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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635423/inner-retinal-dystrophy-in-a-patient-with-biallelic-sequence-variants-in-brat1
#1
Julius T Oatts, Jacque L Duncan, Creig S Hoyt, Anne M Slavotinek, Anthony T Moore
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the BRCA1-associated protein required for the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) activation-1 (BRAT1) gene cause lethal neonatal rigidity and multifocal seizure syndrome characterized by rigidity and intractable seizures and a milder phenotype with intellectual disability, seizures, nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia or dyspraxia, and cerebellar atrophy. To date, nystagmus, cortical visual impairment, impairment of central vision, optic nerve hypoplasia, and optic atrophy have been described in this condition...
March 2, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634693/rhepo-enhances-cellular-anti-oxidant-capacity-to-protect-long-term-cultured-aging-primary-nerve-cells
#2
Huqing Wang, Jiaxin Fan, Mengyi Chen, Qingling Yao, Zhen Gao, Guilian Zhang, Haiqin Wu, Xiaorui Yu
Erythropoietin (EPO) may protect the nervous system of animals against aging damage, making it a potential anti-aging drug for the nervous system. However, experimental evidence from natural aging nerve cell models is lacking, and the efficacy of EPO and underlying mechanism of this effect warrant further study. Thus, the present study used long-term cultured primary nerve cells to successfully mimic the natural aging process of nerve cells. Starting on the 11th day of culture, cells were treated with different concentrations of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634493/an-exceptional-case-of-intraparotid-plexiform-neurofibroma-originating-from-autonomic-fibers-of-the-auriculotemporal-nerve
#3
Sarantis Blioskas, Sotiris Sotiriou, Katerina Rizou, Triantafyllia Koletsa, Petros Karkos, Anna Kalogera-Fountzila, Konstantinos Markou
Plexiform neurofibromas are benign tumors that tend to occur in patients suffering from neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). This report addresses a rare case where the tumor affected the parotid gland, deriving almost exclusively from the peripheral portion of the facial nerve. A 6-year-old male was referred to us complaining about a gradually enlarging swelling over the right parotid area. Imaging localized the lesion to the superficial lobe of the parotid gland, suggesting a neurofibroma. Cosmetic disfigurement and a functional deficit led us to perform complete surgical resection...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632177/the-intersection-of-ngf-trka-signaling-and-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing-in-alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathology
#4
REVIEW
Nadia Canu, Giuseppina Amadoro, Viviana Triaca, Valentina Latina, Valentina Sposato, Veronica Corsetti, Cinzia Severini, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Pietro Calissano
Dysfunction of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its high-affinity Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) receptor has been suggested to contribute to the selective degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) associated with the progressive cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this review is to describe our progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamic interplay between NGF/TrkA signaling and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism within the context of AD neuropathology...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632031/mr-imaging-of-the-anterior-visual-pathway-in-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-correlation-with-octopus-101-perimetry-and-spectralis-optical-coherence-tomography-findings
#5
Mehmet Giray Ersoz, Yeliz Pekcevik, Emre Ayintap, İrfan Botan Gunes, Duygu Kunak Mart, Ersin Yucel, Gamze Türe
PURPOSE: To investigate structural changes in the visual pathway measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its relationship with the clinical severity of glaucoma in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 28 patients with POAG and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. All the subjects underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the peripapillary retina nerve fiber layer (RNFL). The optic nerve diameter (OND), chiasma height (Ch), and lateral geniculate nucleus height (LGNh) were measured bilaterally using a 1...
February 28, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632028/the-effect-of-combined-systemic-erythropoietin-and-steroid-on-non-arteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-a-prospective-study
#6
Mohammad Pakravan, Hamed Esfandiari, Kiana Hassanpour, Sarvnaz Razavi, Parastou Pakravan
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of combined intravenous (IV) erythropoietin (EPO) and corticosteroid as well as systemic steroid alone for the treatment of non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). METHODS: In this prospective interventional comparative case series, 113 consecutive patients diagnosed with recent onset (less than 14 days) NAION were included. Patients were categorized into three groups. 40 patients received systemic IV corticosteroid combined with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) (group 1), 43 patients received systemic corticosteroid alone (group 2), and 30 patients were enrolled as the control group (group 3)...
