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Coronary Artery Calcium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444996/breast-arterial-calcification-association-with-coronary-artery-calcium-scoring-and-implications-for-cardiovascular-risk-assessment-in-women
#1
REVIEW
Angela J Ryan, Andrew D Choi, Brian G Choi, Jannet F Lewis
Breast arterial calcification (BAC) is a type of medial artery calcification that can be seen incidentally on mammography. Studies have suggested association of BAC with cardiovascular risk factors, coronary artery disease (CAD), and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recently published studies have also suggested a modest correlation of BAC with coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring. Roughly 40 million mammograms are already performed annually in the United States with overlap in patients that undergo CAD screening via CAC scoring...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442712/cardioprotective-effects-of-cu-ii-atsm-in-human-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-cardiomyocytes-mediated-by-nrf2-and-dj-1
#2
Salil Srivastava, Philip J Blower, Aisah A Aubdool, Robert C Hider, Giovanni E Mann, Richard C Siow
Cu((II))ATSM was developed as a hypoxia sensitive positron emission tomography agent. Recent reports have highlighted the neuroprotective properties of Cu((II))ATSM, yet there are no reports that it confers cardioprotection. We demonstrate that Cu((II))ATSM activates the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC) and cardiac myocytes (HCM), leading to upregulation of antioxidant defense enzymes. Oral delivery of Cu((II))ATSM in mice induced expression of the Nrf2-regulated enzymes in the heart and aorta...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442125/relation-of-risk-factors-and-abdominal-aortic-calcium-to-progression-of-coronary-artery-calcium-from-the-framingham-heart-study
#3
Oyere K Onuma, Karol Pencina, Saadia Qazi, Joseph M Massaro, Ralph B D'Agostino, Michael L Chuang, Caroline S Fox, Udo Hoffmann, Christopher J O'Donnell
Coronary artery calcium (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) permit assessment of the presence and burden of coronary and systemic atherosclerosis. Risk factors for progression of CAC and AAC and the association of AAC with CAC progression have not been well characterized in a community-dwelling cohort. We studied 1,959 asymptomatic participants from the Framingham Heart Study who underwent serial MDCT scans with a median interval of 6.1 years. Primary outcomes were (a) the incidence of CAC and AAC (CAC >0 and AAC >0 with baseline CAC = 0 and AAC = 0) and (b) absolute progression of CAC (CAC > baseline CAC and AAC > baseline AAC)...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439258/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-an-immunometabolic-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Paras K Mishra, Wei Ying, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik K Patel, Sushil K Mahata
The heart possesses a remarkable inherent capability to adapt itself to a wide array of genetic and extrinsic factors to maintain contractile function. Failure to sustain its compensatory responses results in cardiac dysfunction, leading to cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced diastolic function, with or without concurrent systolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Changes in substrate metabolism, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, formation of extracellular matrix proteins, and advanced glycation end products constitute the early stage in DCM...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437620/american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-and-american-college-of-endocrinology-guidelines-for-management-of-dyslipidemia-and-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#5
Paul S Jellinger, Yehuda Handelsman, Paul D Rosenblit, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Vivian A Fonseca, Alan J Garber, George Grunberger, Chris K Guerin, David S H Bell, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Rachel Pessah-Pollack, Kathleen Wyne, Donald Smith, Eliot A Brinton, Sergio Fazio, Michael Davidson
OBJECTIVE: The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). METHODS: Recommendations are based on diligent reviews of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors, according to established AACE/ACE guidelines for guidelines protocols...
