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Cortical spreading depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130510/heterogenous-migraine-aura-symptoms-correlate-with-visual-cortex-fmri-responses
#1
Nanna Arngrim, Anders Hougaard, Khazar Ahmadi, Mark Bitsch Vestergaard, Henrik Winther Schytz, Faisal Mohammad Amin, Henrik Bo Wiberg Larsson, Jes Olesen, Michael B Hoffmann, Messoud Ashina
OBJECTIVE: Migraine aura is sparsely studied due to the highly challenging task of capturing patients during aura. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is likely the underlying phenomenon of aura. The possible correlation between the multifaceted phenomenology of aura symptoms and the effects of CSD on the brain has not been ascertained. METHODS: Five migraine patients were studied during various forms of aura symptoms induced by hypoxia, sham or physical exercise and photostimulation...
November 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125056/monosodium-glutamate-and-treadmill-exercise-anxiety-like-behavior-and-spreading-depression-features-in-young-adult-rats
#2
Suênia Marcele Vitor-de-Lima, Larissa de Brito Medeiros, Regina de Deus Lira Benevides, Catarina Nicácio Dos Santos, Nahara Oliveira Lima da Silva, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
OBJECTIVES: The route of administration is an important factor in determining the action of some drugs. We previously demonstrated that subcutaneous monosodium glutamate (MSG) accelerated cortical spreading depression (CSD) in the rat and that treadmill exercise attenuated this effect. This study evaluated whether other routes of administration exert the same action by testing orogastric (gavage) and topical cortical MSG administration in treadmill-exercised and sedentary rats. Additionally, in the orogastric treatment we tested anxiety-like behavior...
November 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073774/migraine-with-brainstem-aura-why-not-a-cortical-origin
#3
Geneviève Demarquay, Anne Ducros, Alexandra Montavont, François Mauguiere
Background Migraine with brainstem aura is defined as a migraine with aura including at least two of the following symptoms: dysarthria, vertigo, tinnitus, hypacusis, diplopia, ataxia and/or decreased level of consciousness. Aim The aim of this study is to review data coming from clinical observations and functional mapping that support the role of the cerebral cortex in the initiation of brainstem aura symptoms. Results Vertigo can result from a vestibular cortex dysfunction, while tinnitus and hypacusis can originate within the auditory cortex...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063300/delayed-cerebral-ischemia-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-beyond-vasospasm-and-towards-a-multifactorial-pathophysiology
#4
REVIEW
Joseph R Geraghty, Fernando D Testai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is common after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and represents a significant cause of poor functional outcome. DCI was mainly thought to be caused by cerebral vasospasm; however, recent clinical trials have been unable to confirm this hypothesis. Studies in humans and animal models have since supported the notion of a multifactorial pathophysiology of DCI. This review summarizes some of the main mechanisms under investigation including cerebral vascular dysregulation, microthrombosis, cortical spreading depolarizations, and neuroinflammation...
October 23, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041816/enhanced-susceptibility-to-cortical-spreading-depression-in-two-types-of-na-k-atpase-%C3%AE-2-subunit-deficient-mice-as-a-model-of-familial-hemiplegic-migraine-2
#5
Miyuki Unekawa, Keiko Ikeda, Yutaka Tomita, Kiyoshi Kawakami, Norihiro Suzuki
Background Patients with familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2) have a mutated ATP1A2 gene (encoding Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α2 subunit) and show prolonged migraine aura. Cortical spreading depression (CSD), which involves mass depolarization of neurons and astrocytes that propagates slowly through the gray matter, is profoundly related to aura. Methods In two types of Atp1a2-defective heterozygous mice, Atp1a2(tm1Kwk) (C-KO) and Atp1a2(tm2Kwk) (N-KO), the sensitivity and responsiveness to CSD were examined under urethane anesthesia...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034461/the-migraine-attack-as-a-homeostatic-neuroprotective-response-to-brain-oxidative-stress-preliminary-evidence-for-a-theory
#6
Jonathan M Borkum
BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that migraineurs show higher levels of oxidative stress (lipid peroxides) between migraine attacks and that migraine triggers may further increase brain oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is transduced into a neural signal by the TRPA1 ion channel on meningeal pain receptors, eliciting neurogenic inflammation, a key event in migraine. Thus, migraines may be a response to brain oxidative stress. RESULTS: In this article, a number of migraine components are considered: cortical spreading depression, platelet activation, plasma protein extravasation, endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, and the release of serotonin, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor...
October 16, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989805/migraine-and-stroke
#7
REVIEW
Yonghua Zhang, Aasheeta Parikh, Shuo Qian
Migraines are generally considered a relatively benign neurological condition. However, research has shown an association between migraines and stroke, and especially between migraine with aura and ischaemic stroke. Patients can also suffer from migrainous infarction, a subset of ischaemic stroke that often occurs in the posterior circulation of younger women. The exact pathogenesis of migrainous infarct is not known, but it is theorised that the duration and local neuronal energy level from cortical spreading depression may be a key factor...
