keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

chemical synapse

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065648/taok2-kinase-mediates-psd95-stability-and-dendritic-spine-maturation-through-septin7-phosphorylation
#1
Smita Yadav, Juan A Oses-Prieto, Christian J Peters, Jing Zhou, Samuel J Pleasure, Alma L Burlingame, Lily Y Jan, Yuh-Nung Jan
Abnormalities in dendritic spines are manifestations of several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diseases. TAOK2 is one of the genes in the 16p11.2 locus, copy number variations of which are associated with autism and schizophrenia. Here, we show that the kinase activity of the serine/threonine kinase encoded by TAOK2 is required for spine maturation. TAOK2 depletion results in unstable dendritic protrusions, mislocalized shaft-synapses, and loss of compartmentalization of NMDA receptor-mediated calcium influx...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039376/a-mammalian-retinal-ganglion-cell-implements-a-neuronal-computation-that-maximizes-the-snr-of-its-postsynaptic-currents
#2
Jan Homann, Michael A Freed
Neurons perform computations by integrating excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Yet it is rarely understood what computation is being performed, or how much excitation or inhibition this computation requires. Here we present evidence for a neuronal computation that maximizes signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR). We recorded from OFF delta retinal ganglion cells in the guinea pig retina and monitored synaptic currents that were evoked by visual stimulation (flashing dark spots). These synaptic currents were mediated by a decrease in an outward current from inhibitory synapses (disinhibition) combined with an increase in an inward current from excitatory synapses...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030363/new-dimensions-of-connectomics-and-network-plasticity-in-the-central-nervous-system
#3
Diego Guidolin, Manuela Marcoli, Guido Maura, Luigi F Agnati
Cellular network architecture plays a crucial role as the structural substrate for the brain functions. Therefore, it represents the main rationale for the emerging field of connectomics, defined as the comprehensive study of all aspects of central nervous system connectivity. Accordingly, in the present paper the main emphasis will be on the communication processes in the brain, namely wiring transmission (WT), i.e. the mapping of the communication channels made by cell components such as axons and synapses, and volume transmission (VT), i...
December 28, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997993/longitudinal-imaging-reveals-sub-hippocampal-dynamics-in-glutamate-levels-associated-with-histopathologic-events-in-a-mouse-model-of-tauopathy-and-healthy-mice
#4
Rachelle Crescenzi, Catherine DeBrosse, Ravi P R Nanga, Matthew D Byrne, Guruprasad Krishnamoorthy, Kevin D'Aquilla, Hari Nath, Knashawn H Morales, Michiyo Iba, Hari Hariharan, Virginia M Y- Lee, John A Detre, Ravinder Reddy
Tauopathies are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by abnormal intracellular aggregates of tau protein, and include Alzheimer's disease, corticobasal degeneration, frontotemporal dementia, and traumatic brain injury. Glutamate metabolism is altered in neurodegenerative disorders manifesting in higher or lower concentrations of glutamate, its transporters or receptors. Previously, glutamate chemical exchange saturation transfer (GluCEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated that glutamate levels are reduced in regions of synapse loss in the hippocampus of a mouse model of late-stage tauopathy...
December 20, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988303/anticonvulsant-efficacy-of-antihistamine-cyproheptadine-in-rats-exposed-to-the-chemical-warfare-nerve-agent-soman
#5
Jennifer L Winkler, Jacob W Skovira, Robert K Kan
Organophosphate compounds, such as soman and sarin, are highly toxic chemical warfare nerve agents that cause a build-up of acetylcholine in synapses and neuromuscular junctions. Current therapies aim to prevent seizures and protect against brain injury following exposure. The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the antihistamine cyproheptadine in improving survival and controlling seizures in rats exposed to soman. Rats were pretreated with the oxime reactivator HI-6 (125mg/kg, ip) 30min prior to soman exposure (225μg/kg, sc) and then treated with atropine methylnitrate (AMN, 2...
December 14, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986956/single-molecule-analysis-of-%C3%AF-c31-integrase-mediated-site-specific-recombination-by-tethered-particle-motion
#6
Hsiu-Fang Fan, Tao-Shih Hsieh, Chien-Hui Ma, Makkuni Jayaram
Serine and tyrosine site-specific recombinases (SRs and YRs, respectively) provide templates for understanding the chemical mechanisms and conformational dynamics of strand cleavage/exchange between DNA partners. Current evidence suggests a rather intriguing mechanism for serine recombination, in which one half of the cleaved synaptic complex undergoes a 180° rotation relative to the other. The 'small' and 'large' SRs contain a compact amino-terminal catalytic domain, but differ conspicuously in their carboxyl-terminal domains...
