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Coronary Artery Calcium

Yue Zhang, Tian-Tian Wang, Shu-Li Guo, Li-Na Han, Li Zhang, Xiao-Ying Li, Jin Fan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level of blood pressure control in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) of China in order to provide guidance for the prevention and treatment of CHD. METHODS: The patients with CHD were retrospectively collected from 2011~2014 in PLA General Hospital and Hainan Branch Hospital. Then analyzed the difference of blood pressure compliance rate between different surgical methods percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting(CABG), secondary preventive drugs(aspirin, clopidogrel, nitrates, trimetazidine, nicorandil, hypotensor, hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering drugs) and lifestyle(smoking, drinking, exercise)...
January 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
I Made Ady Wirawan, Robin F Griffiths, Peter D Larsen
BACKGROUND: This study aims to examine which marker or testing protocols have been suggested for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment in asymptomatic populations, at which CVD risk level, and how this can be implemented for CVD risk assessment in pilot populations. METHODS: A systematic search was performed using Systematic Reviews Subset on PubMed; the OvidSP interface, including all EBM reviews and EMBASE databases; and the G-I-N International Guideline Library...
July 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Michael L Chuang, Philimon N Gona, Saadia Qazi, Rebecca M Musgrave, Caroline S Fox, Joseph M Massaro, Udo Hoffmann, Christopher J O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine whether increased aortic arch width (AAW) adds to standard Framingham risk factors and coronary artery calcium (CAC) for prediction of incident adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in community-dwelling adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3026 Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohort participants underwent noncontrast multidetector computed tomography from 2002 to 2005 to quantify CAC. We measured AAW as the distance between the centroids of the ascending and descending thoracic aorta, at the level of main pulmonary artery bifurcation or the right pulmonary artery...
June 16, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Zhuo Gao, Xiaomei Li, Jing Miao, Lide Lun
BACKGROUND: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorder are important complications in haemodialysis patients. Parathyroidectomy (PTX) may prevent or delay the progress of vascular calcification in haemodialysis patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impacts of PTX on calcium and phosphorus metabolism, arterial calcification and arterial stiffness in haemodialysis patients with SHPT. METHODS: Twenty-one SHPT-haemodialysis patients were selected for PTX...
June 13, 2018: Asian Journal of Surgery
Angelo Karaboyas, Hairong Xu, Hal Morgenstern, Francesco Locatelli, Michel Jadoul, Kosaku Nitta, Indranil Dasgupta, Francesca Tentori, Friedrich K Port, Bruce M Robinson
The benefits of renin angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) are well-established in the general population, particularly among those with diabetes, congestive heart failure (CHF), or coronary artery disease (CAD). However, conflicting evidence from trials and concerns about hyperkalemia limit RAASi use in hemodialysis patients, relative to other antihypertensive agents, including beta blockers and calcium channel blockers. Therefore, we investigated prescription patterns and associations with mortality for RAASi and other antihypertensive agents using data from the international Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS)...
June 13, 2018: Kidney International
Wei Lei, Jianan Ni, Xueting Xia, Min Jiang, Gang Bai
Coronary heart disease is a vital cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are important drugs that can be used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Suxiao Jiuxin Pill (SX), a traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used as an emergency drug for coronary heart disease therapy. However, understanding its potential mechanism in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) modulation remains a challenge. To identify the active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) and reveal a novel combination therapy for ameliorating cardiovascular diseases, the ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) combined with a dual-luciferase reporter [Ca2+ ]i assay system was applied...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Le Gui, Xin Guo, Zhe Zhang, Hui Xu, Ya-Wei Ji, Ren-Jun Wang, Jiang-Hua Zhu, Qing-Hui Chen
Activation of the Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II isoform δA (CaMKIIδA) disturbs intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiomyocytes during chronic heart failure (CHF). We hypothesized that upregulation of CaMKIIδA in cardiomyocytes might enhance Ca2+ leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via activation of phosphorylated ryanodine receptor type 2 (P-RyR2) and decrease Ca2+ uptake by inhibition of SR calcium ATPase 2a (SERCA2a). In this study, CHF was induced in rats by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery...
June 14, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Alan Rozanski, Daniel S Berman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to assess the synergistic use of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scanning and stress-rest SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for the workup of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). RECENT FINDINGS: The CAC score bears a proportional relationship to both the frequency of obstructive CAD and inducible ischemia. Consequently, the test can be used to improve the Bayesian assessment of pre-test CAD likelihood and assist in triaging patients for stress testing...
June 13, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Michael D Miedema, Zeina A Dardari, Sina Kianoush, Salim S Virani, Joseph Yeboah, Thomas Knickelbine, Veit Sandfort, Carlos J Rodriguez, Khurram Nasir, Michael J Blaha
BACKGROUND: The potential impact of the 2016 United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) guidelines on statins for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) warrants further analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied participants from MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) aged 40 to 75 years and not on statins. We compared statin eligibility at baseline (2000-2002) and over follow-up between USPSTF and the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines...
June 13, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Takao Konishi, Naohiro Funayama, Tadashi Yamamoto, Daisuke Hotta, Shinya Tanaka
BACKGROUND: A high coronary artery calcium score (CACS) predicts a poor prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease. We examined the relationship between the bifurcation angle and the CACS of the left main (LM) and left anterior descending (LAD) arteries in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We analyzed the data of 121 patients who underwent coronary computed tomography between October 2014 and June 2015 and whose estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was <60 ml/min/1...