September 2017: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972120/fremanezumab-a-humanized-monoclonal-anti-cgrp-antibody-inhibits-thinly-myelinated-a%C3%AE-but-not-unmyelinated-c-meningeal-nociceptors
#8
Agustin Melo-Carrillo, Andrew M Strassman, Rony-Reuven Nir, Aaron J Schain, Rodrigo Noseda, Jennifer Stratton, Rami Burstein
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), the most abundant neuropeptide in primary afferent sensory neurons, is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine headache, but its role in migraine is still equivocal. As a new approach to migraine treatment, humanized anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies (CGRP-mAbs) were developed to reduce the availability of CGRP, and were found effective in reducing the frequency of chronic and episodic migraine. We recently tested the effect of fremanezumab (TEV-48125), a CGRP-mAb, on the activity of second-order trigeminovascular dorsal horn neurons that receive peripheral input from the cranial dura, and found a selective inhibition of high-threshold but not wide-dynamic range class of neurons...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971699/cgrp-receptor-antagonist-mk-8825-attenuates-cortical-spreading-depression-induced-pain-behavior
#9
Aslı Filiz, Nermin Tepe, Sajedeh Eftekhari, H Evren Boran, Ergin Dilekoz, Lars Edvinsson, Hayrunnisa Bolay
Background and objective The present study aimed to investigate the effects of selective calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist (MK-8825) on cortical spreading depression (CSD) induced pain behavior and anxiety in freely-moving rats, and neuronal activation in the correlated anatomical regions. Methods CSD was induced while keeping all meningeal layers and BBB intact and MK-8825 was administered in two different doses. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), arterial pressure and DC shift were recorded...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966642/spreading-depression-and-focal-venous-cerebral-ischemia-enhance-cortical-neurogenesis
#10
Ryo Tamaki, Samuel Ige Orie, Beat Alessandri, Oliver Kempski, Axel Heimann
Endogenous neurogenesis can arise from a variety of physiological stimuli including exercise, learning, or "enriched environment" as well as pathological conditions such as ischemia, epilepsy or cortical spreading depression. Whether all these conditions use a common trigger to set off endogenous neurogenesis is yet unclear. We hypothesized that cortical spreading depression (CSD) induces neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex and dentate gyrus after cerebral venous ischemia. Forty-two Wistar rats alternatively underwent sham operation (Sham), induction of ten CSDs or venous ischemia provoked via occlusion of two adjacent superficial cortical vein followed by ten induced CSDs (CSD + 2-VO)...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965878/collision-of-two-action-potentials-in-a-single-excitable-cell
#11
Christian Fillafer, Anne Paeger, Matthias F Schneider
BACKGROUND: It is a common incident in nature, that two waves or pulses run into each other head-on. The outcome of such an event is of special interest, because it allows conclusions about the underlying physical nature of the pulses. The present experimental study dealt with the head-on meeting of two action potentials (AP) in a single excitable plant cell (Chara braunii internode). METHODS: The membrane potential was monitored with multiple sensors along a single excitable cell...
December 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962806/cortical-spreading-depression-and-ischemia-in-neurocritical-patients
#12
REVIEW
Néstor Wainsztein, Federico Rodríguez Lucci
Spreading depolarization in cerebral cortex is associated with swelling of neurons, distortion of dendritic spines, massive ion translocation with a large change of the slow electrical potential, and silencing of brain electrical activity. The term spreading depression represents a wave of spontaneous activity of the electrocorticogram that propagates through contiguous cerebral gray matter at a characteristic velocity. Spreading depression is a consequence of cortical spreading depolarization. Therefore, spreading depolarization is not always accompanied by spreading depression and the terms are not synonymous...
November 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891432/neonatal-treatment-with-ovarian-hormones-and-suckling-among-distinct-litter-sizes-differential-effects-on-recognition-memory-and-spreading-depression-at-adulthood
#13
Noranege Epifânio Accioly, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
OBJECTIVES: Ovarian hormones (OH) and early malnutrition may affect the developing brain, with repercussions on behavioral and excitability-dependent processes. However, the possible synergistic effects of both factors have not been analyzed. In this study, we investigated the effect of treatment in early life with OH and suckling among distinct litter sizes on recognition memory, anxiety behavior, and the excitability-dependent phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD)...
September 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864364/role-of-astrocyte-connexin-hemichannels-in-cortical-spreading-depression
#14
REVIEW
Maximiliano Rovegno, Juan C Sáez
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is an intriguing phenomenon consisting of massive slow brain depolarizations that affects neurons and glial cells. It has been recognized since 1944, but its pathogenesis has only been uncovered during the last decade. Acute brain injuries can be further complicated by CSD in >50% of severe cases. This phenomenon is repetitive and produces a metabolic overload that increments secondary damage. Propagation of CSD is known to be linked to excitotoxicity, but the mechanisms associated with its initiation remain less understood...
