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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039138/the-role-of-gaba-receptor-agonists-in-anesthesia-and-sedation
#1
REVIEW
Janette Brohan, Basavana G Goudra
GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) receptors, of which there are two types, are involved in inhibitory synapses within the central nervous system. The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) has a central role in modern anesthesia and sedation practice, which is evident from the high proportion of agents that target the GABAAR. Many GABAAR agonists are used in anesthesia practice and sedation, including propofol, etomidate, methohexital, thiopental, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane. There are advantages and disadvantages to each GABAAR agonist currently in clinical use...
October 16, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024244/local-chemical-stimulation-of-neurons-with-the-fluidfm
#2
Matthias J Aebersold, Harald Dermutz, László Demkó, José F Saenz Cogollo, Shiang-Chi Lin, Conrad Burchert, Moritz Schneider, Doris Ling, Csaba Forró, Hana Han, Tomaso Zambelli, Janos Vörös
Physiological communication between neurons is dependent on the exchange of neurotransmitters at the synapses. Although such chemical signal transmission targets specific receptors and allows for subtle adaptation of the action potential, in vitro neuroscience typically relies on electrical currents and potentials to stimulate neurons. The electric stimulus is unspecific and the confinement of the stimuli within the media is technically difficult to control and introduces large artifacts in electric recordings of the activity...
October 10, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987564/roles-of-csgalnact1-a-key-enzyme-in-regulation-of-cs-synthesis-in-neuronal-regeneration-and-plasticity
#3
REVIEW
Michihiro Igarashi, Kosei Takeuchi, Sayaka Sugiyama
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan composed of a long chain of repeating disaccharide units that are attached to core proteins, resulting in CS proteoglycans (CSPGs). In the mature brain, CS is concentrated in perineuronal nets (PNNs), which are extracellular structures that surround synapses and regulate synaptic plasticity. In addition, CS is rapidly synthesized after CNS injury to create a physical and chemical barrier that inhibits axon growth. Most previous studies used a bacterial CS-degrading enzyme to investigate the physiological roles of CS...
October 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973854/proteasome-independent-polyubiquitin-linkage-regulates-synapse-scaffolding-efficacy-and-plasticity
#4
Qi Ma, Hongyu Ruan, Lisheng Peng, Mingjie Zhang, Michaela U Gack, Wei-Dong Yao
Ubiquitination-directed proteasomal degradation of synaptic proteins, presumably mediated by lysine 48 (K48) of ubiquitin, is a key mechanism in synapse and neural circuit remodeling. However, more than half of polyubiquitin (polyUb) species in the mammalian brain are estimated to be non-K48; among them, the most abundant is Lys 63 (K63)-linked polyUb chains that do not tag substrates for degradation but rather modify their properties and activity. Virtually nothing is known about the role of these nonproteolytic polyUb chains at the synapse...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963546/flexible-three-dimensional-artificial-synapse-networks-with-correlated-learning-and-trainable-memory-capability
#5
Chaoxing Wu, Tae Whan Kim, Hwan Young Choi, Dmitri B Strukov, J Joshua Yang
If a three-dimensional physical electronic system emulating synapse networks could be built, that would be a significant step toward neuromorphic computing. However, the fabrication complexity of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor architectures impedes the achievement of three-dimensional interconnectivity, high-device density, or flexibility. Here we report flexible three-dimensional artificial chemical synapse networks, in which two-terminal memristive devices, namely, electronic synapses (e-synapses), are connected by vertically stacking crossbar electrodes...
September 29, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943393/regulation-of-spine-structural-plasticity-by-arc-arg3-1
#6
REVIEW
Thomas M Newpher, Scott Harris, Jasmine Pringle, Colleen Hamilton, Scott Soderling
Dendritic spines are actin-rich, postsynaptic protrusions that contact presynaptic terminals to form excitatory chemical synapses. These synaptic contacts are widely believed to be the sites of memory formation and information storage, and changes in spine shape are thought to underlie several forms of learning-related plasticity. Both membrane trafficking pathways and the actin cytoskeleton drive activity-dependent structural and functional changes in dendritic spines. A key molecular player in regulating these processes is the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), a protein that has diverse roles in expression of synaptic plasticity...
