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Cortical spreading depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350588/arguments-against-the-role-of-cortical-spreading-depression-in-migraine
#1
Piet Borgdorff
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a wave of increased electrocortical activity and vasodilation, followed by sustained decreased activity and prolonged vasoconstriction. Although the discovery of CSD has been ascribed to Leão, rather than vasoconstriction, he only observed a depression of neural activity combined with vasodilation, with much weaker stimulation than used by his followers. There is a longstanding belief that CSD underlies migraine aura, with its positive symptoms such as mosaic patterns and its negative symptoms such as scotoma, and a similar propagation speed and vasoreaction pattern...
January 19, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347421/turing-like-structures-in-a-functional-model-of-cortical-spreading-depression
#2
A Yu Verisokin, D V Verveyko, D E Postnov
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) along with migraine waves and spreading depolarization events with stroke or injures are the front-line examples of extreme physiological behaviors of the brain cortex which manifest themselves via the onset and spreading of localized areas of neuronal hyperactivity followed by their depression. While much is known about the physiological pathways involved, the dynamical mechanisms of the formation and evolution of complex spatiotemporal patterns during CSD are still poorly understood, in spite of the number of modeling studies that have been already performed...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244233/inadequate-brain-glycogen-or-sleep-increases-spreading-depression-susceptibility
#3
Kivilcim Kilic, Hulya Karatas, Buket Donmez-Demir, Emine Eren-Kocak, Yasemin Gursoy-Ozdemir, Alp Can, Jean-Marie Petit, Pierre J Magistretti, Turgay Dalkara
OBJECTIVE: Glycogen in astrocyte endfeet contributes to maintenance of low extracellular glutamate and K+ concentrations around synapses. Sleep deprivation (SD), a common migraine trigger induces transcriptional changes in astrocytes reducing glycogen breakdown. We hypothesize that when glycogen utilization cannot match synaptic energy demand, extracellular K+ can rise to levels that activate neuronal pannexin-1 channels and downstream inflammatory pathway, which might be one of the mechanisms initiating migraine headaches...
December 15, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239212/sarcoma-family-kinase-activity-is-required-for-cortical-spreading-depression
#4
Fan Bu, Yan Wang, Liwen Jiang, Dongqing Ma, John P Quinn, Minyan Wang
Objectives Sarcoma family kinase activity is associated with multiple diseases including ischemia and cancer; however, its role in the mechanism of migraine aura has been less well characterised. This study aims to investigate whether sarcoma family kinase is required for cortical spreading depression. Methods Cortical spreading depression was induced by topical application of K+ to the cerebral cortex and was monitored using electrophysiology in rats, and intrinsic optical signal in mouse brain slices. Drugs were perfused into the contralateral cerebral ventricle for pharmacological manipulations in rats...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225040/differential-neuromodulatory-role-of-endocannabinoids-in-the-rodent-trigeminal-sensory-ganglion-and-cerebral-cortex-relevant-to-pain-processing
#5
Francesca Eroli, Inge C M Loonen, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Else A Tolner, Andrea Nistri
Endocannabinoids are suggested to control pain, even though their clinical use is not fully validated and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. To clarify the targets of endocannabinoid actions, we studied how activation of the endocannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) affects neuronal responses in two in vitro preparations of rodents, namely the trigeminal sensory ganglion (TG) in culture and a coronal slice of the cerebral cortex. On TG small-medium size neurons, we tested whether submicromolar concentrations of the endogenous CB1R agonist anandamide (AEA) modulated inhibitory GABAA receptors and excitatory ATP-gated P2X3 receptors...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183666/microembolism-of-single-cortical-arterioles-can-induce-spreading-depression-and-ischemic-injury-a-potential-trigger-for-migraine-and-related-mri-lesions
#6
REVIEW
Buket Dönmez-Demir, Muge Yemisci, Kıvılcım Kılıç, Yasemin Gürsoy-Özdemir, Figen Söylemezoğlu, Michael Moskowitz, Turgay Dalkara
Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests an association between migraine with aura (MA) and cardiovascular events. There is experimental as well as clinical evidence implying cerebral microembolism as a potential trigger for MA attacks. Microembolism may also account for some of the ischemic MRI lesions more commonly observed in MA than in general population. Limited size of clinically-silent MRI lesions suggests isolated occlusion of a small vessel. However, it is not known whether selective thrombosis of a small arteriole (e...
November 25, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183255/suckling-in-litters-with-different-sizes-and-early-and-late-swimming-exercise-differentially-modulates-anxiety-like-behavior-memory-and-electrocorticogram-potentiation-after-spreading-depression-in-rats
#7
Mariana Barros E Silva-Gondim, Thays Kallyne Marinho de Souza, Marcelo Cairrão Araújo Rodrigues, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
OBJECTIVE: Analyze the hypothesis that swimming exercise, in rats suckled under distinct litter sizes, alters behavioral parameters suggestive of anxiety and recognition memory, and the electrocorticogram potentiation that occurs after the excitability-related phenomenon that is known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). METHODS: Male Wistar rats were suckled in litters with six or 12 pups (L6 and L12 groups). Animals swam at postnatal days (P) 8-23, or P60-P75 (early-exercised or late-exercised groups, respectively), or remained no-exercised...