April 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437443/relative-predictive-value-of-lung-cancer-screening-ct-versus-myocardial-perfusion-attenuation-correction-ct-in-the-evaluation-of-coronary-calcium
#6
Grant Bailey, Abigail Healy, Bryan D Young, Esseim Sharma, Judith Meadows, Hyung J Chun, Wen-Chih Wu, Gaurav Choudhary, Alan R Morrison
Coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) from lung cancer screening computed tomography (LCSCT) or myocardial perfusion attenuation correction computed tomography (ACCT) are not routinely performed or reported. CACS from LCSCT and ACCT have not been directly compared in the same patient population. We identified 66 patients who underwent both LCSCT (non-gated) and ECG-gated cardiac CT (CCT) within a 2-year span. Of this population, 40 subjects had also undergone ACCT. Using the Agatston method, CACS for 264 individual vessels from the LCSCT population and for 160 vessels from ACCT population were calculated and evaluated for agreement with ECG-gated CCT as the gold standard...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435971/-mechanisms-underlying-rat-coronary-arterial-vasoconstriction-induced-by-blockade-of-inward-rectifier-potassium-channels-with-bacl2
#7
Fang-Wen Fan, Ze-Fang He, Meng Shi, Rong Yang, Xiao-Min Hou, Yu Liu, Ming-Sheng Zhang
In order to explore the mechanisms underlying the vasoconstriction induced by blockade of inward rectifier K(+) channels (Kir) with BaCl2, myogenic tone of isolated rat coronary artery (RCA) was recorded with wire myograph. The dependence of BaCl2- induced contraction on intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) release and extracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]o) influx was studied by Ca(2+) deprivation and restoration. The mechanisms underlying BaCl2-induced RCA contraction were investigated with specific inhibitors. BaCl2 (0...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435446/cardiovascular-risk-assessment-in-patients-with-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Marcello Casaccia Bertoluci, Viviane Zorzanelli Rocha
Although patients with diabetes have 2 to 4 times increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than individuals without diabetes, recent studies indicate that a significant part of patients are in a lower cardiovascular risk category. Men younger than 35 years, women younger than 45 years, patients with diabetes duration of less than 10 years without other risk factors have a much lower risk than patients who have traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and subclinical or established coronary artery disease (CAD)...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434061/the-sources-of-calcium-for-noradrenaline-induced-contraction-in-the-human-thoracic-internal-artery
#9
Leszek Buzun, Beata Modzelewska, Anna Kostrzewska, Ewa Kleszczewska, Tomasz Kleszczewski
The aim of the present study was to examine the contribution of intracellular and extracellular calcium sources in contraction caused by noradrenaline (NA) of the human internal thoracic artery (ITA) in vitro. Distal segments of ITA were obtained from 20 patients (aged 38-73, at the time of routine coronary artery surgical revascularization (CABG)). Contractile responses to 10(-6) mol/L NA in the physiological salt solution and in Ca(2+)-free solution without and after incubation with 10(-6) mol/L thapsigargin (TSG) were recorded under isometric conditions...
April 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432452/fluorescent-angioscopic-imaging-of-calcium-phosphate-tribasic-precursor-of-hydroxyapatite-the-major-calcium-deposit-in-human-coronary-plaques
#10
Takanobu Kobayashi, Osamu Nakagawa, Seiichiro Shirai, Ei Shimoyama, Nobuyuki Hiruta, Yasumi Uchida
Coronary calcification is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease. Hydroxyapatite that is formed by polymerization from calcium phosphate tribasic (CPT) is the major constituent of coronary calcium deposits. If CPT could be visualized, coronary calcification could be predicted and prevented. We discovered that when CPT and collagen I, the main constituent of collagen fibers, are mixed with lac dye (LD) and then exposed to fluorescent light excited at 345 ± 15 nm and emitted at 420 nm, a purple fluorescence that is characteristic of CPT only is elicited...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429615/regulation-of-vascular-large-conductance-calcium-activated-potassium-channels-by-nrf2-signalling
#11
Yong Li, Xiao-Li Wang, Xiaojing Sun, Qiang Chai, Jingchao Li, Benjamin Thompson, Win-Kuang Shen, Tong Lu, Hon-Chi Lee
BK channels are major ionic determinants of vasodilation. BK channel function is impaired in diabetic vessels due to accelerated proteolysis of its beta-1 (BK-β1) subunits in response to increased oxidative stress. The nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signalling pathway has emerged as a master regulator of cellular redox status, and we hypothesized that it plays a central role in regulating BK channel function in diabetic vessels. We found that Nrf2 expression was markedly reduced in db/db diabetic mouse aortas, and this was associated with significant downregulation of BK-β1...
April 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428195/progression-of-coronary-artery-calcium-and-incident-heart-failure-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#12
Hooman Bakhshi, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Xiaoying Yang, Mohammad R Ostovaneh, Colin O Wu, Matthew Budoff, Hossein Bahrami, Nathan D Wong, David A Bluemke, João A C Lima
BACKGROUND: Although the association between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and future heart failure (HF) has been shown previously, the value of CAC progression in the prediction of HF has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the association of CAC progression with subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and incident HF in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a population-based study consisting of 6814 men and women aged 45 to 84, free of overt cardiovascular disease at enrollment, who were recruited from 4 ethnicities...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427294/increased-phagocytic-nadph-oxidase-activity-associates-with-coronary-artery-calcification-in-asymptomatic-men
#13
Oscar Beloqui, María U Moreno, Gorka San José, Álvaro Pejenaute, Adriana Cortés, Manuel F Landecho, Javier Díez, Ana Fortuño, Guillermo Zalba
Vascular calcification is a common feature in atherosclerosis and associates with cardiovascular events. Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification. Previous studies have shown that the phagocytic NADPH oxidase is associated with atherosclerosis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between phagocytic NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide production and coronary artery calcium (CAC). NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide production was determined by chemiluminescence and CAC by computed tomography in 159 asymptomatic men free of overt clinical atherosclerosis...
