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Coronary Artery Calcium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724979/impairment-of-coronary-endothelial-function-by-hypoxia-reoxygenation-involves-trpc3-inhibition-mediated-kca-channel-dysfunction-implication-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#1
Xiang-Chong Wang, Wen-Tao Sun, Jie Fu, Jun-Hao Huang, Cheuk-Man Yu, Malcolm John Underwood, Guo-Wei He, Qin Yang
Despite increasing knowledge of the significance of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) and canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels in endothelial physiology, no studies so far have investigated the link between these two distinct types of channels in the control of vascular tone in pathological conditions. We previously demonstrated that hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R) inhibits endothelial KCa and TRPC3 channels in porcine coronary arteries (PCAs). The present study further investigated whether modulation of TRPC3 is involved in H-R-induced KCa channel inhibition and associated vasodilatory dysfunction using approaches of wire myography, whole-cell voltage-clamp, and coimmunoprecipitation...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720499/coronary-artery-disease-associated-gene-phactr1-modulates-severity-of-vascular-calcification-in-vitro
#2
Redouane Aherrahrou, Zouhair Aherrahrou, Heribert Schunkert, Jeanette Erdmann
Calcification of vessels is strongly associated with atherosclerosis and leads to coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) revealed several genes that are associated with and contribute to CAD/MI as well as coronary artery calcification (CAC); however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. PHACTR1, which encodes phosphatase and actin regulator 1, is among these risk genes. The aim of this study was to functionally test whether Phactr1 regulates calcification in vitro using murine embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived smooth muscle cells (SMCs)...
July 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719492/fifty-men-3510-marathons-cardiac-risk-factors-and-coronary-artery-calcium-scores
#3
William O Roberts, Robert S Schwartz, Ross F Garberich, Samantha Carlson, Thomas Knickelbine, Jonathan G Schwartz, Gretchen Peichel, John R Lesser, Kelly Wickstrom, Kevin M Harris
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Many male marathon runners have elevated coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores despite high physical activity. We examined the association between CAC scores, cardiovascular risk factors, and lifestyle habits in long term marathoners. METHODS: We recruited men who had run ≥1 marathon annually for 25 consecutive years. CAC was assessed using coronary computed tomography angiography. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CAD) risk factors were measured with a 12-lead ECG, serum lipid panel, height, weight, resting blood pressure and heart rate, and a risk factor questionnaire...
July 17, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717364/serum-free-thyroxine-levels-were-associated-with-pulmonary-hypertension-and-pulmonary-artery-systolic-pressure-in-euthyroid-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#4
Bingjie Wu, Jingjing Jiang, Minghui Gui, Lin Liu, Qiqige Aleteng, Shanshan Wang, Xiaojing Liu, Yan Ling, Xin Gao
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between thyroid hormone levels, pulmonary hypertension (PH), and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) in euthyroid patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A cross-sectional study was conducted in individuals who underwent coronary angiography and were diagnosed as CAD from March 2013 to November 2013. 811 subjects (185 women and 626 men) were included in this study. PASP was measured by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. 86 patients were diagnosed as PH and had significantly higher free thyroxine (FT4) levels than those without PH...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710871/detection-and-quantification-of-coronary-calcium-from-dual-energy-chest-x-rays-phantom-feasibility-study
#5
Bo Zhou, Di Wen, Katelyn Nye, Robert C Gilkeson, Brendan Eck, David Jordan, David L Wilson
PURPOSE: We have demonstrated the ability to identify coronary calcium, a reliable biomarker of coronary artery disease, using non-gated, 2-shot, dual energy (DE) chest x-ray imaging. Here we will use digital simulations, backed up by measurements, to characterize DE calcium signals and the role of potential confounds such as beam hardening, x-ray scatter, cardiac motion, and pulmonary artery pulsation. For the DE calcium signal, we will consider quantification, as compared to CT calcium score, and visualization...
July 15, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708754/the-effect-of-vasodilatory-medications-on-radial-artery-spasm-in-patients-undergoing-transradial-coronary-artery-procedures-a-systematic-review
#6
Elizabeth Curtis, Ritin Fernandez, Astin Lee
BACKGROUND: The uptake of percutaneous coronary procedures via the radial artery has increased internationally due to the decreased risk of complications and increased patient satisfaction. The increased susceptibility of the radial artery to spasm however presents a potential risk for procedural failure. Although most experts agree on the need for prophylactic medications to reduce radial artery spasm, currently there is inconsistency in literature regarding the most effective vasodilatory medication or combination of medications...
July 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707447/cto-revascularization-obstacles-and-options-in-balloon-nonpenetrable-lesions
#7
EDITORIAL
On Topaz
CTO lesions resisting balloon crossing are located in moderate/severe tortuous coronary arteries contain more moderate/severe calcification burden and carry a higher J-CTO score as compared with balloon crossable CTO lesions. CTO lesions resisting balloon crossing do not constitute a homogenous group. In 25% of the patients, the resisting CTO was caused by stent restenosis and thrombus is an integral component of CTO in addition to calcium and fibrosis. The excimer laser and rotational/orbital atherectomy are among useful debulking technologies capable of creating a "pilot recanalization channel" in the CTO that enables completion of the revasularization...
