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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822987/effects-of-a-water-extract-of-lepidium-meyenii-root-in-different-models-of-persistent-pain-in-rats
#1
Barbara Tenci, Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Mario Maresca, Laura Micheli, Giuseppe Pieraccini, Nadia Mulinacci, Carla Ghelardini
Lepidium meyenii (Walp.), commonly called maca, is an Andean crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family. Maca hypocotils are habitually consumed as customary food as well as traditional remedies for pathological conditions such as infertility. Moreover, the characterization of maca extracts revealed the presence of compounds that are able to modulate the nervous system. Aimed to evaluate the efficacy of L. meyenii in persistent pain, the present study analyzed the effects of a commercial root extract from maca in different animal models reproducing the most common causes of chronic painful pathologies...
August 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822864/tailoring-the-wettability-and-mechanical-properties-of-electrospun-poly-l-lactic-acid-poly-glycerol-sebacate-core-shell-membranes-for-biomedical-applications
#2
Yi Yan, Vitor Sencadas, Tiantian Jin, Xufeng Huang, Jun Chen, Dongbin Wei, Zhengyi Jiang
Tissue and biomedical engineering fields are in constant mutation and in searching for innovative processing techniques capable to tailor the material properties. In this work, poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and elastomeric poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) were dissolved in the same solvents and electrospun together, in a single needle system. A core-shell structure where the hydrophilic PGS was placed onto the surface of the hydrophobic PLLA fibre was obtained for elastomeric concentrations up to 25wt%. It was found that the PLLA:PGS blends are immiscible and the blends present the melting temperatures of the individual polymers...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822786/leptin-is-essential-for-spinal-microglial-activation-and-neuropathic-pain-after-preganglionic-cervical-root-avulsion
#3
Kai-Ting Chang, Yi-Lo Lin, Chi-Te Lin, Chen-Jei Hong, May-Jywan Tsai, Wen-Cheng Huang, Yang-Hsin Shih, Yi-Yen Lee, Henrich Cheng, Ming-Chao Huang
AIMS: Preganglionic cervical root avulsion (PCRA) affects both the peripheral and central nervous systems and is often associated with neuropathic pain. Unlike peripheral nerve injuries (PNI), central lesions caused by disruption of cervical roots from the spinal cord following PCRA contribute to the generation of neuropathic pain. Leptin is involved in the development of neuropathic pain after PNI by affecting neurons. However, whether leptin is involved in microglial activation leading to neuropathic pain after PCRA is unknown...
August 16, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821680/cortical-representations-of-speech-in-a-multi-talker-auditory-scene
#4
Krishna C Puvvada, Jonathan Z Simon
The ability to parse a complex auditory scene into perceptual objects is facilitated by a hierarchical auditory system. Successive stages in the hierarchy transform an auditory scene of multiple overlapping sources, from peripheral tonotopically-based representations in the auditory nerve, into perceptually distinct auditory-objects based representation in auditory cortex. Here, using magneto-encephalo-graphy (MEG) recordings from human subjects, both men and women, we investigate how a complex acoustic scene consisting of multiple speech sources is represented in distinct hierarchical stages of auditory cortex...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821276/inflammatory-demyelination-alters-subcortical-visual-circuits
#5
Sheila Espírito Santo Araújo, Henrique Rocha Mendonça, Natalie A Wheeler, Paula Campello-Costa, Kimberle M Jacobs, Flávia C A Gomes, Michael A Fox, Babette Fuss
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease classically associated with axonal damage and loss; more recently, however, synaptic changes have been recognized as additional contributing factors. An anatomical area commonly affected in MS is the visual pathway; yet, changes other than those associated with inflammatory demyelination of the optic nerve, i.e., optic neuritis, have not been described in detail. METHODS: Adult mice were subjected to a diet containing cuprizone to mimic certain aspects of inflammatory demyelination as seen in MS...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821138/biocompatible-chitin-carbon-nanotubes-composite-hydrogels-as-neuronal-growth-substrates
#6
Shuangquan Wu, Bo Duan, Ang Lu, Yanfeng Wang, Qifa Ye, Lina Zhang
In the past decades, extensive studies have demonstrated that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) could promote cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of neuronal cells. However, the potential cytotoxicity in biological systems severely restricted the utilization of CNTs as substrates for neural growth. In this study, biocompatible chitin/carbon nanotubes (Ch/CNT) composite hydrogels were developed via blending modified CNTs with chitin solution in 11wt% NaOH/4wt% urea aqueous system, and subsequently regenerating in ethanol...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820625/multimodal-image-analysis-of-the-retina-in-hunter-syndrome-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii-case-report
#7
Isadora Darriba Macedo Salvucci, Simone Finzi, Maria Kiyoko Oyamada, Chong Ae Kim, Sérgio Luis Gianotti Pimentel
INTRODUCTION: We report a case of retinal and posterior ocular findings in a 33-year-old man diagnosed with Hunter syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis type II) in a multimodal imaging way. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient was complaining of blurred night vision for the past 3 years. He had not received any systemic treatment for Hunter syndrome. Vision acuity was 20/20 in both eyes and corneas were clear. Fundus examination revealed bilateral crowded and hyperemic optic nerve heads (elevated in the ocular ultrasound) and areas of subretinal hypopigmentation...
