-with-the-2016-neupsig-grading-system
#20
Eivind Hasvik, Anne Julsrud Haugen, Johannes Gjerstad, Lars Grøvle
BACKGROUND: Low back-related leg pain with nerve root involvement is conceptually regarded as a neuropathic condition. However, it is uncertain to what extent patients with this condition can be formally classified with neuropathic pain. METHOD: First, we used the 2016 revision of the IASP Special Interest Group on Neuropathic Pain (NeuPSIG) grading system for neuropathic pain to grade patients suffering from low back-related leg pain and a corresponding disc herniation with either unlikely, possible, probable or definite neuropathic pain...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
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