July 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686633/increased-risk-for-development-of-coronary-artery-calcification-in-subjects-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-systemic-inflammation
#8
Jihyun Kim, Da Young Lee, Se Eun Park, Cheol-Young Park, Won-Young Lee, Ki-Won Oh, Sung-Woo Park, Eun-Jung Rhee
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested the importance of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and systemic inflammation in the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to compare the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) development according to the status of NAFLD and inflammation over four years of follow-up in subjects without baseline CAC. METHODS: A total of 1,575 participants in a health screening program were divided into four groups according to baseline NAFLD state and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (median 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675986/clinical-determinants-of-clopidogrel-responsiveness-in-a-heterogeneous-cohort-of-puerto-rican-hispanics
#9
Dagmar F Hernandez-Suarez, Stuart A Scott, Matthew I Tomey, Kyle Melin, Angel Lopez-Candales, Charlotte E Buckley, Jorge Duconge
BACKGROUND: Clopidogrel is by far the most prescribed platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP) antagonist in Puerto Rico despite the advent of newer agents (prasugrel and ticagrelor). Given the paucity of data on clopidogrel responsiveness in Hispanics, we sought to determine the association between clinical characteristics and platelet reactivity in Puerto Rican patients on clopidogrel therapy. STUDY POPULATION: A total of 100 Puerto Rican patients on clopidogrel therapy were enrolled and allocated into two groups: Group I, without high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR); and Group II, with HTPR...
July 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674321/incremental-prognostic-value-of-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-high-risk-plaque-characteristics-in-asymptomatic-patients
#10
Kazuhisa Takamura, Shinichiro Fujimoto, Takeshi Kondo, Makoto Hiki, Yuko Kawaguchi, Etsuro Kato, Hiroyuki Daida
AIM: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) findings of positive remodeling (index >1.1) and low-attenuation plaque (<30 Hounsfield units) are recognized as CT-verified high-risk plaque (CT-HRP). Therefore, we investigated the incremental prognostic value of evaluation of plaque characteristics using CCTA in asymptomatic patients. METHODS: Overall, 495 consecutive patients without any known coronary artery disease who underwent CCTA were included in this study...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672269/underlying-mechanisms-preserving-coronary-basal-tone-and-no-mediated-relaxation-in-obesity-involvement-of-%C3%AE-1-subunit-mediated-upregulation-of-bkca-channels
#11
Belén Climent, Ana Sánchez, Laura Moreno, Francisco Pérez-Vizcaíno, Albino García-Sacristán, Luis Rivera, Dolores Prieto
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The impact of obesity on vasomotor regulation of coronary arteries and its underlying mechanisms are not completely understood and, in particular, the role of BKCa channels in the NO-mediated coronary vasodilation in obesity remains to be elucidated. METHODS: The effects of selective blockade of BKCa channel was tested on nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilator responses of coronary arteries from lean and obese Zucker rats (LZR and OZR, respectively) by means of simultaneous measurements of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) by Fura-2 fluorescence and tension in endothelium-denuded coronary arteries mounted in microvascular myographs...
June 23, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670030/coronary-artery-calcium-score-current-status
#12
REVIEW
Priscilla Ornellas Neves, Joalbo Andrade, Henry Monção
The coronary artery calcium score plays an Important role In cardiovascular risk stratification, showing a significant association with the medium- or long-term occurrence of major cardiovascular events. Here, we discuss the following: protocols for the acquisition and quantification of the coronary artery calcium score by multidetector computed tomography; the role of the coronary artery calcium score in coronary risk stratification and its comparison with other clinical scores; its indications, interpretation, and prognosis in asymptomatic patients; and its use in patients who are symptomatic or have diabetes...
May 2017: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666765/cardioprotective-effects-of-combined-therapy-with-diltiazem-and-superoxide-dismutase-on-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#13
Chunxia Chen, Wensheng Lu, Guangwei Wu, Liwen Lv, Wan Chen, Luying Huang, Xubin Wu, Nengwen Xu, Yinxiong Wu
AIMS: Our experiments were designed to study the effect of diltiazem (DIL) combined with superoxide dismutase (SOD) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIRI) injury in a rat model. MAIN METHODS: Fifty rats were randomly separated into sham, ischemia-reperfusion (IR), DIL (5mg/kg), SOD (10,000U/kg) and combinatorial therapy (DIL plus SOD) groups. MIRI was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30min and then reperfusing for 60min. The cardioprotective effects of combinatorial therapy were evaluated using hemodynamics, biochemical indices, histopathology and apoptotic-related proteins and gene expression...