December 15, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986924/pharmacological-rescue-of-long-term-potentiation-in-alzheimer-diseased-synapses
#7
G Aleph Prieto, Brian H Trieu, Cindy T Dang, Tina Bilousova, Karen H Gylys, Nicole C Berchtold, Gary Lynch, Carl W Cotman
: Long-term potentiation (LTP) is an activity-dependent and persistent increase in synaptic transmission. Currently available techniques to measure LTP are time-intensive and require highly specialized expertise and equipment, and thus are not well-suited for screening of multiple candidate treatments even in animal models. To expand and facilitate the analysis of LTP, here we use a flow cytometry-based method to track chemically-induced LTP by detecting surface AMPA receptors in isolated synaptosomes (Fluorescence Analysis of Single-Synapse Long-Term Potentiation, FASS-LTP)...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958355/chimera-states-in-uncoupled-neurons-induced-by-a-multilayer-structure
#8
Soumen Majhi, Matjaž Perc, Dibakar Ghosh
Spatial coexistence of coherent and incoherent dynamics in network of coupled oscillators is called a chimera state. We study such chimera states in a network of neurons without any direct interactions but connected through another medium of neurons, forming a multilayer structure. The upper layer is thus made up of uncoupled neurons and the lower layer plays the role of a medium through which the neurons in the upper layer share information among each other. Hindmarsh-Rose neurons with square wave bursting dynamics are considered as nodes in both layers...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943184/biochemical-purification-of-binding-partners-of-synaptic-scaffold-proteins
#9
Bekir Altas, Olaf Jahn, Hiroshi Kawabe
The chemical synapse displays specialized intercellular adhesion between pre- and potsynaptic plasma membranes mediated by synaptic cell adhesion proteins. In this asymmetric cell adhesion, pre- and postsynapses have their own unique functions; the presynaptic terminal releases neurotransmitter, which diffuses through the synaptic cleft and is received by receptors accumulated at the postsynapse. Such distinct modes of actions of pre- and postsynapses in synaptic neurotransmission are the rate-limiting factors in signal processing in the brain, and thus protein-protein interactions within the pre- and postsynaptic scaffold are of particular importance for brain function by regulating the pre- and postsynaptic function...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917477/the-synaptic-vesicle-protein-sv31-assembles-into-a-dimer-and-transports-zn-2
#10
Lisa Waberer, Erik Henrich, Oliver Peetz, Nina Morgner, Volker Dötsch, Frank Bernhard, Walter Volknandt
The integral synaptic vesicle protein SV31 has been shown to bind divalent cations. Here, we demonstrate that SV31 protein synthesized within a cell-free system binds Zn(2+) and to a lower extent Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) ions. Expression with Zn(2+) stabilized the protein and increased solubility. SV31 was preferentially monomeric in detergent and revealed specific binding of Zn(2+) . When co-translationally inserted into defined nanodisc bilayers, SV31 assembled into dimeric complexes, resulting in increased binding of Zn(2+) ...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911759/neurotransmitter-release-can-be-stabilized-by-a-mechanism-that-prevents-voltage-changes-near-the-end-of-action-potentials-from-affecting-calcium-currents
#11
Stephen G Clarke, Matthew S Scarnati, Kenneth G Paradiso
: At chemical synapses, presynaptic action potentials (APs) activate voltage-gated calcium channels, allowing calcium to enter and trigger neurotransmitter release. The duration, peak amplitude, and shape of the AP falling phase alter calcium entry, which can affect neurotransmitter release significantly. In many neurons, APs do not immediately return to the resting potential, but instead exhibit a period of depolarization or hyperpolarization referred to as an afterpotential. We hypothesized that presynaptic afterpotentials should alter neurotransmitter release by affecting the electrical driving force for calcium entry and calcium channel gating...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910251/cloaked-caged-compounds-chemical-probes-for-two-photon-optoneurobiology
#12
Matthew T Richers, Joseph M Amatrudo, Jeremy P Olson, Graham C R Ellis-Davies
Caged neurotransmitters, in combination with focused light beams, enable precise interrogation of neuronal function, even at the level of single synapses. However, most caged transmitters are, surprisingly, severe antagonists of ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. By conjugation of a large, neutral dendrimer to a caged GABA probe we introduce a "cloaking" technology that effectively reduces such antagonism to very low levels. Such cloaked caged compounds will enable the study of the signaling of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in its natural state using two-photon uncaging microscopy for the first time...
January 2, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852736/the-role-of-retinoic-acid-in-the-formation-and-modulation-of-invertebrate-central-synapses
#13
Cailin M Rothwell, Eric de Hoog, Gaynor Elizabeth Spencer
Trophic factors can influence many aspects of nervous system function, such as neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and synapse modulation. The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid can exert trophic effects to promote neuronal survival and outgrowth in many species, and is also known to modulate vertebrate hippocampal synapses. However, its role in synaptogenesis has not been well studied, and whether it can modulate existing invertebrate synapses is also not known. In this study, we first examined a potential trophic effect of retinoic acid on the formation of excitatory synapses, independently of its role in neurite outgrowth, using cultured neurons of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830974/modeling-of-synchronization-behavior-of-bursting-neurons-at-nonlinearly-coupled-dynamical-networks
#14
Yüksel Çakir
Synchronization behaviors of bursting neurons coupled through electrical and dynamic chemical synapses are investigated. The Izhikevich model is used with random and small world network of bursting neurons. Various currents which consist of diffusive electrical and time-delayed dynamic chemical synapses are used in the simulations to investigate the influences of synaptic currents and couplings on synchronization behavior of bursting neurons. The effects of parameters, such as time delay, inhibitory synaptic strengths, and decay time on synchronization behavior are investigated...
