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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677619/associations-of-early-childhood-adversities-with-mental-disorders-psychological-functioning-and-suitability-for-psychotherapy-in-adulthood
#1
Erkki Heinonen, Paul Knekt, Tommi Härkänen, Esa Virtala, Olavi Lindfors
Childhood adversities frequently precede adulthood depression and anxiety. Yet, how they impact needed treatment duration, type or focus in these common disorders, is unclear. For developing more individualized and precise interventions, we investigated whether specific early adversities associate with patients' distinct psychiatric problems, psychological vulnerabilities, and suitability for psychotherapy. A total of 221 depressed and anxious adult outpatients (excluding psychotic, severe personality, bipolar, and substance abuse disorders) referred from community, student, occupational, and private healthcare services filled the Childhood Family Atmosphere Questionnaire (CFAQ)...
April 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677604/the-association-between-unemployment-and-depression-results-from-the-population-based-life-adult-study
#2
Andrea E Zuelke, Tobias Luck, Matthias L Schroeter, A Veronica Witte, Andreas Hinz, Christoph Engel, Cornelia Enzenbach, Silke Zachariae, Markus Loeffler, Joachim Thiery, Arno Villringer, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
BACKGROUND: Unemployment is a risk factor for impaired mental health. Based on a large population-based sample, in this study we therefore sought to provide detailed information on the association between unemployment and depression including information on (i) differences between men and women, (ii) differences between different types of unemployment, and (iii) on the impact of material and social resources on the association. METHODS: We studied 4,842 participants (18-65 years) of the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677593/lucky-or-clever-from-expectations-to-responsibility-judgments
#3
Tobias Gerstenberg, Tomer D Ullman, Jonas Nagel, Max Kleiman-Weiner, David A Lagnado, Joshua B Tenenbaum
How do people hold others responsible for the consequences of their actions? We propose a computational model that attributes responsibility as a function of what the observed action reveals about the person, and the causal role that the person's action played in bringing about the outcome. The model first infers what type of person someone is from having observed their action. It then compares a prior expectation of how a person would behave with a posterior expectation after having observed the person's action...
April 17, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676501/the-canary-in-the-coal-mine-continence-care-for-people-with-dementia-in-acute-hospital-wards-as-a-crisis-of-dehumanization
#4
Paula Boddington, Katie Featherstone
Continence is a key moment of care that can tell us about the wider care of people living with dementia within acute hospital wards. The spotlight is currently on the quality of hospital care of older people across the UK, yet concerns persist about their poor treatment, neglect, abuse, and discrimination within this setting. Thus, within hospitals, the care of people living with dementia is both a welfare issue and a human rights issue. The challenge of continence care for people living with dementia can be seen as the 'canary in the coal mine' for the unravelling of dignity within the acute setting...
May 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675884/specific-breast-cancer-prognosis-subtype-distinctions-based-on-dna-methylation-patterns
#5
Shumei Zhang, Yihan Wang, Yue Gu, Jiang Zhu, Ce Ci, Zhongfu Guo, Chuangeng Chen, Yanjun Wei, Wenhua Lv, Hongbo Liu, Dongwei Zhang, Yan Zhang
Tumor heterogeneity is an obstacle to effective breast cancer diagnosis and therapy. DNA methylation is an important regulator of gene expression, thus characterizing tumor heterogeneity by epigenetic features can be clinically informative. In this study, we explored specific prognosis-subtypes based on DNA methylation status using 669 breast cancers from TCGA database. Nine subgroups were distinguished by consensus clustering using 3869 CpGs that significantly influenced survival. The specific DNA methylation patterns were reflected by different races, ages, tumor stages, receptor status, histological types, metastasis status and prognosis...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675450/engineered-human-gastrointestinal-cultures-to-study-the-microbiome-and-infectious-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Sarah E Blutt, Sue E Crawford, Sasirekha Ramani, Winnie Y Zou, Mary K Estes
New models to study the intestine are key to understanding intestinal diseases and developing novel treatments. Intestinal organ-like culture systems (organoids and enteroids) have substantially advanced the study of the human gastrointestinal tract. Stem cell-derived cultures produce self-organizing structures that contain the multiple differentiated intestinal epithelial cell types including enterocytes, goblet, Paneth, and enteroendocrine cells. Understanding host-microbial interactions is one area in which these cultures are expediting major advancements...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675415/practical-and-ethical-aspects-of-advance-research-directives-for-research-on-healthy-aging-german-and-israeli-professionals-perspectives
#7
Perla Werner, Silke Schicktanz
Background: Healthy aging is the development and maintenance of optimal cognitive, social and physical well-being, and function in older adults. Preventing or minimizing disease is one of the main ways of achieving healthy aging. Dementia is one of the most prevalent and life-changing diseases of old age. Thus, dementia prevention research is defined as one of the main priorities worldwide. However, conducting research with persons who lack the capacity to give consent is a major ethical issue...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675214/controllable-extension-of-hairpin-structured-flaps-to-allow-low-background-cascade-invasive-reaction-for-a-sensitive-dna-logic-sensor-for-mutation-detection
#8
Yun-Long Liu, Hai-Ping Wu, Qiang Zhou, Qin-Xin Song, Jian-Zhong Rui, Xiao-Xiang Guan, Guo-Hua Zhou, Bing-Jie Zou
A DNA logic sensor was constructed for gene mutation analysis based on a novel signal amplification cascade by controllably extending a hairpin-structured flap to bridge two invasive reactions. The detection limit was as low as 0.07 fM, and the analytical specificity is high enough to unambiguously pick up 0.02% mutants from a large amount of wild-type DNA. Gene mutations related to the personalized medicine of gefitinib, a typical tyrosine kinase inhibitor, were analyzed by the DNA logic sensor with only a 15 minute response time...
