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asian medicine

Ji Hye Kim, Young-Su Yi, Mi-Yeon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
Panax ginseng is one of the most universally used herbal medicines in Asian and Western countries. Most of the biological activities of ginseng are derived from its main constituents, ginsenosides. Interestingly, a number of studies have reported that ginsenosides and their metabolites/derivatives-including ginsenoside (G)-Rb1, compound K, G-Rb2, G-Rd, G-Re, G-Rg1, G-Rg3, G-Rg5, G-Rh1, G-Rh2, and G-Rp1-exert anti-inflammatory activities in inflammatory responses by suppressing the production of proinflammatory cytokines and regulating the activities of inflammatory signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
R S Rajmani, Prafull Singh, Lakshya Veer Singh
Dietary components with potent anticancerous property are gaining attention as therapeutic agents due to low cost of therapy and minimal toxic effects. Turmeric is one such miracle spices of Indian and South Asian recipes with multiple medicinal properties. The anticarcinogenic properties of its active compound curcumin have been studied in detail. However, studies on the medicinal properties of crude turmeric used as dietary agents are lacking. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effects of dietary and topical crude turmeric paste on DMBA induced skin tumor of male Wistar rats...
October 10, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
Christopher T Leffler, Stephen G Schwartz
INTRODUCTION: John Thomas Woolhouse (1666-1733/1734), who practiced in Paris, was part of a family with 5 generations of English oculists. Some historians have derided him as a "charlatan" and have criticized him for adhering to the old notion that a cataract was a membrane anterior to the lens. METHODS: We reviewed treatises and digital records related to Woolhouse and his family and the handwritten notes of his 1721 lecture series at the Royal Society of Medicine...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Wei-Ling Pu, Li-Kang Sun, Xiu-Mei Gao, Curzio Rüegg, Muriel Cuendet, Micheal O Hottiger, Kun Zhou, Lin Miao, Yun-Sha Zhang, Margaret Gebauer
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a key role in all stages of tumorigenesis and tumor progression. TAMs secrete different kinds of cytokines, chemokines, and enzymes to affect the progression, metastasis, and resistance to therapy depending on their state of reprogramming. Therapeutic benefit in targeting TAMs suggests that macrophages are attractive targets for cancer treatment. Chinese materia medica (CMM) is an important approach for treating cancer in China and in the Asian region. According to the theory of Chinese medicine (CM) and its practice, some prescriptions of CM regulate the body's internal environment possibly including the remodeling the tumor microenvironment (TME)...
October 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Shivani B Kaushik, Andrew F Alexis
Background: Nonablative laser resurfacing represents one of the major advances in procedural dermatology over the past decade. However, its use in darker skin types is limited by safety concerns and a relative lack of available data. Aim: To provide evidence-based recommendations for the use of fractional lasers in darker skin types. Evidence review: A broad literature search of PubMed/Medline database was conducted in April 2016 using the term fractional lasers. A free text search of keywords including fractional resurfacing, nonablative lasers, skin type, skin of color, ethnic skin, Fitzpatrick skin type, Asian skin, African Americans, Afro-Caribbean, and Hispanics was also executed...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Laura M Kemppainen, Teemu T Kemppainen, Jutta A Reippainen, Suvi T Salmenniemi, Pia H Vuolanto
AIMS: The aim of this research was to study health-related and sociodemographic determinants of the use of different complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments in Europe and differences in CAM use in various European countries. METHODS: The study was based on a design-based logistic regression analysis of the European Social Survey (ESS), Round 7. We distinguished four CAM modalities: manual therapies, alternative medicinal systems, traditional Asian medical systems and mind-body therapies...
October 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Zhou Lu, Nan Fang, Yajuan Liu, Zhongbei Zhang, Hongyu Pan, Zhiguang Hou, Yueru Li, Zhongbin Lu
Ginseng is a valuable herb, the roots of which have been consumed for medicinal use since ancient times in Asian countries. Currently, its cultivation in China is conducted in either forests or non-forest areas. In this study, we investigated the dissipation and residues of the diamide insecticide chlorantraniliprole (CAP) in ginseng ecosystems in these two cultivation environments. The half-life of CAP in ginseng leaves was calculated to be 16.5 days in non-forest areas and 23.9 days in forests, while the half-life of CAP in the soil under non-forest and forest cultivation was 33...