November 10, 2016: Network: Computation in Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774053/calretinin-periglomerular-interneurons-in-mice-olfactory-bulb-cells-of-few-words
#15
Alex Fogli Iseppe, Angela Pignatelli, Ottorino Belluzzi
Within the olfactory bulb (OB), periglomerular (PG) cells consist of various types of interneurons, generally classified by their chemical properties such as neurotransmitter and calcium binding proteins. Calretinin (CR) characterizes morphologically and functionally the more numerous and one of the less known subpopulation of PG cells in the OB. Using of transgenic mice expressing eGFP under the CR promoter, we have tried to obtain the first functional characterization of these cells. Electrophysiological recordings were made in these cells using the patch-clamp technique in thin slices...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747882/gene-regulation-and-genetics-in-neurochemistry-past-to-future
#16
REVIEW
Steven W Barger
Ask any neuroscientist to name the most profound discoveries in the field in the past 60 years, and at or near the top of the list will be a phenomenon or technique related to genes and their expression. Indeed, our understanding of genetics and gene regulation has ushered in whole new systems of knowledge and new empirical approaches, many of which could not have even been imagined prior to the molecular biology boon of recent decades. Neurochemistry, in the classic sense, intersects with these concepts in the manifestation of neuropeptides, obviously dependent upon the central dogma (the established rules by which DNA sequence is eventually converted into protein primary structure) not only for their conformation but also for their levels and locales of expression...
October 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673320/synaptic-reliability-and-temporal-precision-are-achieved-via-high-quantal-content-and-effective-replenishment-auditory-brainstem-versus-hippocampus
#17
Elisa G Krächan, Alexander U Fischer, Jürgen Franke, Eckhard Friauf
KEY POINTS: Auditory brainstem neurons involved in sound source localization are equipped with several morphological and molecular features that enable them to compute interaural level and time differences. As sound source localization works continually, synaptic transmission between these neurons should be reliable and temporally precise, even during sustained periods of high-frequency activity. Using patch-clamp recordings in acute brain slices, we compared synaptic reliability and temporal precision in the seconds-minute range between auditory and two types of hippocampal synapses; the latter are less confronted with temporally precise high-frequency transmission than the auditory ones...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662312/stress-induced-synaptic-dysfunction-and%C3%A2-neurotransmitter-release-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease-can-neurotransmitters-and-neuromodulators-be%C3%A2-potential-therapeutic-targets
#18
Saurabh Kumar Jha, Niraj Kumar Jha, Dhiraj Kumar, Renu Sharma, Abhishek Shrivastava, Rashmi K Ambasta, Pravir Kumar
The communication between neurons at synaptic junctions is an intriguing process that monitors the transmission of various electro-chemical signals in the central nervous system. Albeit any aberration in the mechanisms associated with transmission of these signals leads to loss of synaptic contacts in both the neocortex and hippocampus thereby causing insidious cognitive decline and memory dysfunction. Compelling evidence suggests that soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau serve as toxins in the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity and aberrant neurotransmitter (NT) release at synapses consequently causing a cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659124/talking-to-the-neighbours-the-molecular-and-physiological-mechanisms-of-clustered-synaptic-plasticity
#19
REVIEW
Bas van Bommel, Marina Mikhaylova
Synaptic connectivity forms the basis for neuronal communication and the storage of information. Experiences and learning of new abilities can drive remodelling of this connectivity and promotes the formation of spine clusters; dendritic segments with a higher spine density. Spines located within these segments are frequently co-activated, undergo different dynamics than synapses located outside of this dendritic compartment and have, in general, a longer lifetime. Several lines of evidence have shown that chemical synapses located close to each other share or compete for intracellular signalling molecules and structural resources...
December 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649466/functional-contributions-of-electrical-synapses-in-sensory-and-motor-networks
#20
Lidia Szczupak
Intercellular interactions in the nervous system are mediated by two types of dedicated structural arrangements: electrical and chemical synapses. Several characteristics distinguish these two mechanisms of communication, such as speed, reliability and the fact that electrical synapses are, potentially, bidirectional. Given these properties, electrical synapses can subserve, in addition to synchrony, three main interrelated network functions: signal amplification, noise reduction and/or coincidence detection...
September 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
keyword
keyword
30649
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"