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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054022/a-shape-code-nanoplasmonic-biosensor-for-multiplex-detection-of-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers
#1
Hanbi Kim, Jong Uk Lee, Sojin Song, Soohyun Kim, Sang Jun Sim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with the loss of nerve cells in the brain. The disease is affected by multifactorial pathways and leads to changes in related biomolecular levels as AD progresses. Therefore, AD should be diagnosed with combined detection of several lesions to improve accuracy. Amyloid beta 1-40, 1-42 and τ (tau) protein are milestones in AD pathology and can be used as main screening and diagnostic target markers. Here, we suggest a highly selective biosensor for detection of AD core biomarkers on one platform through distinct localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) depending on gold nanoparticles shapes, called a shape-code biosensor...
October 11, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053902/sonographic-evaluation-of-the-vagus-nerves-protocol-reference-values-and-side-to-side-differences
#2
Johann Otto Pelz, Elena Belau, Philipp Henn, Niels Hammer, Joseph Classen, David Weise
INTRODUCTION: Reported sonographic reference values for the vagus nerves (VNs) vary greatly. We aimed to generate reference values in a large cohort and to examine intra-rater-, inter-rater- and across-ultrasound systems agreement. METHODS: The VNs of 60 healthy subjects were examined by two sonographers and with two ultrasound systems. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of each VN were assessed at the level of the carotid sinus (proximal measurement level [ML]) and at the level of the thyroid gland (distal ML)...
October 20, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052243/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signalling-pathway-mediated-aberrant-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-kainic-acid-induced-epilepsy
#3
Zhengyi Qu, Fang Su, Xueting Qi, Jianbo Sun, Hongcai Wang, Zhenkui Qiao, Hong Zhao, Yulan Zhu
Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis with massive neuronal loss and severe gliosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant neurogenesis remain unclear. The roles of Wnt signalling cascade have been well established in neurogenesis during multiple aspects. Here, we used kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy model to investigate whether Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the aberrant neurogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy...
October 19, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052233/heterogeneous-expression-of-glycoconjugates-in-the-primary-olfactory-centre-of-the-japanese-sword-tailed-newt-cynops-ensicauda
#4
T Matsui, K Tanaka, Y Kobayashi
Histochemical organization of the Caudata olfactory system remains largely unknown, despite this amphibian order showing phylogenetic diversity in the development of the vomeronasal organ and its primary centre, the accessory olfactory bulb. Here, we investigated the glycoconjugate distribution in the olfactory bulb of a semi-aquatic salamander, the Japanese sword-tailed newt (Cynops ensicauda), by histochemical analysis of the lectins that were present. Eleven lectins showed a specific binding to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerves as well as to the olfactory glomeruli...
October 19, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052004/hypoxia-regulated-catecholamine-secretion-in-chromaffin-cells
#5
REVIEW
Colin A Nurse, Shaima Salman, Angela L Scott
Adrenal catecholamine (CAT) secretion is a general physiological response of animals to environmental stressors such as hypoxia. This represents an important adaptive mechanism to maintain homeostasis and protect vital organs such as the brain. In adult mammals, CAT secretory responses are triggered by activation of the sympathetic nervous system that supplies cholinergic innervation of adrenomedullary chromaffin cells (AMC) via the splanchnic nerve. In the neonate, the splanchnic innervation of AMC is immature or absent, yet hypoxia stimulates a non-neurogenic CAT secretion that is critical for adaptation to extra-uterine life...
October 19, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051307/effect-of-renal-denervation-on-urine-angiotensinogen-excretion-in-prenatally-programmed-rats
#6
Asifhusen Mansuri, Susan K Legan, Jyoti Jain, Issa Alhamoud, Jyothsna Gattineni, Michel Baum
Prenatal programming results in an increase in blood pressure in adult offspring. We have shown that compared to control adult offspring whose mothers were fed a 20% protein diet, programmed adults whose mothers were fed a 6% protein diet during the last half of pregnancy have an increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity and urinary angiotensinogen/creatinine levels. We hypothesized that the increase in urinary angiotensinogen was mediated by renal sympathetic nerve activity in programmed rats. In this study performed in 3 month old rats, renal denervation resulted in normalization of blood pressure in the 6% programmed group (150 ± 3 Hg in 6% sham vs...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050193/-the-vessel-and-primary-glaucoma
#7
R S Li, Y Z Pan
Glaucoma, as the first leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world, is a chronic progressive optic neuropathy. The pathogenesis of glaucoma is still not fully understood till now. A lot of studies about vascular diameter, tortuosity, location, disc perfusion, vascular regulation and systemic vascular factors had been conducted to investigate the relationship between the vascular states and glaucoma since vascular hypothesis proposed. However, direct and convincing evidence for primary mechanisms of glaucoma is still lacking...
