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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238291/modulation-of-neocortical-development-by-early-neuronal-activity-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#1
REVIEW
Sergei Kirischuk, Anne Sinning, Oriane Blanquie, Jenq-Wei Yang, Heiko J Luhmann, Werner Kilb
Animal and human studies revealed that patterned neuronal activity is an inherent feature of developing nervous systems. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the mechanisms generating early electrical activity patterns and their impact on structural and functional development of the cerebral cortex. All neocortical areas display distinct spontaneous and sensory-driven neuronal activity patterns already at early phases of development. At embryonic stages, intermittent spontaneous activity is synchronized within small neuronal networks, becoming more complex with further development...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236724/the-role-of-cortical-oscillations-in-a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-the-basal-ganglia
#2
Zafeirios Fountas, Murray Shanahan
Although brain oscillations involving the basal ganglia (BG) have been the target of extensive research, the main focus lies disproportionally on oscillations generated within the BG circuit rather than other sources, such as cortical areas. We remedy this here by investigating the influence of various cortical frequency bands on the intrinsic effective connectivity of the BG, as well as the role of the latter in regulating cortical behaviour. To do this, we construct a detailed neural model of the complete BG circuit based on fine-tuned spiking neurons, with both electrical and chemical synapses as well as short-term plasticity between structures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229967/electrical-synapses-convey-orientation-selectivity-in-the-mouse-retina
#3
Amurta Nath, Gregory W Schwartz
Sensory neurons downstream of primary receptors are selective for specific stimulus features, and they derive their selectivity both from excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs from other neurons and from their own intrinsic properties. Electrical synapses, formed by gap junctions, modulate sensory circuits. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are diverse feature detectors carrying visual information to the brain, and receive excitatory input from bipolar cells and inhibitory input from amacrine cells (ACs). Here we describe a RGC that relies on gap junctions, rather than chemical synapses, to convey its selectivity for the orientation of a visual stimulus...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225307/millisecond-ca2-dynamics-activate-multiple-protein-cascades-for-synaptic-vesicle-control
#4
Sumiko Mochida
For reliable transmission at chemical synapses, neurotransmitters must be released dynamically in response to neuronal activity in the form of action potentials. Stable synaptic transmission is dependent on the efficacy of transmitter release and the rate of resupplying synaptic vesicles to their release sites. Accurate regulation is conferred by proteins sensing Ca2+ entering through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels opened by an action potential. Presynaptic Ca2+ concentration changes are dynamic functions in space and time, with wide fluctuations associated with different rates of neuronal activity...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222785/neuronal-cell-morphology-in-primary-cerebellar-granule-cells-using-high-content-analysis
#5
Nicholas Radio, Steven Frank
Neurite outgrowth, one of the underlying cellular processes that defines the development and functionality of the mammalian nervous system, is also a sensitive indicator of neuronal cell health. From screening libraries of putative neurotherapeutic compounds to analyzing the millions of environmental pollutants for which we have inadequate neurotoxicity safety data, the large volume of chemical compounds that require evaluation is a major obstacle for manual imaging and analysis methods. In this context, high-content analysis (HCA) has emerged as a sensitive and accurate method for detecting changes in neuronal cell morphology within a format applicable to screening large chemical libraries...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221909/maintaining-the-active-zone-demand-supply-and-disposal-of-core-active-zone-proteins
#6
REVIEW
Noam E Ziv
Chemical synapses are sites of cell-cell contact specialized for transmission of signals between neurons and their respective targets. Neurotransmission occurs through the secretion of neurotransmitters at specialized presynaptic membrane regions known as Active Zones (AZs). AZ composition and function are now characterized quite well. Much less is known, however, on the manners by which these unique specializations are maintained for weeks, months, and presumably years. Here we focus on core AZ components that make up the Cytoskeleton associated with the AZ (CAZ) - their lifetimes, their supply and their disposal...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215865/identification-of-fluorescent-small-molecule-compounds-for-synaptic-labeling-by-image-based-high-content-screening
#7
Matthew Dunn, Umed Boltaev, Anne Beskow, Sergey Pampou, Ronald Realubit, Torcato Meira, João Vaz Silva, Rose Reeb, Charles Karan, Steffen Jockusch, David Sulzer, Young-Tae Chang, Dalibor Sames, Clarissa Waites
Few tools are available for non-invasive imaging of synapses in the living mammalian brain. Current paradigms require the use of genetically modified mice or viral delivery of genetic material to the brain. To develop an alternative chemical approach, utilizing the recognition of synaptic components by organic small molecules, we designed an imaging-based, high-content screen in cultured cortical neurons to identify molecules based on their colocalization with fluorescently-tagged synaptic proteins. We used this approach to screen a library of ~7,000 novel fluorescent dyes, and identified a series of compounds in the xanthone family that exhibited consistent synaptic labeling...