August 18, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818455/adipose-derived-stromal-cells-enhance-auditory-neuron-survival-in-an-animal-model-of-sensory-hearing-loss
#8
Philipp Schendzielorz, Maike Vollmer, Kristen Rak, Armin Wiegner, Nashwa Nada, Katrin Radeloff, Rudolf Hagen, Andreas Radeloff
BACKGROUND: A cochlear implant (CI) is an electronic prosthesis that can partially restore speech perception capabilities. Optimum information transfer from the cochlea to the central auditory system requires a proper functioning auditory nerve (AN) that is electrically stimulated by the device. In deafness, the lack of neurotrophic support, normally provided by the sensory cells of the inner ear, however, leads to gradual degeneration of auditory neurons with undesirable consequences for CI performance...
August 14, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818271/the-vestibulocochlear-bases-for-wartime-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-manifestations
#9
T A Tigno, R A Armonda, R S Bell, M A Severson
Preliminary findings based on earlier retrospective studies of 229 wartime head injuries managed by the Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC)/National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) Neurosurgery Service during the period 2003-08 detected a threefold rise in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) manifestations (10.45%) among Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) having concomitant vestibulocochlear injuries compared to 3% for the TBI group without vestibulo-cochlear damage (VCD), prompting the authors to undertake a more focused study of the vestibulo-auditory pathway in explaining the development of posttraumatic stress disorder manifestations among the mostly Blast-exposed head-injured...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817389/congenital-anomalies-of-the-optic-disc-insights-from-optical-coherence-tomography-imaging
#10
Karen W Jeng-Miller, Dean M Cestari, Eric D Gaier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Congenital anomalies of the optic nerve are rare but significant causes of visual dysfunction in children and adults. Accurate diagnosis is dependent on a thorough funduscopic examination, but can be enhanced by imaging information garnered from optical coherence tomography (OCT). We review common congenital optic nerve anomalies, including optic disc pit, optic nerve coloboma, morning glory disc anomaly, and hypoplasia of the optic nerve, review their systemic associations, and discuss insights from OCT imaging...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817239/novel-dissection-of-the-central-nervous-system-to-bridge-gross-anatomy-and-neuroscience-for-an-integrated-medical-curriculum
#11
Rebecca J Hlavac, Rachel Klaus, Kourtney Betts, Shilo M Smith, Maureen E Stabio
Medical schools in the United States continue to undergo curricular change, reorganization, and reformation as more schools transition to an integrated curriculum. Anatomy educators must find novel approaches to teach in a way that will bridge multiple disciplines. The cadaveric extraction of the central nervous system (CNS) provides an opportunity to bridge gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, and clinical neurology. In this dissection, the brain, brainstem, spinal cord, cauda equina, optic nerve/tract, and eyes are removed in one piece so that the entire CNS and its gateway to the periphery through the spinal roots can be appreciated...
August 17, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815595/sigma-1-receptor-ligands-inhibit-catecholamine-secretion-from-adrenal-chromaffin-cells-due-to-block-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#12
Rebecca L Brindley, Mary Beth Bauer, Nolan D Hartley, Kyle J Horning, Kevin P M Currie
Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs) are the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system and key mediators of the physiological stress response. Acetylcholine (ACh) released from preganglionic splanchnic nerves activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on chromaffin cells causing membrane depolarization, opening voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC), and exocytosis of catecholamines and neuropeptides. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is expressed in ACCs and interacts with 5-HT1A receptors to control secretion...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815589/tight-temporal-coupling-between-synaptic-rewiring-of-olfactory-glomeruli-and-the-emergence-of-odor-guided-behavior-in-xenopus-tadpoles
#13
Beatrice Terni, Paolo Pacciolla, Helena Masanas, Pau Gorostiza, Artur Llobet
Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are chemoreceptors that establish excitatory synapses within glomeruli of the olfactory bulb. OSNs undergo continuous turnover throughout life, causing the constant replacement of their synaptic contacts. Using Xenopus tadpoles as an experimental system to investigate rewiring of glomerular connectivity, we show that novel OSN synapses can transfer information immediately after formation, mediating an olfactory-guided behavior. Tadpoles recover the ability to detect amino acids four days after bilateral olfactory nerve transection...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815068/pattern-of-lymph-node-metastases-of-squamous-cell-esophageal-cancer-based-on-the-anatomical-lymphatic-drainage-system-efficacy-of-lymph-node-dissection-according-to-tumor-location
#14
REVIEW
Yuji Tachimori