February 26, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631296/hydrogen-sulphide-as-a-signaling-molecule-regulating-physiopathological-processes-in-gastrointestinal-motility
#7
REVIEW
M Jimenez, V Gil, M Martinez-Cutillas, N Mañé, D Gallego
The biology of H2 S is an emerging area of research since several biological functions have been recently attributed to this gaseous molecule in a vast number of regions including the cardiovascular, urogenital, respiratory, digestive and central nervous system. H2 S exerts anti-inflammatory effects and can be considered an endogenous mediator with potential effects on gastrointestinal motility. During the last years, our research group has investigated the role of H2 S as a regulator of gastrointestinal motility using both animal and human tissues...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630892/disruption-of-the-axonal-trafficking-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-mrna-impairs-catecholamine-biosynthesis-in-the-axons-of-sympathetic-neurons
#8
Armaz Aschrafi, Anthony E Gioio, Lijin Dong, Barry B Kaplan
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters. In a previous communication, evidence was provided that TH mRNA is trafficked to the axon, where it is locally translated. In addition, a 50-bp sequence element in the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of TH mRNA was identified that directs TH mRNA to distal axons (i.e., zip-code). In the present study, the hypothesis was tested that local translation of TH plays an important role in the biosynthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters in the axon and/or presynaptic nerve terminal...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630754/nerve-injuries-of-the-upper-extremity-and-hand
#9
Lars B Dahlin, Mikael Wiberg
A nerve injury has a profound impact on the patient's daily life due to the impaired sensory and motor function, impaired dexterity, sensitivity to cold as well as eventual pain problems.To perform an appropriate treatment of nerve injuries, a correct diagnosis must be made, where the injury is properly classified, leading to an optimal surgical approach and technique, where timing of surgery is also important for the outcome.Knowledge about the nerve regeneration process, where delicate processes occur in neurons, non-neuronal cells (i...
May 2017: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629826/silencing-of-fkbp51-alleviates-the-mechanical-pain-threshold-inhibits-drg-inflammatory-factors-and-pain-mediators-through-the-nf-kappab-signaling-pathway
#10
Hong-Mei Yu, Qi Wang, Wen-Bo Sun
Neuropathic pain is chronic pain caused by lesions or diseases of the somatosensory system, currently available analgesics provide only temporal relief. The precise role of FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51) in neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) is not clear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of FKBP51 in neuropathic pain in the rat model of CCI. Our results showed that FKBP51 was obviously upregulated in a time-dependent manner in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in CCI rats...
June 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629517/erythropoietin-mediated-neuroprotection-in-insects-suggests-a-prevertebrate-evolution-of-erythropoietin-like-signaling
#11
Ralf Heinrich, Verena Günther, Natasa Miljus
The cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) mediates protective and regenerative functions in mammalian nervous systems via activation of poorly characterized receptors that differ from the "classical" homodimeric Epo receptor expressed on erythroid progenitor cells. Epo genes have been identified in vertebrate species ranging from human to fish, suggesting that Epo signaling evolved earlier than the vertebrate lineage. Studies on insects (Locusta migratoria, Chorthippus biguttulus, Tribolium castaneum) revealed Epo-mediated neuroprotection and neuroregeneration...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628030/a-novel-flexible-cuff-like-microelectrode-for-dual-purpose-acute-and-chronic-electrical-interfacing-with-the-mouse-cervical-vagus-nerve
#12
April Shawn Caravaca, Téa Tsaava, Laura Goldman, Harold Silverman, Gary Riggott, Sangeeta Chavan, Chad Bouton, Kevin J Tracey, Robert Desimone, Ed Boyden, Harbaljit Singh Sohal, Peder S Olofsson
OBJECTIVE: Neural reflexes establish homeostasis and regulate the immune system. Advances in bioelectronic medicine indicate that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can be used to treat inflammatory disease, yet the understanding of neural signals that regulate inflammation is incomplete. Current interfaces with the vagus nerve do not permit effective chronic stimulation or recording in mouse models, which is vital to studying the molecular and neurophysiological mechanisms that control inflammation homeostasis in health and disease...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627589/effect-of-the-spinal-apelin%C3%A2-apj-system-on-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-constriction-injury%C3%A2-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#13
Qingming Xiong, Wanyou He, Hanbing Wang, Jun Zhou, Yajun Zhang, Jian He, Chengxiang Yang, Bin Zhang
Apelin is hypothesized to serve a dual function in pain processing. Spinal administration of apelin induces hyperalgesia, while opioid receptors are implicated in the antinociceptive effects of apelin in acute nociceptive models. However, whether the apelin‑apelin receptor (APJ) system is involved in neuropathic pain remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact and mechanism of the spinal apelin‑APJ system in neuropathic pain. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve produced sustained spinal apelin and APJ upregulation, which was associated with mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia development in the hind‑paw plantar surface...
June 9, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626999/presence-of-time-dependent-diffusion-in-the-brachial-plexus
#14
Zaid B Mahbub, Andrew M Peters, Penny A Gowland
PURPOSE: This work describes the development of a method to measure the variation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with diffusion time (Δ) in the brachial plexus, as a potential method of probing microstructure. METHODS: Diffusion-weighted MRI with body signal suppression was used to highlight the nerves from surrounding tissues, and sequence parameters were optimized for sensitivity to change with diffusion time. A porous media-restricted diffusion model based on the Latour-Mitra equation was fitted to the diffusion time-dependent ADC data from the brachial plexus nerves and cord...