November 28, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180981/cerebral-microdialysis-monitoring-to-improve-individualized-neurointensive-care-therapy-an-update-of-recent-clinical-data
#8
REVIEW
Laurent Carteron, Pierre Bouzat, Mauro Oddo
Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) allows bedside semicontinuous monitoring of patient brain extracellular fluid. Clinical indications of CMD monitoring are focused on the management of secondary cerebral and systemic insults in acute brain injury (ABI) patients [mainly, traumatic brain injury (TBI), subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)], specifically to tailor several routine interventions-such as optimization of cerebral perfusion pressure, blood transfusion, glycemic control and oxygen therapy-in the individual patient...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130510/heterogenous-migraine-aura-symptoms-correlate-with-visual-cortex-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-responses
#9
Nanna Arngrim, Anders Hougaard, Khazar Ahmadi, Mark Bitsch Vestergaard, Henrik Winther Schytz, Faisal Mohammad Amin, Henrik Bo Wiberg Larsson, Jes Olesen, Michael B Hoffmann, Messoud Ashina
OBJECTIVE: Migraine aura is sparsely studied due to the highly challenging task of capturing patients during aura. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is likely the underlying phenomenon of aura. The possible correlation between the multifaceted phenomenology of aura symptoms and the effects of CSD on the brain has not been ascertained. METHODS: Five migraine patients were studied during various forms of aura symptoms induced by hypoxia, sham hypoxia, or physical exercise with concurrent photostimulation...
December 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125056/monosodium-glutamate-and-treadmill-exercise-anxiety-like-behavior-and-spreading-depression-features-in-young-adult-rats
#10
Suênia Marcele Vitor-de-Lima, Larissa de Brito Medeiros, Regina de Deus Lira Benevides, Catarina Nicácio Dos Santos, Nahara Oliveira Lima da Silva, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
OBJECTIVES: The route of administration is an important factor in determining the action of some drugs. We previously demonstrated that subcutaneous monosodium glutamate (MSG) accelerated cortical spreading depression (CSD) in the rat and that treadmill exercise attenuated this effect. This study evaluated whether other routes of administration exert the same action by testing orogastric (gavage) and topical cortical MSG administration in treadmill-exercised and sedentary rats. Additionally, in the orogastric treatment we tested anxiety-like behavior...
November 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073774/migraine-with-brainstem-aura-why-not-a-cortical-origin
#11
Geneviève Demarquay, Anne Ducros, Alexandra Montavont, François Mauguiere
Background Migraine with brainstem aura is defined as a migraine with aura including at least two of the following symptoms: dysarthria, vertigo, tinnitus, hypacusis, diplopia, ataxia and/or decreased level of consciousness. Aim The aim of this study is to review data coming from clinical observations and functional mapping that support the role of the cerebral cortex in the initiation of brainstem aura symptoms. Results Vertigo can result from a vestibular cortex dysfunction, while tinnitus and hypacusis can originate within the auditory cortex...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063300/delayed-cerebral-ischemia-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-beyond-vasospasm-and-towards-a-multifactorial-pathophysiology
#12
REVIEW
Joseph R Geraghty, Fernando D Testai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is common after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and represents a significant cause of poor functional outcome. DCI was mainly thought to be caused by cerebral vasospasm; however, recent clinical trials have been unable to confirm this hypothesis. Studies in humans and animal models have since supported the notion of a multifactorial pathophysiology of DCI. This review summarizes some of the main mechanisms under investigation including cerebral vascular dysregulation, microthrombosis, cortical spreading depolarizations, and neuroinflammation...
October 23, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041816/enhanced-susceptibility-to-cortical-spreading-depression-in-two-types-of-na-k-atpase-%C3%AE-2-subunit-deficient-mice-as-a-model-of-familial-hemiplegic-migraine-2
#13
Miyuki Unekawa, Keiko Ikeda, Yutaka Tomita, Kiyoshi Kawakami, Norihiro Suzuki
Background Patients with familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2) have a mutated ATP1A2 gene (encoding Na+,K+-ATPase α2 subunit) and show prolonged migraine aura. Cortical spreading depression (CSD), which involves mass depolarization of neurons and astrocytes that propagates slowly through the gray matter, is profoundly related to aura. Methods In two types of Atp1a2-defective heterozygous mice, Atp1a2tm1Kwk (C-KO) and Atp1a2tm2Kwk (N-KO), the sensitivity and responsiveness to CSD were examined under urethane anesthesia...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034461/the-migraine-attack-as-a-homeostatic-neuroprotective-response-to-brain-oxidative-stress-preliminary-evidence-for-a-theory
#14
Jonathan M Borkum
BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that migraineurs show higher levels of oxidative stress (lipid peroxides) between migraine attacks and that migraine triggers may further increase brain oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is transduced into a neural signal by the TRPA1 ion channel on meningeal pain receptors, eliciting neurogenic inflammation, a key event in migraine. Thus, migraines may be a response to brain oxidative stress. RESULTS: In this article, a number of migraine components are considered: cortical spreading depression, platelet activation, plasma protein extravasation, endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, and the release of serotonin, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor...