Knowing the anatomical lymphatic drainage of the esophagus is crucial to understanding the dissemination pattern of esophageal tumor. During the embryonal growth, the middle and lower part of the esophagus stretches as the lymphatic networks develop in the submucosal layer. The abundant submucosal lymphatics drain in a longitudinal fashion directly to their proximal and distal ends. The lymphatic route from the proximal esophagus through recurrent nerve nodes to supraclavicular nodes are a component of the mesentery of the proximal esophagus...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815062/new-insights-into-the-surgical-anatomy-of-the-esophagus
#15
REVIEW
Teun J Weijs, Jelle P Ruurda, Michael D P Luyer, Miguel A Cuesta, Richard van Hillegersberg, Ronaldus L A W Bleys
Implementation of (robot assisted) minimally invasive esophagectomy and increased knowledge of the relation between the autonomic nervous system and the immune response have led to new insights regarding the surgical anatomy of the esophagus. First, two layers of connective tissue were identified; the aorto-esophageal and aorto-pleural ligaments that separate the peri-esophageal compartment, containing vagus nerves, carinal lymph nodes and trachea, from the para-aortic compartment; containing thoracic duct and azygos vein...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814013/a-third-arm-design-of-a-bypass-prosthesis-enabling-incorporation
#16
Adam W Wilson, Daniel H Blustein, Jon W Sensinger
A variety of factors affect the performance of a person using a myoelectric prosthesis, including increased control noise, reduced sensory feedback, and muscle fatigue. Many studies use able-bodied subjects to control a myoelectric prosthesis using a bypass socket in order to make comparisons to movements made with intact limbs. Depending on the goals of the study, this approach can also allow for greater subject numbers and more statistical power in the analysis of the results. As we develop assessment tools and techniques to evaluate how peripheral nerve interfaces impact prosthesis incorporation, involving normally limbed subjects in the studies becomes challenging...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813933/robotic-learning-from-demonstration-of-therapist-s-time-varying-assistance-to-a-patient-in-trajectory-following-tasks
#17
Mohammad Najafi, Kim Adams, Mahdi Tavakoli
The number of people with physical disabilities and impaired motion control is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand for intelligent assistive robotic systems to cooperate with people with disability and help them carry out different tasks. To this end, our group has pioneered the use of robot learning from demonstration (RLfD) techniques, which eliminate the need for task-specific robot programming, in robotic rehabilitation and assistive technologies settings. First, in the demonstration phase, the therapist (or in general, a helper) provides an intervention (typically assistance) and cooperatively performs a task with a patient several times...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813926/development-of-an-intrafascicular-neural-interface-for-peripheral-nerve-implantation
#18
Namsun Chou, YooNa Kang, Ho-Seong Kang, Jeong-Dae Yun, Wonju Chun, Kyeong Jae Lee, HyunMin Moon, Ik-Kyu Choi, Donghak Byun, Inho Song, Dong-Jun Moon, Jin-Hee Moon, Byeong Han Lee, Jungsuk Kim, Sung-Keun You, Sohee Kim
This paper describes an intrafascicular neural interface for peripheral nerve implantation. The flexible penetrating microelectrode array with varying lengths (vl-FPMA), interconnection cable, wireless recording and stimulator modules were designed and fabricated to detect neural signals from the peripheral nerves or to stimulate them. The vl-FPMA consisted of silicon needles and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) platform supporting the needles. The length of electrode needles varied from 600 to 1000 μm. The interconnection cable was fabricated as parylene-metal-parylene sandwiched structure...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813574/dynamic-imaging-of-the-eye-optic-nerve-and-extraocular-muscles-with-golden-angle-radial-mri
#19
Saikat Sengupta, David S Smith, Alex K Smith, E Brian Welch, Seth A Smith
Purpose: The eye and its accessory structures, the optic nerve and the extraocular muscles, form a complex dynamic system. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of this system in motion can have substantial benefits in understanding oculomotor functioning in health and disease, but has been restricted to date to imaging of static gazes only. The purpose of this work was to develop a technique to image the eye and its accessory visual structures in motion. Methods: Dynamic imaging of the eye was developed on a 3-Tesla MRI scanner, based on a golden angle radial sequence that allows freely selectable frame-rate and temporal-span image reconstructions from the same acquired data set...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812914/retrospective-chart-review-of-the-use-of-imaging-and-biopsy-in-the-diagnosis-of-optic-nerve-sheath-meningiomas-and-intra-conal-orbital-lymphomas-at-a-single-institution
#20
Anna Parlin, Alina Dumitrescu, William T Nunery, Peter J Timoney, Jason A Sokol
Optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSM) and intra-conal orbital lymphomas are common entities on the differential of a retrobulbar optic nerve involving space-occupying lesion. In this study, we compare the pre-surgical diagnosis, based on clinical presentation and neuroimaging, to the surgical pathology results of intra-conal orbital lymphomas and ONSM. This is an IRB approved retrospective chart review of orbital lymphomas and optic nerve sheath meningiomas biopsied by a single surgeon over a 4-year period at a single institution...
August 16, 2017: Orbit
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