October 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049147/virtual-reality-model-of-the-three-dimensional-anatomy-of-the-cavernous-sinus-based-on-a-cadaveric-image-and-dissection
#8
Zeng-Hui Qian, Xu Feng, Yang Li, Ke Tang
OBJECTIVE: Studying the three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the cavernous sinus is essential for treating lesions in this region with skull base surgeries. Cadaver dissection is a conventional method that has insurmountable flaws with regard to understanding spatial anatomy. The authors' research aimed to build an image model of the cavernous sinus region in a virtual reality system to precisely, individually and objectively elucidate the complete and local stereo-anatomy. METHODS: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed on 5 adult cadaver heads...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049117/chronic-opioid-use-after-surgery-implications-for-perioperative-management-in-the-face-of-the-opioid-epidemic
#9
Jennifer M Hah, Brian T Bateman, John Ratliff, Catherine Curtin, Eric Sun
Physicians, policymakers, and researchers are increasingly focused on finding ways to decrease opioid use and overdose in the United States both of which have sharply increased over the past decade. While many efforts are focused on the management of chronic pain, the use of opioids in surgical patients presents a particularly challenging problem requiring clinicians to balance 2 competing interests: managing acute pain in the immediate postoperative period and minimizing the risks of persistent opioid use after the surgery...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047948/detection-and-characterization-of-chemical-aerosol-using-laser-trapping-single-particle-raman-spectroscopy
#10
Aimable Kalume, Leonid A Beresnev, Joshua Santarpia, Yong-Le Pan
Detection and characterization of the presence of chemical agent aerosols in various complex atmospheric environments is an essential defense mission. Raman spectroscopy has the ability to identify chemical molecules, but there are limited numbers of photons detectable from single airborne aerosol particles as they are flowing through a detection system. In this paper, we report on a single-particle Raman spectrometer system that can measure strong spontaneous, stimulated, and resonance Raman spectral peaks from a single laser-trapped chemical aerosol particle, such as a droplet of the VX nerve agent chemical simulant diethyl phthalate...
August 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046985/new-devices-and-technologies-for-the-management-of-overactive-bladder
#11
REVIEW
Juan M Guzman-Negron, Howard B Goldman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Overactive bladder (OAB) affects millions of people in the USA and has a significant impact on their quality of life. Despite having a number of safe and effective ways of managing refractory OAB patients, there are many promising new technologies actively being studied and developed for the treatment of this population. This review examines current new devices and technologies under study for the treatment of OAB. RECENT FINDINGS: Modifications to already established therapies such as sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) or tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) are currently being studied for refractory OAB...
October 18, 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046798/monitoring-of-recurrent-and-superior-laryngeal-nerve-function-using-an-airwayscope%C3%A2-during-thyroid-surgery
#12
Kei Ijichi, Hiroshi Sasano, Megumi Harima, Shingo Murakami
In thyroid surgery, intraoperative identification and preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and superior laryngeal nerve external branch (SLNEB) are crucial. Several reports have proposed that electromyography (EMG) monitoring is an acceptable adjunct for identification and preservation of the RLN. However, a limited number of hospitals have access to an EMG monitoring system. Therefore, the development of another viable monitoring method is required. The aim of the present study was to design a new RLN and SLNEB monitoring method combining an Airwayscope™ (AWS) and a facial nerve stimulator...