December 7, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204679/gestational-exposure-to-inorganic-arsenic-ias3-alters-glutamate-disposition-in-the-mouse-hippocampus-and-ionotropic-glutamate-receptor-expression-leading-to-memory-impairment
#8
Janikua Nelson-Mora, Martha L Escobar, Luis Rodríguez-Durán, Lourdes Massieu, Teresa Montiel, Verónica M Rodríguez, Karina Hernández-Mercado, María E Gonsebatt
Early life exposure to environmental pollutants and toxic chemicals has been linked to learning and behavioral alterations in children. iAs exposure is associated with different types neurological disorders such as memory and learning impairment. iAs is methylated in the brain by the arsenic III-methyltransferase in a process that requires glutathione (GSH). The xCT-antiporter cell membrane transporter participates in the influx of cystine for GSH synthesis in exchange for glutamate in a 1:1 ratio. In CD-1 mice gestationally exposed to 20 ppm of sodium arsenite in drinking water, we have previously observed up-regulation of xCT in the male mouse hippocampus which caused glutamatergic synapse alterations affecting learning and memory processes...
December 4, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200997/connexin43-hemichannels-in-satellite-glial-cells-can-they-influence-sensory-neuron-activity
#9
REVIEW
Mauricio A Retamal, Manuel A Riquelme, Jimmy Stehberg, Julio Alcayaga
In this review article, we summarize the current insight on the role of Connexin- and Pannexin-based channels as modulators of sensory neurons. The somas of sensory neurons are located in sensory ganglia (i.e., trigeminal and nodose ganglia). It is well known that within sensory ganglia, sensory neurons do not form neither electrical nor chemical synapses. One of the reasons for this is that each soma is surrounded by glial cells, known as satellite glial cells (SGCs). Recent evidence shows that connexin43 (Cx43) hemichannels and probably pannexons located at SGCs have an important role in paracrine communication between glial cells and sensory neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182502/expression-of-g-proteins-in-the-eyes-and-parietovisceral-ganglion-of-the-bay-scallop-argopecten-irradians
#10
Alexandra C N Kingston, Daniel R Chappell, Hayley V Miller, Seung Joon Lee, Daniel I Speiser
A multitude of image-forming eyes are spread across the bodies of certain invertebrates. Recent efforts have characterized how these eyes function, but less progress has been made toward describing the neural structures associated with them. Scallops, for example, have a distributed visual system that includes dozens of eyes whose optic nerves project to the lateral lobes of the parietovisceral ganglion (PVG). To identify sensory receptors and chemical synapses associated with the scallop visual system, we studied the expression of four G protein α subunits (Gαi, Gαo, Gαq, and Gαs) in the eyes and PVG of the bay scallop Argopecten irradians (Lamarck, 1819)...
August 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143124/the-effect-of-inhibition-on-stimulus-specific-adaptation-in-the-inferior-colliculus
#11
Yaneri A Ayala, Manuel S Malmierca
The inferior colliculus is a center of convergence for inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs that may be activated simultaneously by sound stimulation. Stimulus repetition may generate response habituation by changing the efficacy of neuron's synaptic inputs. Specialized IC neurons reduce their response to repetitive tones, but restore their firing when a different and infrequent tone occurs, a phenomenon known as stimulus specific adaptation. Here, using the microiontophoresis technique, we determined the role of GABAA-, GABAB-, and glycinergic receptors in stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA)...
November 15, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114861/kappa-opioid-receptors-regulate-hippocampal-synaptic-homeostasis-and-epileptogenesis
#12
Bridget N Queenan, Raymond L Dunn, Victor R Santos, Yang Feng, Megan N Huizenga, Robert J Hammack, Stefano Vicini, Patrick A Forcelli, Daniel T S Pak
OBJECTIVE: Homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) serves as a gain control mechanism at central nervous system (CNS) synapses, including those between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3. Improper circuit control of DG-CA3 synapses is hypothesized to underlie epileptogenesis. Here, we sought to (1) identify compounds that preferentially modulate DG-CA3 synapses in primary neuronal culture and (2) determine if these compounds would delay or prevent epileptogenesis in vivo. METHODS: We previously developed and validated an in vitro assay to visualize the behavior of DG-CA3 synapses and predict functional changes...