October 2, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
David Young, Manoharan K Pillai, Mohamed Majid
The plant Alpinia officinarum of the ginger family originated in China and is used throughout South and South-East Asian countries to flavour food and as a traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases. This review summarizes the biological, pharmacological and phytochemical properties of extracts and subsequently isolated compounds from A. officinarum. In vitro and in vivo studies of both extracts and pure compounds indicate a wide variety of potent bioactivities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiobesity, anticancer, enzyme inhibitory and remarkable antiviral properties...
October 2, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Jing Yu, Xiucai Guo, Qingqing Zhang, Ying Peng, Jiang Zheng
1. Emodin, baicalin, and geniposide are the major bioactive components in Da-Huang, Huang-Qin, and Zhi-Zi which are herbal medicines widely used in Asian nations. 2. The metabolism of the three compounds was found to undergo hydroxylation, decarboxylation, dehydration, methylation, hydrolysis, hydrogenation, dihydrogenation, sulfation, glucosidation, and/or glucuronidation. A total of 63 metabolites were detected in urine, plasma and bile of rats given a mixture of the three compounds. 3. Pharmacokinetic properties of the three compounds were determined in rats given the extracts of Da-Huang, Huang-Qin, and Zhi-Zi...
October 2, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Naoko Sato-Masumoto, Takashi Uchikura, Hidemi Sugiwaki, Morio Yoshimura, Sayaka Masada, Toshiyuki Atsumi, Masato Watanabe, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Nahoko Uchiyama, Yoshiaki Amakura, Takashi Hakamatsuka
Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix (CWR) is used in Korea as a substitute for Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR), which is a crude drug traditionally used in East Asian countries. Recently, the use of Cynanchi Auriculati Radix (CAR) in place of PMR and CWR has emerged a major concern in the Korean market. In Japan, PMR is permitted to be distributed as a pharmaceutical regulated by the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 17th edition (JP17). Although CWR and CAR have not traditionally been used as medicines, CWR was recently introduced as a health food...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Florian Jabbour, Myriam Gaudeul, Josie Lambourdière, Guillaume Ramstein, Alexandre Hassanin, Jean-Noël Labat, Corinne Sarthou
The nearly cosmopolitan tribe Desmodieae (Fabaceae) includes many important genera for medicine and forage. However, the phylogenetic relationships among the infratribal groups circumscribed using morphological traits are still poorly known. In this study, we used chloroplast (rbcL, psbA-trnH) and nuclear (ITS-1) DNA sequences to investigate the molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of Desmodieae, and infer ancestral states for several vegetative and reproductive traits. Three groups, corresponding to the Desmodium, Lespedeza, and Phyllodium groups sensu Ohashi were retrieved in the phylogenetic analyses...
September 28, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Sheryl R Groden, Amanda Toler Woodward, Linda M Chatters, Robert Joseph Taylor
OBJECTIVES: To compare use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) across age cohorts. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys. PARTICIPANTS: Adults born in 1964 or earlier (N = 11,371). Over half (61.3%) are baby boomers and 53% are female. Seventy-five percent of the sample is white, 10.2% African American, 0.6% black Caribbean, 9.35% Latino, and 4.1% Asian. MEASUREMENTS: The dependent variable is a dichotomous variable indicating use of any CAM...
August 12, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Su Hye Lim, Eun Sang Jeon, Jeongyun Lee, Sang Yun Han, Han Chae
The purpose of this study was to review the pharmacognostic characteristics of Sasang type-specific medical herbs and suggest biological mechanisms that might be related to the personalized treatment of the East. Major compounds and their pharmacological activities of medical herbs for each Sasang types were systematically reviewed. The pharmacognostic characteristics of its main compounds were systematically analyzed with previous studies and three web-based databases. Sasang type-specific medical herbs were selected, and biological effects of their phytochemicals were reviewed from the pathophysiological features of each Sasang types...
