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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141742/characterizing-the-last-latrine-nonowners-in-rural-malawi
#1
Jurgita Slekiene, Hans-Joachim Mosler
Open defecation is a public health problem worldwide. NGOs in developing countries use various approaches to increase latrine coverage, but for little-understood reasons, some of the population does not adopt latrine construction. The objective of our research was to uncover which of the factors predicting latrine construction are relevant to the last nonowners of latrines, termed laggards in the diffusion of innovations theory. In a cross-sectional study, quantitative face-to-face interviews were conducted in households in rural Malawi (N = 824) to assess the behavioral determinants of latrine construction, mental health, and leadership...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141681/patient-influence-in-home-based-reablement-for-older-persons-qualitative-research
#2
Aud Moe, Kari Ingstad, Hildfrid V Brataas
BACKGROUND: Reablement services are rehabilitation for older people living at home, being person-centered in information, mapping and the goal-setting conversation. The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about conversation processes and patient influence in formulating the patients' goals. There are two research questions: How do conversation theme, structure and processes appear in interactions aiming to decide goals of home-based reablement rehabilitation for the elderly? How professionals' communication skills do influence on patients' participation in conversation about everyday life and goals of home-based reablement? METHODS: A qualitative field study explored eight cases of naturally occurring conversations between patients and healthcare professionals in a rehabilitation team...
November 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140081/the-human-milk-glycome-as-a-defense-against-infectious-diseases-rationale-challenges-and-opportunities
#3
Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
Each year over 3 million people die from infectious diseases with most of these deaths being poor and young children who live in low- and middle-income countries. Infectious diseases emerge for a multitude of reasons. On the social front, reasons include a breakdown of public health standards, international travel, and immigration (for financial, civil, and social reasons). At the molecular level, the modern rise of infectious diseases is tied to the juxtaposition of drug-resistant pathogens and a lack of new antimicrobials...
November 15, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129193/experiences-of-three-states-implementing-the-medicaid-health-home-model-to-address-opioid-use-disorder-case-studies-in-maryland-rhode-island-and-vermont
#4
Lisa Clemans-Cope, Jane B Wishner, Eva H Allen, Nicole Lallemand, Marni Epstein, Brenda C Spillman
PURPOSE: The United States is facing an unprecedented opioid epidemic. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) included several provisions designed to increase care coordination in state Medicaid programs and improve outcomes for those with chronic conditions, including substance use disorders. Three states-Maryland, Rhode Island, and Vermont - adopted the ACA's optional Medicaid health home model for individuals with opioid use disorder. The model coordinates opioid use disorder treatment that features opioid agonist therapy provided at opioid treatment programs (OTPs) and Office-based Opioid Treatment (OBOT) with medical and behavioral health care and other services, including those addressing social determinants of health...
December 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119635/the-evolving-role-of-the-personal-support-worker-in-home-care-in-ontario-canada
#5
Margaret Saari, Erin Patterson, Shawna Kelly, Ann E Tourangeau
To meet increasing demand for home care, the role of personal support workers (PSWs) is shifting from providing primarily personal and supportive care to include care activities previously provided by regulated health professionals (RHPs). Much of the research examining this shift focuses on specialty programmes, with few studies investigating the daily care being provided by PSWs, frequency of care activities being provided by PSWs, and characteristics of the population receiving more complex tasks. Between January and April 2015, a review of 517 home-care service user charts was undertaken in Ontario, Canada, to: (1) describe the range of tasks being performed by PSWs in home care, (2) identify tasks transferred by RHPs to PSWs, and (3) examine characteristics of service users receiving transferred care...
November 8, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116877/norwegian-general-practitioners-collaboration-with-municipal-care-providers-a-qualitative-study-of-structural-conditions
#6
Sissel Steihaug, Bård Paulsen, Line Melby
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the structural mechanisms that facilitate or counteract collaboration between general practitioners (GPs) and other providers of municipal healthcare. Good collaboration between these actors is crucial for high-quality care, especially for persons in need of coordinated services. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is based on semistructured interviews with 12 healthcare providers in four Norwegian municipalities: four GPs, six nurses and two physiotherapists...
November 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113522/who-uses-apps-in-health-promotion-a-target-group-analysis-of-leaders
#7
Anita Bregenzer, Verena Wagner-Hartl, Paul Jiménez
User characteristics should be considered when designing features for e-health or m-health applications, as the developed solution should aim to support this specific target group. This study explores the effect of user characteristics (personality, health state, stress/recovery state, leadership behavior) on the interest and likelihood of using an app for health promotion activities at the workplace. Leaders are a key factor for the success of workplace health promotion; therefore, the target group of this study are leaders...