August 31, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842982/novel-therapeutic-targets-against-spreading-depression
#15
REVIEW
Shih-Pin Chen, Cenk Ayata
Migraine is among the most prevalent and disabling neurological diseases in the world. Cortical spreading depression (SD) is an intense wave of neuronal and glial depolarization underlying migraine aura, and a headache trigger, which has been used as an experimental platform for drug screening in migraine. Here, we provide an overview of novel therapeutic targets that show promise to suppress SD, such as acid-sensing ion channels, casein kinase Iδ, P2X7-pannexin 1 complex, and neuromodulation, and outline the experimental models and essential quality measures for rigorous and reproducible efficacy testing...
October 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751192/evidence-of-an-inverse-correlation-between-serotonergic-activity-and-spreading-depression-propagation-in-the-rat-cortex
#16
Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes, Maria das Graças Rodrigues de Araújo, Taciana Cristovam Verçosa, Francisca Martins Bion, Andrea Lima de Sá, Antônio Pereira, Ricardo Abadie-Guedes
Various neurological and psychiatric diseases lead to alterations in cortical serotonergic activity as one of their underlying processes. However, the electrophysiological implication of changes in serotonergic activity remains a matter of investigation. In this study, we investigated whether brain serotonergic activity influences the excitability-related phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). CSD parameters (propagation velocity, and amplitude and duration of the DC-shift) was evaluated in rats that received two treatments that increased cortical serotonergic activity, electrical stimulation of the raphe nuclei and subcutaneous injection of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, sumatriptan...
October 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750590/initiation-of-spreading-depression-by-synaptic-and-network-hyperactivity-insights-into-trigger-mechanisms-of-migraine-aura
#17
Lyudmila V Vinogradova
Background Cortical spreading depression (SD) is thought to underlie migraine aura but mechanisms of triggering SD in the structurally normal, well-nourished cortex of migraine patients remain unknown. Synaptic and network dysfunctions appear to underlie episodic neurological disorders, including migraine. The narrative review summarizes old and recent experimental evidence for triggering SD by synaptic/network mechanisms and discusses the relevance of the data to migraine pathogenesis. Our hypothesis is that under some conditions synaptic/network hyperactivity may reliably ignite SD, and this mechanism may underlie triggering migraine aura in patients...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688801/new-onset-hemodialysis-related-headache-presenting-as-migraine-aura
#18
Domenico Chirchiglia, Michele Andreucci, Attilio Della Torre, Serena Marianna Lavano, Pasquale Chirchiglia, Angelo Lavano
Hemodialysis headache (HDH) is an infrequent new-onset symptom, occurring mainly in old uremic patients. Type of pain is nonspecific, occurs during hemodialysis treatment, assuming features similar to tension-type headache and representing a problem, also as regards the therapy to be taken. International Headache Society (IHS) has placed this form of headache among the headaches disorders of homeostasis. We found a case of new-onset HDH in old uremic man, presenting with migraine aura features. A similar case has not been reported in literature, placing us some questions: why and how does this happen? What are the mechanisms involved? Role of trigeminal-vascular system and cortical spreading depression as regards the aura could be considered, through the activation of neuroinflammatory events, lastly causing migraine aura...
June 29, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642283/selective-inhibition-of-trigeminovascular-neurons-by-fremanezumab-a-humanized-monoclonal-anti-cgrp-antibody
#19
Agustin Melo-Carrillo, Rodrigo Noseda, Rony Nir, Aaron J Schain, Jennifer Stratton, Andrew M Strassman, Rami Burstein
A large body of evidence supports an important role for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in migraine pathophysiology. This evidence gave rise to a global effort to develop a new generation of therapeutics that inhibit the interaction of CGRP with its receptor in migraineurs. Recently, a new class of such drugs, humanized anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies (CGRP-mAbs), were found to be effective in reducing the frequency of migraine. The purpose of this study was to better understand how the CGRP-mAb fremanezumab (TEV-48125) modulates meningeal sensory pathways...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612259/apoptosis-following-cortical-spreading-depression-in-juvenile-rats
#20
Ali Jahanbazi Jahan-Abad, Leila Alizadeh, Sajad Sahab Negah, Parastoo Barati, Maryam Khaleghi Ghadiri, Sven G Meuth, Stjepana Kovac, Ali Gorji
Repetitive cortical spreading depression (CSD) can lead to cell death in immature brain tissue. Caspases are involved in neuronal cell death in several CSD-related neurological disorders, such as stroke and epilepsy. Yet, whether repetitive CSD itself can induce caspase activation in adult or juvenile tissue remains unknown. Inducing repetitive CSD in somatosensory cortices of juvenile and adult rats in vivo, we thus aimed to investigate the effect of repetitive CSD on the expression caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-12 in different brain regions using immunohistochemistry and western blotting techniques...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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