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Cortical spreading depression

Daniel San-Juan, Andres Jaramillo-Gonzalez, Roberto Diaz-Peregrino, Arturo Olivares Rivera, Edgar Santos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Rosemary O'Connell, Yoichiro Mori
Cortical spreading depression (SD) is a spreading disruption in brain ionic homeostasis during which neurons experience complete and prolonged depolarizations. SD is generally believed to be the physiological substrate of migraine aura and is associated with many other brain pathologies. Here, we perform simulations with a model of SD treating brain tissue as a triphasic continuum of neurons, glia and the extracellular space. A thermodynamically consistent incorporation of the major biophysical effects, including ionic electrodiffusion and osmotic water flow, allows for the computation of important physiological variables including the extracellular voltage (DC) shift...
October 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Christoph J Schankin, Michele Viana, Peter J Goadsby
Visual disturbances in migraineurs, such as visual aura, are typically episodic, that is, associated with the headache attack, and overlaid by head pain and other symptoms that impact the patient. In some patients, however, visual symptoms are dominant due to frequency (migraine aura status), duration (persistent migraine aura and other persistent positive visual phenomena), or complexity (visual snow syndrome). These syndromes are more rare and challenging to classify in clinical practice resulting in a lack of systematic studies on pathophysiology and treatment...
October 7, 2016: Headache
Larissa de Brito Medeiros, Suênia Marcele Vitor-de-Lima, Regina de Deus Lira Benevides, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
OBJECTIVES: Goat whey, a usually discarded byproduct from goat cheese manufacturing, is a good source of sialic acid (SA), an oligosaccharide that is involved in processes such as memory and brain excitability. Here, we investigated in rats the effect of dried goat whey (DGW) on memory and the brain excitability-dependent phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). We also provide evidence for the involvement of SA in this effect. In addition, we tested animals under unfavorable suckling conditions to evaluate whether nutritional deficiency would modulate DGW action...
September 20, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Peter Toth, Nikolett Szarka, Eszter Farkas, Erzsebet Ezer, Endre Czeiter, Krisztina Amrein, Zoltan I Ungvari, Jed A Hartings, Andras Buki, Akos Koller
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem worldwide. In addition to its high mortality (35-40%) survivors are left with cognitive, behavioral and communicative disabilities. While little can be done to reverse initial, primary brain damage caused by trauma, the secondary injury of cerebral tissue due to cerebromicrovascular alterations and dysregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is potentially preventable. This review focuses on functional, cellular and molecular changes of autoregulatory function of CBF (with special focus on cerebrovascular myogenic response) that occur in cerebral circulation after TBI and explores the links between autoregulatory dysfunction, impaired myogenic response, microvascular impairment and the development of secondary brain damage...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
V I Koroleva, D S Sakharov, A V Bogdanov
EEG power changes in anaesthetized and conscious rats were studied (under repeated experiments) in wide frequency band (0.1-200 Hz) during cortical spreading depression wave (SD). In anaesthetized rats the decrease of EEG spectral power was shown through all diapasons under consideration. The most pronounced decay of the EEG power was marked in the 30-40 Hz band (27.3 ± 18.5, p = 2.46 x 10-(11)). In other frequency ranges the power decrease was less but its significance remained high. In conscious rats the simultaneous decay of the EEG power from 20 to 100 Hz range was also the most informative index of SD wave...
March 2016: Zhurnal Vyssheĭ Nervnoĭ Deiatelnosti Imeni I P Pavlova
Emanuela Viggiano, Vincenzo Monda, Antonietta Messina, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Anna Valenzano, Domenico Tafuri, Giuseppe Cibelli, Bruno De Luca, Giovanni Messina, Marcellino Monda
Depression of electrocorticogram propagating over the cortex surface results in cortical spreading depression (CSD), which is probably related to the pathophysiology of stroke, epilepsy, and migraine. However, preconditioning with CSD produces neuroprotection to subsequent ischemic episodes. Such effects require the expression or activation of several genes, including neuroprotective ones. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the expression of the uncoupling proteins (UCPs) 2 and 5 is amplified during brain ischemia and their expression exerts a long-term effect upon neuron protection...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Thays Kallyne Marinho de Souza, Mariana Barros E Silva-Gondim, Marcelo Cairrão Araújo Rodrigues, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
OBJECTIVES: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a brain excitability-related phenomenon that can be affected by unfavorable conditions of lactation and by anesthetic agents. We have previously demonstrated that after CSD the electrocorticogram (ECoG) amplitude increases significantly (ECoG potentiation). Here, we investigated this potentiation in awake and anesthetized adult rats that were previously suckled among different lactation conditions. METHODS: Newborn rats were suckled in litters with 6 pups or 12 pups (L6 or L12 condition, respectively)...
