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Benjamin V Herman, Mark Nyland, Lyndsay Somerville, Steven J MacDonald, Brent A Lanting, James L Howard
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following total hip arthroplasty (THA) can be treated with irrigation and debridement with head and polyethylene exchange (IDHPE) or 2-stage revision (2SR). Few studies have compared patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in patients managed with these treatments. METHODS: A retrospective review identified 137 patients who had an infected primary THA between 1986-2013. Control cohorts were matched according to age and Charlton Comorbidity Index (CCI)...
November 28, 2016: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
Diana X Sahonero-Canavesi, Maritza Zavaleta-Pastor, Lourdes Martínez-Aguilar, Isabel M López-Lara, Otto Geiger
Microorganisms produce a wide spectrum of (phospho)lipases that are secreted in order to make external substrates available for the organism. Alternatively, other (phospho)lipases may be physically associated with the producing organism causing a turnover of intrinsic lipids and frequently giving rise to a remodeling of the cellular membranes. Although potential (phospho)lipases can be predicted with a number of algorithms when the gene/protein sequence is available, experimental proof of the enzyme activities, substrate specificities, and potential physiological functions has frequently not been obtained...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jacob O'Brien, Heyam Hayder, Chun Peng
The National Institute of Health's ImageJ is a powerful, freely available image processing software suite. ImageJ has comprehensive particle analysis algorithms which can be used effectively to count various biological particles. When counting large numbers of cell samples, the hemocytometer presents a bottleneck with regards to time. Likewise, counting membranes from migration/invasion assays with the ImageJ plugin Cell Counter, although accurate, is exceptionally labor intensive, subjective, and infamous for causing wrist pain...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yingmei Wang, Ge Wang, Shuwei Mao, Wenxiang Cong, Zhilong Ji, Jian-Feng Cai, Yangbo Ye
Reducing radiation dose is an important goal in medical computed tomography (CT), for which interior tomography is an effective approach. There have been interior reconstruction algorithms for monochromatic CT, but in reality, X-ray sources are polychromatic. Using a polychromatic acquisition model and motivated by framelet-based image processing algorithms, in this paper, we propose an interior reconstruction algorithm to obtain an image with spectral information assuming only one scan with a current energy-integrating detector...
November 22, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Ellen T Arena, Curtis T Rueden, Mark C Hiner, Shulei Wang, Ming Yuan, Kevin W Eliceiri
Modern biological research particularly in the fields of developmental and cell biology has been transformed by the rapid evolution of the light microscope. The light microscope, long a mainstay of the experimental biologist, is now used for a wide array of biological experimental scenarios and sample types. Much of the great developments in advanced biological imaging have been driven by the digital imaging revolution with powerful processors and algorithms. In particular, this combination of advanced imaging and computational analysis has resulted in the drive of the modern biologist to not only visually inspect dynamic phenomena, but to quantify the involved processes...
December 2, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Po-Jen Hsu, Kun-Lin Ho, Sheng-Hsien Lin, Jer-Lai Kuo
The potential energy surface (PES), structures and thermal properties of methanol clusters (MeOH)n with n = 8-15 were explored by replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations with an empirical model and refined using density functional theory (DFT) methods. For a given size, local minima structures were sampled from REMD trajectories and archived by a newly developed molecular database via a two-stage clustering algorithm (TSCA). Our TSCA utilizes both the topology of O-HO hydrogen bonding networks and the similarity of the shapes to filter out duplicates...