June 19, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626522/study-of-para-quinone-methide-precursors-toward-the-realkylation-of-aged-acetylcholinesterase
#15
Ryan J Yoder, Qinggeng Zhuang, Jeremy M Beck, Andrew Franjesevic, Travis G Blanton, Sydney Sillart, Tyler Secor, Leah Guerra, Jason D Brown, Carolyn Reid, Craig A McElroy, Özlem Doğan Ekici, Christopher S Callam, Christopher M Hadad
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential enzyme that can be targeted by organophosphorus (OP) compounds, including nerve agents. Following exposure to OPs, AChE becomes phosphylated (inhibited) and undergoes a subsequent aging process where the OP-AChE adduct is dealkylated. The aged AChE is unable to hydrolyze acetylcholine, resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) and elsewhere. Current therapeutics are only capable of reactivating inhibited AChE. There are no known therapeutic agents to reverse the aging process or treat aged AChE...
June 8, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625489/diosmin-reduces-chronic-constriction-injury-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-mice
#16
Mariana M Bertozzi, Ana C Rossaneis, Victor Fattori, Daniela T Longhi-Balbinot, Andressa Freitas, Fernando Q Cunha, José C Alves-Filho, Thiago M Cunha, Rubia Casagrande, Waldiceu A Verri
Injury or dysfunction of somatosensory system induces a complex syndrome called neuropathic pain, which still needs adequate pharmacological control. The current pharmacological treatments were in part developed from natural compounds. Flavonoids are natural polyphenolic molecules presenting varied biological activities and low toxicity. The flavonoid diosmin is a safe compound with good tolerability and low toxicity. This study evaluated the antinociceptive effect of diosmin in the sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain model...
June 15, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625397/quantitative-evaluation-of-heartbeat-interval-time-series-using-poincar%C3%A3-analysis-reveals-distinct-patterns-of-heart-rate-dynamics-during-cycles-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#17
Imad Libbus, Bruce D Nearing, Badri Amurthur, Bruce H KenKnight, Richard L Verrier
BACKGROUND: Optimization of stimulation parameters is essential to maximizing therapeutic efficacy and minimizing side effects. METHODS: The ANTHEM-HF study enrolled patients with heart failure who received chronic autonomic regulation therapy (ART) with an implantable vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) system on either the right (n=30) or left side (n=29). Acute effects of continuously cycling VNS on R-R interval dynamics were evaluated using post hoc Poincaré analysis of ECG recordings collected during multiple titration sessions over an 8-12week period...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625252/-cerebral-injury-induced-by-heat-stroke-and-the-therapeutic-effect-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy
#18
Xiaoxiao Ni, Zhifeng Liu, Qiuyou Xie, Huasheng Tong, Lei Su, Ronghao Yu
With the global warming, the incidence of heat stroke was significantly higher than before. Severe heat stroke has a high mortality, high morbidity and consolidated central nervous system injury characteristics. The main features of severe heat stroke cerebral injury include cognitive impairment, delirium, convulsions and coma. Its mechanism is related with heat shock induced cerebral tissue ischemia and hypoxia, vascular dysfunction, secondary cascade inflammation and so on. Currently, the main treatment of heat stroke cerebral injury is the hypothermia therapy, dehydration for the reduction of intracranial pressure, naloxone and other cerebral protection and nutrition treatments...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625139/targeting-cholinergic-system-to-modulate-liver-injury
#19
Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Vikrant P Rachakonda, Sandeep Khurana
Over the past few decades, evidence accumulated to indicate that parasympathetic innervation regulates liver injury and regeneration. Liver derives its parasympathetic input via vagus nerve. In animal models, vagus nerve stimulation and transection are frequently used to determine the impact of parasympathetic input on liver injury responses. Such strategies provide limited understanding of post-neuronal mechanisms involved in regulation of liver injury. The hepatic branch of vagus nerve releases acetylcholine (ACh), which activates muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in hepatocytes as well as non-parenchymal cells to modulate cellular functions...
June 18, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624955/presynaptic-inhibition-of-nociceptive-neurotransmission-by-somatosensory-neuron-secreted-suppressors
#20
REVIEW
Kaicheng Li, Bing Cai, Changlin Li, Xu Zhang
Noxious stimuli cause pain by activating cutaneous nociceptors. The Aδ- and C-fibers of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons convey the nociceptive signals to the laminae I-II of spinal cord. In the dorsal horn of spinal cord, the excitatory afferent synaptic transmission is regulated by the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid and modulators such as opioid peptides released from the spinal interneurons, and by serotonin, norepinepherine and dopamine from the descending inhibitory system. In contrast to the accumulated evidence for these central inhibitors and their neural circuits in the dorsal spinal cord, the knowledge about the endogenous suppressive mechanisms in nociceptive DRG neurons remains very limited...
June 15, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
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