April 20, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413071/performance-of-ultra-low-dose-ct-for-the-evaluation-of-coronary-calcification-a-direct-comparison-with-coronary-calcium-score
#14
V V Silveira de Souza, F Soares Torres, B Hochhegger, G Watte, G Sartori, F Lucchese, B Azambuja Gonçalves
AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of ultra-low-dose computed tomography (ULDCT) in comparison to standard coronary calcium score (CCS) acquisition for the evaluation of coronary artery calcification (CAC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standard CCS acquisition and ULDCT were performed in patients referred for coronary CT angiography for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. CAC in ULDCT was graded subjectively using a four-point scale (from 0, no calcification, to 3, severe calcification) for the complete study and for each individual coronary segment...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411192/socioeconomic-status-interacts-with-the-genetic-effect-of-a-chromosome-9p21-3-common-variant-to-influence-coronary-artery-calcification-and-incident-coronary-events-in-the-heinz-nixdorf-recall-study-risk-factors-evaluation-of-coronary-calcium-and-lifestyle
#15
Börge Schmidt, Stefanie Frölich, Nico Dragano, Mirjam Frank, Lewin Eisele, Sonali Pechlivanis, Andreas J Forstner, Markus M Nöthen, Amir A Mahabadi, Raimund Erbel, Susanne Moebus, Karl-Heinz Jöckel
BACKGROUND: Genetic variants of a locus within the chromosome 9p21.3 region are consistently associated with coronary artery disease and coronary artery calcification (CAC). The aim of this study was to examine whether a 9p21.3 common variant interacts with socioeconomic status (SES) to influence CAC and incident coronary events in a population-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: 9p21.3 single nucleotide polymorphism rs2891168 was genotyped in 4116 participants of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study...
April 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411031/prognostic-value-of-visually-detected-coronary-artery-calcification-on-unenhanced-non-gated-thoracic-computed-tomography-for-prediction-of-non-fatal-myocardial-infarction-and-all-cause-mortality
#16
Lisa Shao, Andrew T Yan, Gerald Lebovic, Harvey H Wong, Anish Kirpalani, Djeven P Deva
PURPOSE: To determine the prognostic value of visually detected coronary artery calcification (CAC) on unenhanced non-gated thoracic computed tomography (CT) for non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and all-cause mortality. METHODS: This retrospective single-centre cohort study comprised of 410 consecutive patients aged 40-80 years without any known cardiovascular disease at baseline. CT images without electrocardiogram-gating were acquired for a variety of respiratory medicine indications...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409033/aborted-sudden-cardiac-death-in-a-female-patient-presenting-with-takotsubo-like-cardiomyopathy-due-to-epicardial-coronary-vasospasm
#17
Sorin Giusca, Tom Eisele, Peter Nunninger, Benedikt Münz, Grigorios Korosoglou
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by apical ballooning of the left ventricle (LV) in the absence of relevant coronary artery stenosis, which typically occurs in elderly women after emotional stress. Catecholamine cardiotoxicity, metabolic disturbance, and coronary microvascular impairment have previously been proposed as underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of takotsubo cardiomyopathy, whereas myocardial stunning resulting from epicardial coronary artery vasospasm is not generally accepted as a cause of takotsubo cardiomyopathy...
2017: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400731/il-1-inhibition-may-have-an-important-role-in-treating-refractory-kawasaki-disease
#18
REVIEW
Perrine Dusser, Isabelle Koné-Paut
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute inflammatory vasculitis occurring in young children before 5 years and representing at this age, the main cause of acquired heart disease. A single infusion of 2 g/kg of intravenous immunoglobulins along with aspirin has reduced the frequency of coronary artery aneurysms from 25 to 5%. However, 10-20% of patients do not respond to standard treatment and have an increased risk of cardiac complications and death. The development of more potent therapeutic approaches of KD is an urgent need...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395010/inflammation-and-metabolic-cardiomyopathy
#19
Kazuhiko Nishida, Kinya Otsu
Excessive feeding is associated with an increase in the incidence of chronic metabolic diseases, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic disturbance induces chronic low-grade inflammation in metabolically-important organs, such as the liver and adipose tissue. Many of the inflammatory signalling pathways are directly triggered by nutrients. The pro-inflammatory mediators in adipocytes and macrophages infiltrating adipose tissue promote both local and systemic pro-inflammatory status...
March 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393566/prognostic-implications-of-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-and-coronary-calcium-score-in-a-macedonian-cohort-of-asymptomatic-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#20
Irena Peovska Mitevska, Natalija Baneva, Elizabeta Srbinovska, Lily Stojanovska, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Marijan Bosevski
AIM: Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for coronary artery disease; however, a number of studies have shown that patients are asymptomatic for coronary artery disease. The presence of coronary artery disease in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes was evaluated to determine its impact on management decision and prognosis. METHODS: A total of 75 patients underwent single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging for detection of suspected coronary artery disease...
April 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
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