December 2, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Isabela Soares Lopes Branco, Paula Cristina Guimarães Antunes, Gabriel Paiva Fonseca, Hélio Yoriyaz
Model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs) are the current tools to estimate dose in brachytherapy, which takes into account heterogeneous medium, therefore, departing from water-based formalism (TG-43). One aspect associated to MBCDA is the choice of dose specification medium since it offers two possibilities to report dose: (a) dose to medium in medium, D m,m; and (b) dose to water in medium, D w,m. The discussion about the preferable quantity to be reported is underway. The dose conversion factors, DCF, between dose to water in medium, D w,m, and dose to medium in medium, D m,m, is based on cavity theory and can be obtained using different approaches...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Didier Benoit, Claes N Ladefoged, Ahmadreza Rezaei, Sune H Keller, Flemming L Andersen, Liselotte Højgaard, Adam E Hansen, Søren Holm, Johan Nuyts
For quantitative tracer distribution in positron emission tomography, attenuation correction is essential. In a hybrid PET/CT system the CT images serve as a basis for generation of the attenuation map, but in PET/MR, the MR images do not have a similarly simple relationship with the attenuation map. Hence attenuation correction in PET/MR systems is more challenging. Typically either of two MR sequences are used: the Dixon or the ultra-short time echo (UTE) techniques. However these sequences have some well-known limitations...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Arkadiusz Sitek
The origin ensemble (OE) algorithm is a new method used for image reconstruction from nuclear tomographic data. The main advantage of this algorithm is the ease of implementation for complex tomographic models and the sound statistical theory. In this comment, the author provides the basics of the statistical interpretation of OE and gives suggestions for the improvement of the algorithm in the application to prompt gamma imaging as described in Polf et al (2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 7085).
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Anna Conen, Christoph A Fux, Peter Vajkoczy, Andrej Trampuz
Neurosurgical devices are increasingly used. With it, neurosurgical device-related infections gain relevance. As biofilms are involved in implant-associated infections the diagnosis and treatment is challenging and requires specific anti-biofilm concepts and management algorithms. Areas covered: The literature concerning the management of neurosurgical device-associated infections is scarce and heterogeneous treatment concepts are discussed, but no standardized diagnostic and treatment procedures exist. Therefore, we emphasize extrapolating management strategies predominantly from orthopedic device-associated infections, where the concept is better established and clinically validated...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
M J May, J Weaver, K Widmann, G E Kemp, D Thorn, J D Colvin, M B Schneider, A Moore, B E Blue
The Dante is an 18 channel filtered diode array used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux between 50 eV and 20 keV from various targets. The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and a reconstruction algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The reconstructed spectra are very low resolution with features consistent with the instrument response and are not necessarily consistent with the spectral emission features from the plasma...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
S D Scott, R T Mumgaard
A tokamak-independent analysis suite has been developed to process data from Motional Stark Effect (mse) diagnostics. The software supports multi-spectral line-polarization mse diagnostics which simultaneously measure emission at the mse σ and π lines as well as at two "background" wavelengths that are displaced from the mse spectrum by a few nanometers. This analysis accurately estimates the amplitude of partially polarized background light at the σ and π wavelengths even in situations where the background light changes rapidly in time and space, a distinct improvement over traditional "time-interpolation" background estimation...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
H Zhong, Y Tan, Y Q Liu, H Q Xie, Z Gao
A single-channel 3 mm interferometer has been developed for plasma density diagnostics in the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak (SUNIST). The extremely compact microwave interferometer utilizes one corrugated feed horn antenna for both emitting and receiving the microwave. The beam path lies on the equatorial plane so the system would not suffer from beam path deflection problems due to the symmetry of the cross section. A focusing lens group and an oblique vacuum window are carefully designed to boost the signal to noise ratio, which allows this system to show good performance even with the small-diameter central column itself as a reflector, without a concave mirror...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
J Ayllon-Guerola, J Gonzalez-Martin, M Garcia-Munoz, J Rivero-Rodriguez, A Herrmann, S Vorbrugg, P Leitenstern, S Zoletnik, J Galdon, J Garcia Lopez, M Rodriguez-Ramos, L Sanchis-Sanchez, A D Dominguez, M Kocan, J P Gunn, D Garcia-Vallejo, J Dominguez