November 1, 2017: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112342/factors-supporting-dentist-leaders-retention-in-leadership
#8
T Tuononen, J Lammintakanen, A L Suominen
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study factors associated with staying in a dentist leadership position. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We used an electronic questionnaire to gather data from 156 current or former Finnish dentist leaders in 2014. Principal component analysis categorized statements regarding time usage and opportunities in managerial work into five main components. Associations between these main component scores and the tendency to stay as a leader were analyzed with logistic regression...
November 10, 2017: Community Dental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112033/barriers-to-speaking-up-about-patient-safety-concerns
#9
Jason M Etchegaray, Madelene J Ottosen, Theresa Dancsak, Eric J Thomas
OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine the association between willingness of health-care professionals to speak up about patient safety concerns and their perceptions of two types of organizational culture (ie, safety and teamwork) and understand whether nursing professionals and other health-care professionals reported the same barriers to speaking up about patient safety concerns. METHODS: As part of an annual safety culture survey in a large health-care system, we asked health-care professionals to tell us about the main barriers that prevent them from speaking up about patient safety concerns...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103964/leadership-of-united-states-academic-departments-of-ophthalmology-chairperson-characteristics-accomplishments-and-personal-insights
#10
Gad Dotan, Hanya M Qureshi, Steven S Saraf, Deborah A Darnley-Fisch
PURPOSE: To report on the characteristics, accomplishments, and past experiences of current academic ophthalmology department chairs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: A confidential online survey. STUDY POPULATION: 111 chairs of US academic ophthalmology departments. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Chairs' general characteristics, training/former positions held, academic accomplishments, previous organization/committee involvement, motivation/insight, and overall work satisfaction...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094530/exploring-the-use-of-student-led-simulated-practice-learning-in-pre-registration-nursing-programmes
#11
Jo Brown, Guy Collins, Olivia Gratton
Simulated practice learning is used in pre-registration nursing programmes to replicate situations that nursing students are likely to encounter in clinical practice, but in a safe and protected academic environment. However, lecturer-led simulated practice learning has been perceived as detached from contemporary nursing practice by some nursing students. Therefore, a pilot project was implemented in the authors' university to explore the use of student-led simulated practice learning and its potential benefits for nursing students...
September 20, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090982/feasibility-of-a-cluster-randomized-influenza-vaccination-trial-in-u-s-nursing-homes-lessons-learned
#12
Stefan Gravenstein, H Edward Davidson, Lisa F Han, Jessica A Ogarek, Roshani Dahal, Pedro L Gozalo, Monica Taljaard, Vincent Mor
Influenza severity increases and vaccine effectiveness decreases with age. High-Dose influenza vaccine (HD) with quadruple the antigen of standard-dose (SD) vaccine is more efficacious in community-dwelling persons 65 years and older. We evaluated the feasibility of recruiting and randomizing Medicare-care certified nursing homes (NHs) for a pragmatic cluster-randomized trial comparing HD vs. SD (NCT1720277). Residents were long-stay and at least 65 years old. NH leadership agreed to standard of care random assignment with HD (Fluzone® High-Dose) or SD (Fluzone®) influenza vaccine for their facility for the 2012-2013 influenza season...
November 1, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090190/exploring-interprofessional-interagency-multimorbidity-care-case-study-based-observational-research
#13
Eileen M McKinlay, Sonya J Morgan, Ben V Gray, Lindsay M Macdonald, Susan R H Pullon
BACKGROUND: The increase in multimorbidity or co-occurring chronic illnesses is a leading healthcare concern. Patients with multimorbidity require ongoing care from many different professionals and agencies, and often report a lack of integrated care. OBJECTIVE: To explore the daily help-seeking behaviours of patients with multimorbidity, including which health professionals they seek help from, how professionals work together, and perceptions and characteristics of effective interprofessional, interagency multimorbidity care...
2017: J Comorb
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081536/betwixt-and-between-role-conflict-role-ambiguity-and-role-definition-in-project-based-dual-leadership-structures
#14
Joris J Ebbers, Nachoem M Wijnberg
Project-based organizations in the film industry usually have a dual-leadership structure, based on a division of tasks between the dual leaders - the director and the producer - in which the former is predominantly responsible for the artistic and the latter for the commercial aspects of the film. These organizations also have a role hierarchically below and between the dual leaders: the 1st assistant director. This organizational constellation is likely to lead to role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by the person occupying that particular role...