January 2018: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989805/migraine-and-stroke
#15
REVIEW
Yonghua Zhang, Aasheeta Parikh, Shuo Qian
Migraines are generally considered a relatively benign neurological condition. However, research has shown an association between migraines and stroke, and especially between migraine with aura and ischaemic stroke. Patients can also suffer from migrainous infarction, a subset of ischaemic stroke that often occurs in the posterior circulation of younger women. The exact pathogenesis of migrainous infarct is not known, but it is theorised that the duration and local neuronal energy level from cortical spreading depression may be a key factor...
September 2017: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972120/fremanezumab-a-humanized-monoclonal-anti-cgrp-antibody-inhibits-thinly-myelinated-a%C3%AE-but-not-unmyelinated-c-meningeal-nociceptors
#16
Agustin Melo-Carrillo, Andrew M Strassman, Rony-Reuven Nir, Aaron J Schain, Rodrigo Noseda, Jennifer Stratton, Rami Burstein
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), the most abundant neuropeptide in primary afferent sensory neurons, is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine headache, but its role in migraine is still equivocal. As a new approach to migraine treatment, humanized anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies (CGRP-mAbs) were developed to reduce the availability of CGRP, and were found effective in reducing the frequency of chronic and episodic migraine. We recently tested the effect of fremanezumab (TEV-48125), a CGRP-mAb, on the activity of second-order trigeminovascular dorsal horn neurons that receive peripheral input from the cranial dura, and found a selective inhibition of high-threshold but not wide-dynamic range class of neurons...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971699/cgrp-receptor-antagonist-mk-8825-attenuates-cortical-spreading-depression-induced-pain-behavior
#17
Aslı Filiz, Nermin Tepe, Sajedeh Eftekhari, H Evren Boran, Ergin Dilekoz, Lars Edvinsson, Hayrunnisa Bolay
Background and objective The present study aimed to investigate the effects of selective calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist (MK-8825) on cortical spreading depression (CSD) induced pain behavior and anxiety in freely-moving rats, and neuronal activation in the correlated anatomical regions. Methods CSD was induced while keeping all meningeal layers and BBB intact and MK-8825 was administered in two different doses. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), arterial pressure and DC shift were recorded...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966642/spreading-depression-and-focal-venous-cerebral-ischemia-enhance-cortical-neurogenesis
#18
Ryo Tamaki, Samuel Ige Orie, Beat Alessandri, Oliver Kempski, Axel Heimann
Endogenous neurogenesis can arise from a variety of physiological stimuli including exercise, learning, or "enriched environment" as well as pathological conditions such as ischemia, epilepsy or cortical spreading depression. Whether all these conditions use a common trigger to set off endogenous neurogenesis is yet unclear. We hypothesized that cortical spreading depression (CSD) induces neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex and dentate gyrus after cerebral venous ischemia. Forty-two Wistar rats alternatively underwent sham operation (Sham), induction of ten CSDs or venous ischemia provoked via occlusion of two adjacent superficial cortical vein followed by ten induced CSDs (CSD + 2-VO)...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965878/collision-of-two-action-potentials-in-a-single-excitable-cell
#19
Christian Fillafer, Anne Paeger, Matthias F Schneider
BACKGROUND: It is a common incident in nature, that two waves or pulses run into each other head-on. The outcome of such an event is of special interest, because it allows conclusions about the underlying physical nature of the pulses. The present experimental study dealt with the head-on meeting of two action potentials (AP) in a single excitable plant cell (Chara braunii internode). METHODS: The membrane potential was monitored with multiple sensors along a single excitable cell...
December 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962806/cortical-spreading-depression-and-ischemia-in-neurocritical-patients
#20
REVIEW
Néstor Wainsztein, Federico Rodríguez Lucci
Spreading depolarization in cerebral cortex is associated with swelling of neurons, distortion of dendritic spines, massive ion translocation with a large change of the slow electrical potential, and silencing of brain electrical activity. The term spreading depression represents a wave of spontaneous activity of the electrocorticogram that propagates through contiguous cerebral gray matter at a characteristic velocity. Spreading depression is a consequence of cortical spreading depolarization. Therefore, spreading depolarization is not always accompanied by spreading depression and the terms are not synonymous...
November 2017: Neurologic Clinics
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