A magnetically driven fast-ion loss detector system for the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak has been designed and will be presented here. The device is feedback controlled to adapt the detector head position to the heat load and physics requirements. Dynamic simulations have been performed taking into account effects such as friction, coil self-induction, and eddy currents. A real time positioning control algorithm to maximize the detector operational window has been developed. This algorithm considers dynamical behavior and mechanical resistance as well as measured and predicted thermal loads...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
K Zhai, T Schindler, J Kinley, B Deng, M C Thompson
The C-2/C-2U Thomson scattering system has been substantially upgraded during the latter phase of C-2/C-2U program. A Rayleigh channel has been added to each of the three polychromators of the C-2/C-2U Thomson scattering system. Onsite spectral calibration has been applied to avoid the issue of different channel responses at different spots on the photomultiplier tube surface. With the added Rayleigh channel, the absolute intensity response of the system is calibrated with Rayleigh scattering in argon gas from 0...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Matteo Molteni, Fabio Ferri
A 10 ns time resolution, multi-tau software correlator, capable of computing simultaneous autocorrelation (A-A, B-B) and cross (A-B) correlation functions at count rates up to ∼10 MHz, with no data loss, has been developed in LabVIEW and C++ by using the National Instrument timer/counterboard (NI PCIe-6612) and a fast Personal Computer (PC) (Intel Core i7-4790 Processor 3.60 GHz ). The correlator works by using two algorithms: for large lag times (τ ≳ 1 μs), a classical time-mode scheme, based on the measure of the number of pulses per time interval, is used; differently, for τ ≲ 1 μs a photon-mode (PM) scheme is adopted and the correlation function is retrieved from the sequence of the photon arrival times...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Pasquale Arpaia, Pasquale Cimmino
A flexible firmware architecture for different kinds of data acquisition systems, ranging from high-precision bench instruments to low-cost wireless transducers networks, is presented. The key component is a multi-behaviors finite state machine, easily configurable to both low- and high-performance requirements, to diverse operating systems, as well as to on-line and batch measurement algorithms. The proposed solution was validated experimentally on three case studies with data acquisition architectures: (i) concentrated, in a high-precision instrument for magnetic measurements at CERN, (ii) decentralized, for telemedicine remote monitoring of patients at home, and (iii) distributed, for remote monitoring of building's energy loss...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
A B Zylstra, H-S Park, J S Ross, F Fiuza, J A Frenje, D P Higginson, C Huntington, C K Li, R D Petrasso, B Pollock, B Remington, H G Rinderknecht, D Ryutov, F H Séguin, D Turnbull, S C Wilks
Pinhole imaging of large (mm scale) carbon-deuterium (CD) plasmas by proton self-emission has been used for the first time to study the microphysics of shock formation, which is of astrophysical relevance. The 3 MeV deuterium-deuterium (DD) fusion proton self-emission from these plasmas is imaged using a novel pinhole imaging system, with up to five different 1 mm diameter pinholes positioned 25 cm from target-chamber center. CR39 is used as the detector medium, positioned at 100 cm distance from the pinhole for a magnification of 4 ×...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
R J Zhou, L Q Hu, G Q Zhong, H R Cao, G Z Liu, K Li, Y Zhang, S Y Lin, J Z Zhang
Gamma ray diagnostics has been developed in the EAST tokamak recently. Six BGO scintillator detectors are arranged on the down-half cross-section and pointed at the up-half cross-section of plasma, with space resolution about 15 cm and energy range from 0.3 MeV to 6 MeV. Three main gamma ray peaks in the energy spectra have been observed and are identified as the results of nuclear reactions (207)Pb(n, n')(207m)Pb, H(n, γ) D, and D(p, γ)(3)He, respectively. Upgrading of the system is in progress by using LaBr3(Ce) scintillator, fast photo-multiplier tubes, and a fully digital data acquisition system based on high sample frequency digitizers with digital pulse processing algorithms...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Qi Wang, Zhijie Lian, Jianming Wang, Qingliang Chen, Yukuan Sun, Xiuyan Li, Xiaojie Duan, Ziqiang Cui, Huaxiang Wang
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) reconstruction is a nonlinear and ill-posed problem. Exact reconstruction of an EIT image inverts a high dimensional mathematical model to calculate the conductivity field, which causes significant problems regarding that the computational complexity will reduce the achievable frame rate, which is considered as a major advantage of EIT imaging. The single-step method, state estimation method, and projection method were always used to accelerate reconstruction process. The basic principle of these methods is to reduce computational complexity...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
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