July 21, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Claudia F Gasparini, Robert A Smith, Lyn R Griffiths
Migraine is a complex polygenic disorder that continues to be a great source of morbidity in the developed world with a prevalence of 12% in the Caucasian population. Genetic and pharmacological studies have implicated the glutamate pathway in migraine pathophysiology. Glutamate profoundly impacts brain circuits that regulate core symptom domains in a range of neuropsychiatric conditions and thus remains a "hot" target for drug discovery. Glutamate has been implicated in cortical spreading depression (CSD), the phenomenon responsible for migraine with aura and in animal models carrying FHM mutations...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
R David Andrew, Yi-Ting Hsieh, C Devin Brisson
We examined in live coronal slices from rat and mouse which brain regions generate potassium-triggered spreading depolarization (SDKt). This technique simulates cortical spreading depression, which underlies migraine aura in the intact brain. An SDKt episode was evoked by increasing bath [K(+)]o and recorded as a propagating front of elevated light transmittance representing transient neuronal swelling in gray matter of neocortex, hippocampus, striatum, and thalamus. In contrast, SDKt was not imaged in hypothalamic nuclei or brainstem with exception of those nuclei near the dorsal brainstem surface...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Yan Wang, Yanli Li, Minyan Wang
BACKGROUND: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a transient propagating excitation of synaptic activity followed by depression, which is implicated in migraine with aura and is regarded as the underlying cause of migraine. Calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) receptors play a crucial role in mediating the magnitude of CSD in rat cortical slice. This study aimed to examine whether CGRP receptors are involved in retinal spreading depression (RSD) in chicks. METHODS: Western blot was used for detection of calcitonin-receptor like receptor (CALCRL) and intrinsic optical imaging was used for pharmacological investigation...
October 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Clizia Capuani, Marcello Melone, Angelita Tottene, Luca Bragina, Giovanna Crivellaro, Mirko Santello, Giorgio Casari, Fiorenzo Conti, Daniela Pietrobon
Migraine is a common disabling brain disorder. A subtype of migraine with aura (familial hemiplegic migraine type 2: FHM2) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in α2 Na(+),K(+) ATPase (α2 NKA), an isoform almost exclusively expressed in astrocytes in adult brain. Cortical spreading depression (CSD), the phenomenon that underlies migraine aura and activates migraine headache mechanisms, is facilitated in heterozygous FHM2-knockin mice with reduced expression of α2 NKA The mechanisms underlying an increased susceptibility to CSD in FHM2 are unknown...
2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Martin Lauritzen, Anthony J Strong
A new research field in translational neuroscience has opened as a result of the recognition since 2002 that "spreading depression of Leão" can be detected in many patients with acute brain injury, whether vascular and spontaneous, or traumatic in origin, as well as in those many individuals experiencing the visual (or sensorimotor) aura of migraine. In this review, we trace from their first description in rabbits through to their detection and study in migraine and the injured human brain, and from our personal perspectives, the evolution of understanding of the importance of spread of mass depolarisations in cerebral grey matter...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Jed A Hartings, C William Shuttleworth, Sergei A Kirov, Cenk Ayata, Jason M Hinzman, Brandon Foreman, R David Andrew, Martyn G Boutelle, K C Brennan, Andrew P Carlson, Markus A Dahlem, Christoph Drenckhahn, Christian Dohmen, Martin Fabricius, Eszter Farkas, Delphine Feuerstein, Rudolf Graf, Raimund Helbok, Martin Lauritzen, Sebastian Major, Ana I Oliveira-Ferreira, Frank Richter, Eric S Rosenthal, Oliver W Sakowitz, Renán Sánchez-Porras, Edgar Santos, Michael Schöll, Anthony J Strong, Anja Urbach, M Brandon Westover, Maren Kl Winkler, Otto W Witte, Johannes Woitzik, Jens P Dreier
A modern understanding of how cerebral cortical lesions develop after acute brain injury is based on Aristides Leão's historic discoveries of spreading depression and asphyxial/anoxic depolarization. Treated as separate entities for decades, we now appreciate that these events define a continuum of spreading mass depolarizations, a concept that is central to understanding their pathologic effects. Within minutes of acute severe ischemia, the onset of persistent depolarization triggers the breakdown of ion homeostasis and development of cytotoxic edema...
June 21, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
S Bidot, D Biotti
Migraine with visual aura is marked by recurrent episodes of transient visual disturbance, often followed by headaches. Its pathophysiology has not been fully understood, but visual auras might be related to a self-propagating wave of cortical depolarization called "cortical spreading depression", triggering a trigemino-vascular "storm" ultimately leading to headaches. The most specific visual symptom is the "fortification spectrum" consisting of glimmering jagged lines spreading from the center to the periphery, and leaving a transient scotoma in its wake...