November 8, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114208/classification-of-mouse-retinal-bipolar-cells-type-specific-connectivity-with-special-reference-to-rod-driven-aii-amacrine-pathways
#13
Yoshihiko Tsukamoto, Naoko Omi
We confirmed the classification of 15 morphological types of mouse bipolar cells by serial section transmission electron microscopy and characterized each type by identifying chemical synapses and gap junctions at axon terminals. Although whether the previous type 5 cells consist of two or three types was uncertain, they are here clustered into three types based on the vertical distribution of axonal ribbons. Next, while two groups of rod bipolar (RB) cells, RB1, and RB2, were previously proposed, we clarify that a half of RB1 cells have the intermediate characteristics, suggesting that these two groups comprise a single RB type...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103941/asymmetry-of-an-intracellular-scaffold-at-vertebrate-electrical-synapses
#14
Audrey J Marsh, Jennifer Carlisle Michel, Anisha P Adke, Emily L Heckman, Adam C Miller
Neuronal synaptic connections are either chemical or electrical, and these two types of synapses work together to dynamically define neural circuit function [1]. Although we know a great deal about the molecules that support chemical synapse formation and function, we know little about the macromolecular complexes that regulate electrical synapses. Electrical synapses are created by gap junction (GJ) channels that provide direct ionic communication between neurons [2]. Although they are often molecularly and functionally symmetric, recent work has found that pre- and postsynaptic neurons can contribute different GJ-forming proteins, creating molecularly asymmetric channels that are correlated with functional asymmetry at the synapse [3, 4]...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079742/dual-biomembrane-force-probe-enables-single-cell-mechanical-analysis-of-signal-crosstalk-between-multiple-molecular-species
#15
Lining Ju, Yunfeng Chen, Kaitao Li, Zhou Yuan, Baoyu Liu, Shaun P Jackson, Cheng Zhu
Conventional approaches for studying receptor-mediated cell signaling, such as the western blot and flow cytometry, are limited in three aspects: 1) The perturbing preparation procedures often alter the molecules from their native state on the cell; 2) Long processing time before the final readout makes it difficult to capture transient signaling events (<1 min); 3) The experimental environments are force-free, therefore unable to visualize mechanical signals in real time. In contrast to these methods in biochemistry and cell biology that are usually population-averaged and non-real-time, here we introduce a novel single-cell based nanotool termed dual biomembrane force probe (dBFP)...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066561/concerted-interneuron-activity-in-the-cerebellar-molecular-layer-during-rhythmic-oromotor-behaviors
#16
G Astorga, D Li, L Therreau, M Kassa, A Marty, I Llano
Molecular layer interneurons (MLIs, stellate and basket cells) of the cerebellar cortex are linked together by chemical and electrical synapses and exert a potent feedforward inhibition on Purkinje cells. The functional role of MLIs during specific motor tasks is uncertain. Here we use two-photon imaging to study the patterns of activity of neighboring individual MLIs in the Crus II region of awake female mice during two types of oromotor activity, licking and bruxing, using specific expression of the genetically-encoded calcium indicator protein GCaMP6s...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061992/correlating-fluorescence-and-high-resolution-scanning-electron-microscopy-hrsem-for-the-study-of-gabaa-receptor-clustering-induced-by-inhibitory-synaptic-plasticity
#17
Marta Orlando, Tiziana Ravasenga, Enrica Maria Petrini, Andrea Falqui, Roberto Marotta, Andrea Barberis
Both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic contacts display activity dependent dynamic changes in their efficacy that are globally termed synaptic plasticity. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying glutamatergic synaptic plasticity have been extensively investigated and described, those responsible for inhibitory synaptic plasticity are only beginning to be unveiled. In this framework, the ultrastructural changes of the inhibitory synapses during plasticity have been poorly investigated. Here we combined confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM) with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) to characterize the fine structural rearrangements of post-synaptic GABAA Receptors (GABAARs) at the nanometric scale during the induction of inhibitory long-term potentiation (iLTP)...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039138/the-role-of-gaba-receptor-agonists-in-anesthesia-and-sedation
#18
REVIEW
Janette Brohan, Basavana G Goudra
GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) receptors, of which there are two types, are involved in inhibitory synapses within the central nervous system. The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) has a central role in modern anesthesia and sedation practice, which is evident from the high proportion of agents that target the GABAAR. Many GABAAR agonists are used in anesthesia practice and sedation, including propofol, etomidate, methohexital, thiopental, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane. There are advantages and disadvantages to each GABAAR agonist currently in clinical use...
October 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024244/local-chemical-stimulation-of-neurons-with-the-fluidfm
#19
Matthias J Aebersold, Harald Dermutz, László Demkó, José F Saenz Cogollo, Shiang-Chi Lin, Conrad Burchert, Moritz Schneider, Doris Ling, Csaba Forró, Hana Han, Tomaso Zambelli, Janos Vörös
Physiological communication between neurons is dependent on the exchange of neurotransmitters at the synapses. Although such chemical signal transmission targets specific receptors and allows for subtle adaptation of the action potential, in vitro neuroscience typically relies on electrical currents and potentials to stimulate neurons. The electric stimulus is unspecific and the confinement of the stimuli within the media is technically difficult to control and introduces large artifacts in electric recordings of the activity...
October 10, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987564/roles-of-csgalnact1-a-key-enzyme-in-regulation-of-cs-synthesis-in-neuronal-regeneration-and-plasticity
#20
REVIEW
Michihiro Igarashi, Kosei Takeuchi, Sayaka Sugiyama
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan composed of a long chain of repeating disaccharide units that are attached to core proteins, resulting in CS proteoglycans (CSPGs). In the mature brain, CS is concentrated in perineuronal nets (PNNs), which are extracellular structures that surround synapses and regulate synaptic plasticity. In addition, CS is rapidly synthesized after CNS injury to create a physical and chemical barrier that inhibits axon growth. Most previous studies used a bacterial CS-degrading enzyme to investigate the physiological roles of CS...
October 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
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