2018: PloS One
Qian-Jie Tang, He-Ping Lei, Hong Wu, Ji-Yan Chen, Chun-Yu Deng, Wang-Sheng Sheng, Yong-Heng Fu, Xiao-Hong Li, Yu-Bi Lin, Ya-Ling Han, Shi-Long Zhong
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are widely expressed in organisms and are implicated in the regulation of most biological functions. The present study investigated the association of plasma miRNAs with the clinical outcomes of dual antiplatelet therapy in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Plasma miRNA levels were screened using high-throughput Illumina sequencing to evaluate the antiplatelet efficacy of clopidogrel and aspirin. Six plasma miRNAs (miR-126, miR-130a, miR-27a, miR-106a, miR-21, and miR-142) were associated with clopidogrel-treated platelet aggregation...
June 11, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Surya P Bhatt, Ella A Kazerooni, John D Newell, John E Hokanson, Matthew J Budoff, Chandra A Dass, Carlos H Martinez, Sandeep Bodduluri, Francine L Jacobson, Andrew Yen, Mark T Dransfield, Carl Fuhrman, Hrudaya Nath
BACKGROUND: COPD is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and coronary artery calcification (CAC) provides additional prognostic information. With increasing use of non-gated CT scans in clinical practice, we hypothesized that the visual Weston CAC score would perform as well as Agatston score in predicting prevalent and incident coronary artery (CAD) and CVD in COPD. METHODS: We measured CAC using Agatston and Weston scores on baseline CT scans in 1875 current and former smokers enrolled in the COPDGene study...
June 8, 2018: Chest
Christopher W McMullen, Mark A Harrast, Aaron L Baggish
The cardiovascular benefits of regular exercise are well established. A mortality benefit has clearly been demonstrated for those that participate in light and moderate exercise. Less is known regarding the long-term effects of vigorous regular running over an extended period. In recent years, myocardial fibrosis, arrhythmias, and coronary artery calcium have been demonstrated in high-intensity exercisers. However, the prognostic implication of these findings remains unknown, and thus, there is insufficient evidence, and potentially not a need, to recommend a maximal running dose or limit for healthy individuals who already train intensively...
June 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Lin Zhang, JinKui Yang, LanTing Li, DongDong Liu, XiaoPing Xie, Peng Dong, Yong Lin
AIM: Reducing the fluctuation of blood pressure has recently been recognized as a potential target for improving management of hypertension to prevent cardiovascular events, particularly for strokes. Some randomized controlled trials demonstrated that amlodipine can effectively reduce blood pressure as a well-established, long-acting calcium channel blocker (CCB). However, few data are available for amlodipine on blood pressure variability (BPV) in China in a real-world setting. This study aimed to assess the effect of amlodipine versus other CCB antihypertensive agents on BPV...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
Ki-Bum Won, Donghee Han, Ji Hyun Lee, Sang-Eun Lee, Ji Min Sung, Su-Yeon Choi, Eun Ju Chun, Sung Hak Park, Hae-Won Han, Jidong Sung, Hae Ok Jung, Hyuk-Jae Chang
BACKGROUND: Data on the impact of optimal glycemic control (OGC) on the progression of coronary artery calcification, an important marker for future adverse cardiovascular events in individuals with diabetes are limited. METHODS: We investigated 1637 asymptomatic adults with diabetes (56 ± 8 years, 88.8% men) and no history of coronary artery disease or stroke, who underwent serial coronary artery calcium (CAC) screening. The median inter-scan period was 3...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Maros Ferencik, James E Udelson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2018: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Cristina Balla, Rita Pavasini, Roberto Ferrari
Ischaemic heart disease is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, while angina represents its most common symptom. It is estimated that approximately 9 million patients in the USA suffer from angina and its treatment is challenging, thus the strategy to improve the management of chronic stable angina is a priority. Angina might be the result of different pathologies, ranging from the "classical" obstruction of a large coronary artery to alteration of the microcirculation or coronary artery spasm...
June 6, 2018: Cardiology
Chandana Shekar, Matthew Budoff
Coronary artery calcification(CAC) is reflective of atherosclerotic disease and incrementally predictive of future cardiovascular events, independent of traditional risk factors. Extra coronary calcium such as aortic valve calcification, which can be identified and quantified by Computed Tomography(CT) imaging, has shown to predict future cardiovascular events in both asymptomatic and symptomatic (ie - stable angina and acute coronary syndrome) settings. It has hence been a vital tool in studies involving new therapies for cardiovascular disease...
June 4, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Petar Medakovic, Zrinka Biloglav, Ivan Padjen, Ivan Pristas, Mladen Jukic, Franko Zuvela, Gordana Ivanac, Boris Brkljacic, Tena Jukic, Lana Turk
The aim of the study was to quantify the total coronary atherosclerotic burden in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) defined by coronary computed tomography adapted Leaman score (CT-LeSc) and to estimate its cut-off level for high coronary atherosclerotic burden. We enrolled 434 consecutive patients referred to coronary computed tomography angiography, of which 261 patients fulfilled the study inclusion criteria. Demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as CAD risk factors were obtained...
May 25, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Ki-Bum Won, Yun Seok Kim, Byoung Kwon Lee, Ran Heo, Donghee Han, Ji Hyun Lee, Sang-Eun Lee, Ji Min Sung, Iksung Cho, Hyung-Bok Park, In-Jeong Cho, Hyuk-Jae Chang
The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index is a useful surrogate marker for insulin resistance, which is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, data on the relationship of the TyG index and coronary plaque characteristics are limited.This study included 2840 participants with near-normal renal function who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography. CAD was defined as the presence of any plaques, and obstructive CAD was defined as the presence of plaques with ≥50% stenosis...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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