June 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Jens P Dreier, Martin Fabricius, Cenk Ayata, Oliver W Sakowitz, C William Shuttleworth, Christian Dohmen, Rudolf Graf, Peter Vajkoczy, Raimund Helbok, Michiyasu Suzuki, Alois J Schiefecker, Sebastian Major, Maren Kl Winkler, Eun-Jeung Kang, Denny Milakara, Ana I Oliveira-Ferreira, Clemens Reiffurth, Gajanan S Revankar, Kazutaka Sugimoto, Nora F Dengler, Nils Hecht, Brandon Foreman, Bart Feyen, Daniel Kondziella, Christian K Friberg, Henning Piilgaard, Eric S Rosenthal, M Brandon Westover, Anna Maslarova, Edgar Santos, Daniel Hertle, Renán Sánchez-Porras, Sharon L Jewell, Baptiste Balança, Johannes Platz, Jason M Hinzman, Janos Lückl, Karl Schoknecht, Michael Schöll, Christoph Drenckhahn, Delphine Feuerstein, Nina Eriksen, Viktor Horst, Julia S Bretz, Paul Jahnke, Michael Scheel, Georg Bohner, Egill Rostrup, Bente Pakkenberg, Uwe Heinemann, Jan Claassen, Andrew P Carlson, Christina M Kowoll, Svetlana Lublinsky, Yoash Chassidim, Ilan Shelef, Alon Friedman, Gerrit Brinker, Michael Reiner, Sergei A Kirov, R David Andrew, Eszter Farkas, Erdem Güresir, Hartmut Vatter, Lee S Chung, K C Brennan, Thomas Lieutaud, Stephane Marinesco, Andrew Ir Maas, Juan Sahuquillo, Markus A Dahlem, Frank Richter, Oscar Herreras, Martyn G Boutelle, David O Okonkwo, M Ross Bullock, Otto W Witte, Peter Martus, Arn Mjm van den Maagdenberg, Michel D Ferrari, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Lori A Shutter, Norberto Andaluz, André P Schulte, Brian MacVicar, Tomas Watanabe, Johannes Woitzik, Martin Lauritzen, Anthony J Strong, Jed A Hartings
Spreading depolarizations (SD) are waves of abrupt, near-complete breakdown of neuronal transmembrane ion gradients, are the largest possible pathophysiologic disruption of viable cerebral gray matter, and are a crucial mechanism of lesion development. Spreading depolarizations are increasingly recorded during multimodal neuromonitoring in neurocritical care as a causal biomarker providing a diagnostic summary measure of metabolic failure and excitotoxic injury. Focal ischemia causes spreading depolarization within minutes...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Omar S Akbik, Andrew P Carlson, Mark Krasberg, Howard Yonas
Over the past few decades, intracranial monitoring technologies focused on treating and preempting secondary injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI) have experienced considerable growth. A physiological measure fundamental to the management of these patients is cerebral blood flow (CBF), which may be determined directly or indirectly. Direct measurement has proven difficult previously; however, invasive and non-invasive CBF monitors are now available. This article reviews the history of CBF measurements in TBI as well as the role of CBF in pathologies associated with TBI, such as cerebral autoregulation, hyperemia, and cortical spreading depression...
August 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Lila Khennouf, Bodil Gesslein, Barbara Lykke Lind, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Martin Lauritzen
OBJECTIVE: Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is a subtype of migraine with aura caused by a gain-of-function mutation in the pore-forming α1 subunit of CaV 2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels. However, the mechanisms underlying how the disease is brought about and the prolonged aura remain incompletely understood. METHODS: In the anesthetized FHM1 mouse model in vivo, we used two-photon microscopy to measure calcium changes in neurons and astrocytes during somatosensory stimulations and cortical spreading depression (CSD), the putative mechanism of the migraine aura...
August 2016: Annals of Neurology
Blaine Jacobs, Gregory Dussor
Migraine is the third most common disease worldwide, the most common neurological disorder, and one of the most common pain conditions. Despite its prevalence, the basic physiology and underlying mechanisms contributing to the development of migraine are still poorly understood and development of new therapeutic targets is long overdue. Until recently, the major contributing pathophysiological event thought to initiate migraine was cerebral and meningeal arterial vasodilation. However, the role of vasodilation in migraine is unclear and recent findings challenge its necessity...
June 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Taeko Ebine, Haruki Toriumi, Toshihiko Shimizu, Miyuki Unekawa, Tsubasa Takizawa, Yohei Kayama, Mamoru Shibata, Norihiro Suzuki
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders. However, the relationship between serum sex hormones and susceptibility to the development of CSD in naturally estrous cycling female animals is largely unknown. The natural estrous cycle of mice consists of four stages, namely, proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus. We measured the serum concentration of estradiol and progesterone in estrus and diestrus and compared the minimum potassium concentrations necessary to evoke CSD in each stage and in males...
June 13, 2016: Neuroscience Research
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