November 2017: Human Relations; Studies Towards the Integration of the Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077619/perceptions-of-risk-and-safety-in-the-icu-a-qualitative-study-of-cognitive-processes-relating-to-staffing
#15
Danielle M D'Lima, Eleanor J Murray, Stephen J Brett
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to 1) examine individual professionals' perceptions of staffing risks and safe staffing in intensive care and 2) identify and examine the cognitive processes that underlie these perceptions. DESIGN: Qualitative case study methodology with nurses, doctors, and physiotherapists. SETTING: Three mixed medical and surgical adult ICUs, each on a separate hospital site within a 1,200-bed academic, tertiary London hospital group...
October 26, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073958/status-of-early-career-academic-cardiology-a-global-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Carl W Tong, Meena S Madhur, Anne K Rzeszut, Marwah Abdalla, Islam Abudayyeh, Erick Alexanderson, Jonathan Buber, Dmitriy N Feldman, Rakesh Gopinathannair, Ravi S Hira, Andrew M Kates, Thorsten Kessler, Steve Leung, Satish R Raj, Erica S Spatz, Melanie B Turner, Anne Marie Valente, Kristin West, Chittur A Sivaram, Joseph A Hill, Douglas L Mann, Andrew M Freeman
Early-career academic cardiologists, who many believe are an important component of the future of cardiovascular care, face myriad challenges. The Early Career Section Academic Working Group of the American College of Cardiology, with senior leadership support, assessed the progress of this cohort from 2013 to 2016 with a global perspective. Data consisted of accessing National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute public information, data from the American Heart Association and international organizations, and a membership-wide survey...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073653/the-state-of-quality-improvement-and-patient-safety-teaching-in-health-professional-education-in-new-zealand
#17
Gillian Robb, Iwona Stolarek, Susan Wells, Gillian Bohm
AIM: To investigate how quality and patient safety domains are being taught in the pre-registration curricula of health profession education programmes in New Zealand. METHODS: All tertiary institutions providing training for medicine, nursing, midwifery, dentistry, pharmacy, physiotherapy, dietetics and 11 other allied health professions in New Zealand were contacted and a person with relevant curriculum knowledge was invited to participate. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide to explore nine quality and safety domains; improvement science, patient safety, quality and safety culture, evidence-based practice, patient-centred care, teamwork and communication, leadership for change, systems thinking and use of information technology (IT)...
October 27, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070085/the-south-dakota-model-health-care-professions-student-disaster-preparedness-and-deployment-training
#18
Matt P Owens, Cheri Buffington, Michael P Frost, Randall J Waldner
OBJECTIVE: The Association of American Medical Colleges recommended an increase in medical education for public health emergencies, bioterrorism, and weapons of mass destruction in 2003. The University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine (USD SSOM) implemented a 1-day training event to provide disaster preparedness training and deployment organization for health professions students called Disaster Training Day (DTD). METHODS: Hospital staff and emergency medical services personnel provided the lecture portion of DTD using Core Disaster Life Support (CDLS; National Disaster Life Support Foundation) as the framework...
October 26, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065280/the-narcissism-epidemic-is-dead-long-live-the-narcissism-epidemic
#19
Eunike Wetzel, Anna Brown, Patrick L Hill, Joanne M Chung, Richard W Robins, Brent W Roberts
Are recent cohorts of college students more narcissistic than their predecessors? To address debates about the so-called "narcissism epidemic," we used data from three cohorts of students (1990s: N = 1,166; 2000s: N = 33,647; 2010s: N = 25,412) to test whether narcissism levels (overall and specific facets) have increased across generations. We also tested whether our measure, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), showed measurement equivalence across the three cohorts, a critical analysis that had been overlooked in prior research...
October 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047319/hedge-fund-managers-with-psychopathic-tendencies-make-for-worse-investors
#20
Leanne Ten Brinke, Aimee Kish, Dacher Keltner
It is widely assumed that psychopathic personality traits promote success in high-powered, competitive contexts such as financial investment. By contrast, empirical studies find that psychopathic leaders can be charming and persuasive, but poor performers who mismanage, bully, and engage in unethical behavior. By coding nonverbal behaviors displayed in semistructured interviews, we identified the psychopathic, Machiavellian, and narcissistic tendencies in 101 hedge fund managers, and examined whether these traits were associated with financial performance over the course of 10 diverse years of economic volatility (2005-2015)...
October 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
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