June 27, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666711/low-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-and-particle-concentrations-are-associated-with-greater-levels-of-endothelial-activation-markers-in-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-participants
#14
Brian T Steffen, Suzette J Bielinski, Paul A Decker, Cecilia Berardi, Nicholas B Larson, James S Pankow, Erin D Michos, Naomi Q Hanson, David M Herrington, Michael Y Tsai
BACKGROUND: High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are well characterized for their role in reverse cholesterol transport but may confer other cardiovascular benefits-specifically, HDL may suppress the endothelial activation cascade in the initiating stages of atherogenesis. OBJECTIVE: It was the primary aim of this study to examine the relations of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), total HDL particle (HDL-P) concentrations, and HDL-P subclasses with circulating levels of endothelial activation markers in a subcohort of Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666027/hyperuricemia-and-risk-of-increased-arterial-stiffness-in-healthy-women-based-on-health-screening-in-korean-population
#15
Hoon Young Choi, Seok-Hyung Kim, Ah Ran Choi, Seung Gyu Kim, Hyunwook Kim, Jung Eun Lee, Hyung Jong Kim, Hyeong Cheon Park
Hyperuricemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is associated with increased arterial stiffness in high-risk populations. However, given the possible sex-related differences in the prevalence of hyperuricemia, the association between elevated serum uric acid (SUA) level and increased arterial stiffness has yielded conflicting results. We investigated the relationship between SUA and arterial stiffness in asymptomatic healthy subjects who underwent a health examination. Subjects who underwent a comprehensive health examination were enrolled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663384/ct-angiography-images-of-coronary-artery-stenosis-provide-a-better-prediction-of-risk-than-traditional-risk-factors-in-asymptomatic-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-long-term-study-of-clinical-outcomes
#16
Kwan Yong Lee, Byung-Hee Hwang, Tae-Hoon Kim, Chan Jun Kim, Jin-Jin Kim, Eun-Ho Choo, Ik Jun Choi, Young Choi, Ha-Wook Park, Yoon-Seok Koh, Pum-Joon Kim, Jong Min Lee, Mi-Jeong Kim, Doo Soo Jeon, Jae-Hyoung Cho, Jung Im Jung, Ki-Bae Seung, Kiyuk Chang
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the efficacy of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in predicting the long-term risks in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes and compared it with traditional risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed 933 patients with asymptomatic type 2 diabetes who underwent CCTA. Stenosis was considered obstructive (≥50%) in each coronary artery segment using CCTA. The extent and severity scores for coronary artery disease (CAD) were evaluated...
June 29, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662835/ct-angiography-to-evaluate-coronary-artery-disease-and-revascularization-requirement-before-trans-catheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#17
Alexia Rossi, Carlo N De Cecco, Simon R O Kennon, Lu Zou, Felix G Meinel, William Toscano, Sabrina Segreto, Stephan Achenbach, Jörg Hausleiter, U Joseph Schoepf, Francesca Pugliese
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) and aortic stenosis share pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors. We evaluated the clinical utility of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) to identify CAD and revascularization requirement in patients with severe aortic stenosis considered for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: Consecutive patients without known CAD underwent calcium scoring, CTA and invasive coronary angiography (ICA)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658116/an-interesting-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-treatment-for-lethal-ventricular-arrhythmias-caused-by-coronary-artery-spasm-a-case-report
#18
Jie Sun, Li Feng, Fei Li, Yanchun Zhang, Jianting Dong
RATIONALE: Coronary artery spasm (CAS) could cause serious lethal ventricular arrhythmias. While implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have been recommend for secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death related to lethal ventricular arrhythmias. However, in resuscitated sudden cardiac death caused by CAS, the effect of ICD is still not well clear. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 60-year-old male presented with 2 episodes of syncope. Coronary angiography showed normal coronary arteries...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656274/proteomics-of-acute-heart-failure-in-a-rat-post-myocardial-infarction-model
#19
Yichen Guo, Lianqun Cui, Shiliang Jiang, Airong Zhang, Shu Jiang
The aim of the present study was to identify the mechanisms underlying the development of post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) heart failure. The left anterior descending coronary artery of rats was occluded to mimic human ischemic heart disease. Linear Trap Quadropole OrbiTrap mass spectrometry was used to profile the expressions of energy metabolism‑associated and calcium‑binding proteins in the post‑MI and control groups. Using the online Protein Analysis Through Evolutionary Relationships classification system, 78 differentially expressed proteins were identified, including 50 downregulated proteins and 28 upregulated proteins in post‑MI group when compared with the control group...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652190/relationship-between-simple-markers-of-insulin-resistance-and-coronary-artery-calcification
#20
Gerald M Reaven, Joshua W Knowles, David Leonard, Carolyn E Barlow, Benjamin L Willis, William L Haskell, David J Maron
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance in apparently healthy persons is associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that promote coronary atherosclerosis. Identifying these individuals before manifest disease would provide useful clinical information. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that combining 2 simple markers of insulin resistance, prediabetes (PreDM) and triglyceride (TG) concentration ≥150 mg/dL, would identify apparently healthy persons with adverse cardiometabolic risk profiles and increased coronary artery calcium (CAC) compared with those with neither or only 1 abnormality...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
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