September 2017: Integrative medicine research
Palma M Shaw, Venita Chandra, Guillermo A Escobar, Nicholas Robbins, Vincent Rowe, Robyn Macsata
OBJECTIVE: Hispanics account for approximately 17% of the U.S. POPULATION: They are one of the fastest growing racial/ethnic groups, second only to Asians. This heterogeneous population has diverse socioeconomic conditions, making the prevention, diagnosis, and management of vascular disease difficult. This paper discusses the cultural, racial, and social aspects of the Hispanic community in the United States and assesses how they affect vascular disease within this population...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Jui-Sheng Wu, Mei-Han Kao, Hsin-Da Tsai, Wai-Mui Cheung, Jin-Jer Chen, Wei-Yi Ong, Grace Y Sun, Teng-Nan Lin
Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (C. nutans) is a traditional herbal medicine widely used in Asian countries for treating a number of remedies including snake and insect bites, skin rashes, viral infections, and cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for its action and whether C. nutans can offer protection on stroke damage in brain remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated protective effects of C. nutans extract to ameliorate neuronal apoptotic death in the oxygen-glucose deprivation model and to reduce infarction and mitigate functional deficits in the middle cerebral artery occlusion model, either administered before or after hypoxic/ischemic insult...
September 23, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
Mingchun Wang, Shiwei Zhao, Peilei Zhu, Chenzhipeng Nie, Shuping Ma, Naifu Wang, Xianfeng Du, Yibin Zhou
The swollen culms of Zizania latifolia is a popular vegetable and traditional herbal medicine mainly consumed in some Asian countries. In our previous study, water extractable polysaccharide (ZLPs-W) and alkali extractable polysaccharide (ZLPs-A) was sequentially prepared from the swollen culms of Zizania latifolia. In vitro cell assay revealed that ZLPs-W without cytotoxicity had higher immunomodulatory activity than ZLPs-A. Therefore, in this study, ZLPs-W was further separated to three purified polysaccharides of ZLPs-W1, ZLPs-W2, and ZLPs-W3 by anion exchange chromatography and size exclusive chromatography in sequence...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jinsu Gil, Yurry Um, Serim Kim, Ok Tae Kim, Sung Cheol Koo, Chinreddy Subramanyam Reddy, Seong-Cheol Kim, Chang Pyo Hong, Sin-Gi Park, Ho Bang Kim, Dong Hoon Lee, Byung-Hoon Jeong, Jong-Wook Chung, Yi Lee
Angelica gigas Nakai is an important medicinal herb, widely utilized in Asian countries especially in Korea, Japan, and China. Although it is a vital medicinal herb, the lack of sequencing data and efficient molecular markers has limited the application of a genetic approach for horticultural improvements. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are universally accepted molecular markers for population structure study. In this study, we found over 130,000 SSRs, ranging from di- to deca-nucleotide motifs, using the genome sequence of Manchu variety (MV) of A...
September 21, 2017: Genes
Miyuru Chandradasa, Layani Champika, Silumini de Silva, K A L A Kuruppuarachchi
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with a higher mortality than that of the general population. Most of the deaths are due to cardiovascular causes and are related to metabolic risks. This risk is due not only to antipsychotics but also to inherent factors of the disorder. Studies in the West have shown topiramate to be effective in schizophrenia to reduce weight gain and for symptomatic control. Whether this is effective for South Asians is not known. It is important because South Asians have a higher risk of metabolic syndrome...
September 20, 2017: Trials
Sheng Guo, Jin-Ao Duan, Yiqun Li, Ruiqing Wang, Hui Yan, Dawei Qian, Yuping Tang, Shulan Su
The Ziziphus species are considered to be the medicine and food dual purposes plants. Among them, the seed of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa (ZS) has traditionally been used as an ethnomedicine in Asian countries for thousands years. Owing to the significant benefits for human health, the demand for ZS increased year by year, and the wild resources have become increasingly scarce, which resulted in a shortage of market supply for ZS and product adulteration by substituting ZS with the seeds of Z. mauritiana Lam...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Johany Peñailillo, Wenhsi Kuo, Gabriela Olivares, Gerardo Silva-Poblete, Barbara Peña-Ahumada, Sofía Muñoz, Ximena Moncada, Kuo-Fang Chung, Daniela Seelenfreund, Andrea Seelenfreund
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Broussonetia papyrifera (Moraceae) is native to Asia and is used as a medicinal plant and as a source of fiber for making paper. It was dispersed into the Pacific region as a fiber source for making nonwoven textiles (barkcloth). Microsatellites were developed to trace the human-mediated dispersal of this species into the Pacific region. METHODS AND RESULTS: A set of 36 microsatellites was isolated and initially assayed on 10 accessions to assess polymorphism...
August 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
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