February 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675047/menstrual-hygiene-management-and-waste-disposal-practices-and-challenges-faced-by-girls-women-of-developing-countries
#9
REVIEW
Rajanbir Kaur, Kanwaljit Kaur, Rajinder Kaur
Menstruation and menstrual practices still face many social, cultural, and religious restrictions which are a big barrier in the path of menstrual hygiene management. In many parts of the country especially in rural areas girls are not prepared and aware about menstruation so they face many difficulties and challenges at home, schools, and work places. While reviewing literature, we found that little, inaccurate, or incomplete knowledge about menstruation is a great hindrance in the path of personal and menstrual hygiene management...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674273/the-potential-of-herb-medicines-in-the-treatment-of-esophageal-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Jie Ying, Miaomiao Zhang, Xiaoyan Qiu, Yu Lu
Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of common malignant neoplasms in the world. Due to dietary habits, environmental factors, stress and so on, larger numbers of person are diagnose with EC every year. Currently, the clinical treatment of EC mainly includes radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgical resection alone or combined strategy. These treatment options are insufficient and often associated with a number of side effects. Medicinal herbs containing Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) have been used as an adjunct treatment for alleviating the side effects of chemotherapy or radiotherapy and for improving the quality of life of cancer patients...
April 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674135/mean-hba-1c-hba-1c-variability-and-mortality-in-people-with-diabetes-aged-70-years-and-older-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Angus Forbes, Trevor Murrells, Henrietta Mulnier, Alan J Sinclair
BACKGROUND: Glycaemic targets for older people have been revised in recent years because of concern that more stringent targets are associated with increased mortality. We aimed to investigate the association between glycaemic control (mean HbA1c ) and variability (variability of HbA1c over time) and mortality in older people with diabetes. METHODS: We did a 5-year retrospective cohort study using The Health Improvement Network database, which includes data from 587 UK primary care practices...
April 16, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673929/sleep-disorders-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-insights-into-types-relationship-to-obesity-and-high-altitude-and-possible-lines-of-management
#12
REVIEW
Ahmed M Kabel, Amani M Al Thumali, Khayriah A Aldowiala, Raghad D Habib, Shoroq S Aljuaid, Huda A Alharthi
A sleep disorder is a medical disorder of the sleep pattern of a person that may be serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental and emotional functioning. Disruptions in sleep can be caused by a variety of causes, from teeth grinding to night terrors. Sleep disorders are usually prevalent among adolescents and young adults, possibly due to factors related to life style, dietary habits, hormonal and emotional disturbances. Other factors that may precipitate sleep disorders include environmental, psychological and genetic factors...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673333/protocol-for-the-chord-project-community-health-outreach-to-reduce-diabetes-a-cluster-randomized-community-health-worker-trial-to-prevent-diabetes
#13
Nadia Islam, Thomas Gepts, Isaac Lief, Radhika Gore, Natalie Levy, Michael Tanner, Yixin Fang, Scott E Sherman, Mark D Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) affects 9.4% of US adults and children, while another 33.9% of Americans are at risk of DM. Health care institutions face many barriers to systematically delivering the preventive care needed to decrease DM incidence. Community health workers (CHWs) may, as frontline public health workers bridging clinic and community, help overcome these challenges. This paper presents the protocol for a pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial integrating CHWs into two primary care clinics to support DM prevention for at-risk patients...
April 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673259/exploring-potential-biomarkers-associated-with-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-and-heart-failure
#14
Nijole Kazukauskiene, Julius Burkauskas, Jurate Macijauskiene, Narseta Mickuviene, Julija Brozaitiene
OBJECTIVE: There has been a lack of research examining associations between biomarkers and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure. In patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure, we aimed to explore potential associations between biomarkers of health such as serum levels of thyroid hormones, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), inflammatory biomarkers and HRQoL. METHODS: In sum, 482 patients (75% male; mean age 58±10 years) with coronary artery disease and heart failure were evaluated for socio-demographic and clinical coronary artery disease risk factors...