October 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046777/effect-of-palmitoylethanolamide-on-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#13
Tai-Kyung Seol, Wonho Lee, Sunah Park, Kyu Nam Kim, Tae Yeon Kim, You Na Oh, Jong Hun Jun
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that neuroinflammation, which is characterized by infiltration of immune cells, activation of mast cells and glial cells, and production of inflammatory mediators in the peripheral and central nervous systems, plays an important role in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), which is a type of N-acylethanolamide and a lipid, has an anti-inflammatory effect. Relative to the anti-inflammatory effect, little is known about its analgesic effect in chronic pain...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046642/cooperative-oxygen-sensing-by-the-kidney-and-carotid-body-in-blood-pressure-control
#14
Daniela Patinha, Wioletta Pijacka, Julian F R Paton, Maarten P Koeners
Oxygen sensing mechanisms are vital for homeostasis and survival. When oxygen levels are too low (hypoxia), blood flow has to be increased, metabolism reduced, or a combination of both, to counteract tissue damage. These adjustments are regulated by local, humoral, or neural reflex mechanisms. The kidney and the carotid body are both directly sensitive to falls in the partial pressure of oxygen and trigger reflex adjustments and thus act as oxygen sensors. We hypothesize a cooperative oxygen sensing function by both the kidney and carotid body to ensure maintenance of whole body blood flow and tissue oxygen homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046424/passive-sensorimotor-stimulation-triggers-long-lasting-alpha-band-fluctuations-in-visual-perception
#15
Alice Tomassini, Alessandro D'Ausilio
Movement planning and execution rely on the anticipation and online control of the incoming sensory input. Evidence suggests that sensorimotor processes may synchronize visual rhythmic activity in preparation of action performance. Indeed, we recently reported periodic fluctuations of visual contrast sensitivity which are time-locked to the onset of an intended movement of the arm. However, the origin of the observed visual modulations has so far remained unclear due to the endogenous (and thus temporally undetermined) activation of the sensorimotor system that is associated with voluntary movement initiation...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045333/relationship-between-optic-nerve-head-drusen-volume-and-structural-and-functional-optic-nerve-damage
#16
Alon Skaat, Stephanie Muylaert, Rachel S Mogil, Rafael L Furlanetto, Camila F Netto, Rudrani Banik, Jeffrey M Liebmann, Robert Ritch, Sung Chul Park
PURPOSE: To assess the relationships between optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) volume, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and visual field (VF) loss. METHODS: Patients with ONHD and no other ocular or systemic conditions that can affect RNFL or VF were enrolled. Serial enhanced depth imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) B-scans of the optic nerve head (interval between scans, ~30 μm) were obtained from each participant. ONHD volume was calculated for each eye by delineating the ONHD masses in each OCT B-scan using 3-dimensional reconstruction software...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044774/3d-distribution-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-vasopressin-and-oxytocin-neurons-in-the-transparent-postnatal-mouse-brain
#17
David Godefroy, Chloé Dominici, Hélène Hardin-Pouzet, Youssef Anouar, Stéphane Melik-Parsadaniantz, William Rostene, Annabelle Reaux-Le Goazigo
Over the years, advances in immunohistochemistry techniques have been a critical step in detecting and mapping neuromodulatory substances in the central nervous system. The better quality and specificity of primary antibodies, new staining procedures and the spectacular development of imaging technologies have allowed such progress. Very recently, new methods permitting tissue transparency have been successfully used on brain tissues. In this work, we combined whole-mount immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), with iDISCO+ clearing method, light-sheet microscopy and semi automated counting of 3D-labelled neurons to obtain a 3D distribution of these neuronal populations in a 5-day postnatal (P5) mouse brain...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044770/effects-of-forced-passive-and-voluntary-exercise-on-spinal-motoneurons-changes-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#18
Ariadna Arbat-Plana, Xavier Navarro, Esther Udina
After peripheral nerve injury, there are important changes at the spinal level that can lead to disorganization of the central circuitry and thus, compromise functional recovery even if axons are able to successfully regenerate and reinnervate their target organs. Physical rehabilitation is a promising strategy to modulate these plastic changes and thus, to improve functional recovery after damage of the nervous system. Forced exercise in a treadmill is able to partially reverse the synaptic stripping and the loss of perineuronal nets that motoneurons suffer after peripheral nerve injury in animal models...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044452/effects-of-alpha-lipoic-acid-on-motor-function-and-antioxidant-enzyme-activity-of-nerve-tissue-after-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury-in-rats
#19
Sarper Kocaoğlu, Özgür Aktaş, Oğuzhan Zengi, Azmi Tufan, Feyza Karagöz Güzey
AIM: Background: Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) that is a strong antioxidant drug is tried for both protection and treatment of various diseases of central and peripheral nervous systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Material and Methods: Protective effects of ALA on crush type peripheral nerve injury were evaluated. 28 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: In Group 1, sciatic nerve was only explored. Sciatic nerve crush injury was performed after serum physiologic injection intraperitoneally in Group 2, and after ALA injection in Groups 3 and 4...
August 31, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044082/rickettsial-retinitis-direct-bacterial-infection-or-an-immune-mediated-response
#20
Rohan Chawla, Gadkar Amit Pundlik, Rama Chaudhry, Chandan Thakur
Infectious retinitis postfebrile illness is known to be caused by chikungunya, dengue, West Nile virus, Bartonella, Lyme's disease, Rift Valley fever, rickettsia, Herpes viruses etc. Rickettsia is Gram-negative bacteria transmitted by arthropods vectors. Ocular involvement is common including conjunctivitis, keratitis, anterior uveitis, panuveitis, retinitis, retinal vascular changes, and optic nerve involvement. Retinitis lesions in rickettsia can occur because of an immunological response to the bacteria or because of direct invasion and proliferation of bacteria in the inner retina...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
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