September 21, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936725/ampa-receptors-at-ribbon-synapses-in-the-mammalian-retina-kinetic-models-and-molecular-identity
#7
Espen Hartveit, Bas-Jan Zandt, Eirik Madsen, Áurea Castilho, Svein Harald Mørkve, Margaret Lin Veruki
In chemical synapses, neurotransmitter molecules released from presynaptic vesicles activate populations of postsynaptic receptors that vary in functional properties depending on their subunit composition. Differential expression and localization of specific receptor subunits are thought to play fundamental roles in signal processing, but our understanding of how that expression is adapted to the signal processing in individual synapses and microcircuits is limited. At ribbon synapses, glutamate release is independent of action potentials and characterized by a high and rapidly changing rate of release...
September 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931721/neuropeptidergic-integration-of-behavior-in-trichoplax-adhaerens-an-animal-without-synapses
#8
Adriano Senatore, Thomas S Reese, Carolyn L Smith
Trichoplax adhaerens is a flat, millimeter-sized marine animal that adheres to surfaces and grazes on algae. Trichoplax displays a repertoire of different feeding behaviors despite the apparent absence of a true nervous system with electrical or chemical synapses. It glides along surfaces to find food, propelled by beating cilia on cells at its ventral surface, and pauses during feeding by arresting ciliary beating. We found that when endomorphin-like peptides are applied to an animal, ciliary beating is arrested, mimicking natural feeding pauses...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928746/ccl5-glutamate-cross-talk-in-astrocyte-neuron-communication-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Anna Pittaluga
The immune system (IS) and the central nervous system (CNS) are functionally coupled, and a large number of endogenous molecules (i.e., the chemokines for the IS and the classic neurotransmitters for the CNS) are shared in common between the two systems. These interactions are key elements for the elucidation of the pathogenesis of central inflammatory diseases. In recent years, evidence has been provided supporting the role of chemokines as modulators of central neurotransmission. It is the case of the chemokines CCL2 and CXCL12 that control pre- and/or post-synaptically the chemical transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926477/monoamine-and-neuropeptide-connections-significantly-alter-the-degree-distributions-of-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-connectome
#10
Tianxiao Huang, Yan Sun, Zheng Zhang, Shixiong Deng, Rui Peng
To understand the behaviors of an individual, it is crucial to understand the neural connections of the nervous system, that is, the connectome. The hermaphrodite Caenorhabditis elegans connectome has served as a prototype for analytical studies since the chemical synapses and gap junctions among the 302 neurons were completely mapped. Recently, monoamine (MA) and neuropeptide (NP) connections were established, which form a multilayer connectome in conjunction with chemical synapses and gap junctions. In this study, we investigated the difference in the in-degree and out-degree distributions, respectively, among the connectomes with and without MA and NP connections...
November 8, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911821/on-the-occurrence-and-enigmatic-functions-of-mixed-chemical-plus-electrical-synapses-in-the-mammalian-cns
#11
REVIEW
James I Nagy, Alberto E Pereda, John E Rash
Electrical synapses with diverse configurations and functions occur at a variety of interneuronal appositions, thereby significantly expanding the physiological complexity of neuronal circuitry over that provided solely by chemical synapses. Gap junctions between apposed dendritic and somatic plasma membranes form "purely electrical" synapses that allow for electrical communication between coupled neurons. In addition, gap junctions at axon terminals synapsing on dendrites and somata allow for "mixed" (dual chemical+electrical) synaptic transmission...
September 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911536/biopharmaceutical-potentials-of-prosopis-spp-mimosaceae-leguminosa
#12
REVIEW
Santhaseelan Henciya, Prabha Seturaman, Arthur Rathinam James, Yi-Hong Tsai, Rahul Nikam, Yang-Chang Wu, Hans-Uwe Dahms, Fang Rong Chang
Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H(+), K(+), ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893590/design-principles-of-electrical-synaptic-plasticity
#13
REVIEW
John O'Brien
Essentially all animals with nervous systems utilize electrical synapses as a core element of communication. Electrical synapses, formed by gap junctions between neurons, provide rapid, bidirectional communication that accomplishes tasks distinct from and complementary to chemical synapses. These include coordination of neuron activity, suppression of voltage noise, establishment of electrical pathways that define circuits, and modulation of high order network behavior. In keeping with the omnipresent demand to alter neural network function in order to respond to environmental cues and perform tasks, electrical synapses exhibit extensive plasticity...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875026/segregation-of-lipids-near-acetylcholine-receptor-channels-imaged-by-cryo-em
#14
Nigel Unwin
Rapid communication at the chemical synapse depends on the action of ion channels residing in the postsynaptic membrane. The channels open transiently upon the binding of a neurotransmitter released from the presynaptic nerve terminal, eliciting an electrical response. Membrane lipids also play a vital but poorly understood role in this process of synaptic transmission. The present study examines the lipid distribution around nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors in tubular vesicles made from postsynaptic membranes of the Torpedo ray, taking advantage of the recent advances in cryo-EM...