April 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672985/the-impact-of-buprenorphine-and-methadone-on-mortality-a-primary-care-cohort-study-in-the-united-kingdom
#15
Matthew Hickman, Colin Steer, Kate Tilling, Aaron G Lim, John Marsden, Tim Millar, John Strang, Maggie Telfer, Peter Vickerman, John Macleod
AIMS: To estimate whether opioid substitution treatment (OST) with buprenorphine or methadone is associated with a greater reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) and opioid drug-related poisoning (DRP) mortality. DESIGN: Cohort study with linkage between clinical records from Clinical Practice Research Datalink and mortality register. SETTING: UK primary care. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 11 033 opioid-dependent patients who received OST from 1998 to 2014, followed-up for 30 410 person-years...
April 19, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672567/costs-and-effectiveness-of-pharmacist-led-group-medical-visits-for-type-2-diabetes-a-multi-center-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Wen-Chih Wu, Tracey H Taveira, Sean Jeffery, Lan Jiang, Lisa Tokuda, Joanna Musial, Lisa B Cohen, Fred Uhrle
OBJECTIVES: The effectiveness and costs associated with addition of pharmacist-led group medical visits to standard care for patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is unknown. METHODS: Randomized-controlled-trial in three US Veteran Health Administration (VHA) Hospitals, where 250 patients with T2DM, HbA1c >7% and either hypertension, active smoking or hyperlipidemia were randomized to either (1) addition of pharmacist-led group-medical-visits or (2) standard care alone for 13 months...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672233/airborne-exposures-associated-with-the-typical-use-of-an-aerosol-brake-cleaner-during-vehicle-repair-work
#17
Michael Fries, Pamela R D Williams, Jerald Ovesen, Andrew Maier
Many petroleum-based products are used for degreasing and cleaning purposes during vehicle maintenance and repairs. Although prior studies have evaluated chemical exposures associated with this type of work, most of these have focused on gasoline and exhaust emissions, with few samples collected solely during the use of an aerosol cleaning product. In this case study, we assess the type of airborne exposures that would be expected from the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work. Eight exposure scenarios were evaluated over a two-day study in which the benzene content of the brake cleaner and potential for dilution ventilation and air flow varied...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672162/coyot1-clinic-home-telemedicine-increases-young-adult-engagement-in-diabetes-care
#18
Mark W Reid, Subramanian Krishnan, Cari Berget, Cindy Cain, John Fred Thomas, Georgeanna J Klingensmith, Jennifer K Raymond
BACKGROUND: Young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) experience poor glycemic control, disengagement in care, and are often lost to the medical system well into their adult years. Diabetes providers need a new approach to working with the population. The goal of this study was to determine whether an innovative shared telemedicine appointment care model (CoYoT1 Clinic [pronounced as "coyote"; Colorado Young Adults with T1D]) for young adults with T1D improves care engagement, satisfaction, and adherence to American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines regarding appointment frequency...
April 19, 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671863/trends-in-hypertension-prevalence-awareness-treatment-and-control-among-polish-adults-75-years-and-older-during-2007-2014
#19
Arkadiusz A Niklas, Anna Flotyńska, Tomasz Zdrojewski, Andrzej Pająk, Roman Topór-Mądry, Paweł Nadrowski, Maria Polakowska, Magdalena Kwaśniewska, Aleksandra Puch-Walczak, Wojciech Bielecki, Krystyna Kozakiewicz, Wojciech Drygas, Andrzej Tykarski
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess changes in the prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension and its effectiveness between 2007 (WOBASZ Senior study) and 2013-2014 (WOBASZ II) in a sample of the Polish population over the age of 75 years. METHODS: Sampling had three stages, stratified according to voivodeships, type of community, and gender. Finally, the WOBASZ II study included 467 persons (290 women and 177 men). For a comparison of the data, 1096 persons (538 women and 554 men) examined in the WOBASZ Senior study were used...
April 19, 2018: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671532/vitamin-d-screening-and-supplementation-in-community-dwelling-adults-common-questions-and-answers
#20
Michael L LeFevre, Nicholas M LeFevre
Measurement of vitamin D levels and supplementation with oral vitamin D have become commonplace, although clinical trials have not demonstrated health benefits. The usefulness of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels to assess adequate exposure to vitamin D is hampered by variations in measurement technique and precision. Serum levels less than 12 ng per mL reflect inadequate vitamin D intake for bone health. Levels greater than 20 ng per mL are adequate for 97.5% of the population. Routine vitamin D supplementation does not prolong life, decrease the incidence of cancer or cardiovascular disease, or decrease fracture rates...
February 15, 2018: American Family Physician
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