July 1, 2017: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871036/sodium-channel-%C3%AE-2-subunits-prevent-action-potential-propagation-failures-at-axonal-branch-points
#15
In Ha Cho, Lauren C Panzera, Morven Chin, Michael B Hoppa
Neurotransmitter release depends on voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Navs) to propagate an action potential (AP) successfully from the axon hillock to a synaptic terminal. Unmyelinated sections of axon are very diverse structures encompassing branch points and numerous presynaptic terminals with undefined molecular partners of Na(+) channels. Using optical recordings of Ca(2+) and membrane voltage, we demonstrate here that Na(+) channel β2 subunits (Navβ2s) are required to prevent AP propagation failures across the axonal arborization of cultured rat hippocampal neurons (mixed male and female)...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856684/selective-synaptic-connections-in-the-retinal-pathway-for-night-vision
#16
Deborah L Beaudoin, Mania Kupershtok, Jonathan B Demb
The mammalian retina encodes visual information in dim light using rod photoreceptors and a specialized circuit: rods→rod bipolar cells→AII amacrine cell. The AII amacrine cell uses sign-conserving electrical synapses to modulate ON cone bipolar cell terminals and sign-inverting chemical (glycinergic) synapses to modulate OFF cone cell bipolar terminals; these ON and OFF cone bipolar terminals then drive the output neurons, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), following light increments and decrements, respectively...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833444/energy-efficient-neural-information-processing-in-individual-neurons-and-neuronal-networks
#17
REVIEW
Lianchun Yu, Yuguo Yu
Brains are composed of networks of an enormous number of neurons interconnected with synapses. Neural information is carried by the electrical signals within neurons and the chemical signals among neurons. Generating these electrical and chemical signals is metabolically expensive. The fundamental issue raised here is whether brains have evolved efficient ways of developing an energy-efficient neural code from the molecular level to the circuit level. Here, we summarize the factors and biophysical mechanisms that could contribute to the energy-efficient neural code for processing input signals...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830810/rho-signaling-inhibitor-ccg-1423-inhibits-axonal-elongation-and-dendritic-complexity-of-rat-cortical-neurons
#18
Keietsu Kikuchi, Jun Shiota, Tetsuya Yamada, Mitsuru Ishikawa, Daisuke Ihara, Mamoru Fukuchi, Masaaki Tsuda, Akiko Tabuchi
CCG-1423, a chemical inhibitor of Rho signaling, blocks serum response factor (SRF)/megakaryoblastic leukemia 1 (MKL1)-mediated gene expression by inhibiting the nuclear accumulation of MKL1. Several studies have suggested that CCG-1423 interacts not only with MKL1, which has a critical role in the regulation of neuronal morphology, but also with phosphatase and actin regulator 1 (Phactr1), which is localized at synapses. However, the effect of CCG-1423 on neuronal cells, especially on neuronal morphology, remains to be determined...
August 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828402/neuregulin-and-dopamine-d4-receptors-contribute-independently-to-depotentiation-of-schaffer-collateral-ltp-by-temperoammonic-path-stimulation
#19
Yukitoshi Izumi, Charles F Zorumski
Prior studies have found that dopamine (DA), acting at D4 receptors, and neuregulin (NRG), likely acting at ErbB4 receptors, are involved in a form of depotentiation of long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral (SC) synapses in the hippocampus. Furthermore, DA and NRG actions are intertwined in that NRG induces DA release. We previously found that low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of temperoammonic (TA) inputs to area CA1 also depotentiates previously established SC LTP through a complex signaling pathway involving endocannabinoids, GABA, adenosine, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), but not glutamate...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818091/non-canonical-soluble-amyloid-beta-aggregates-and-plaque-buffering-controversies-and-future-directions-for-target-discovery-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
David L Brody, Hao Jiang, Norelle Wildburger, Thomas J Esparza
The specific amyloid-beta (Aβ) species or other amyloid-precursor protein cleavage products that are most directly related to human neurodegeneration and clinical dementia of the Alzheimer's type have not yet been directly identified. Without a clear understanding of the most relevant species, it is difficult to determine whether therapeutic candidates successfully engaged the correct target(s). Here, we review some of the controversies regarding soluble Aβ aggregates (also termed oligomers, dimers, trimers, Aβ*56, amylospheroids, etc...
August 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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